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Islamic Bond Issuance
			: What Sovereign Debt Managers Need to Know

Islamic Bond Issuance : What Sovereign Debt Managers Need to Know »

Volume/Issue: 2008/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy , Peter Kunzel , Paul Mills , and Andreas Jobst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946024.003

ISBN: 9781451946024

Keywords: Capital markets, Debt management, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Securities markets, Sovereign debt, securitization, structured finance, Islamic bond, shari&;amp;#x2019;ah compliance

Recent years have witnessed a surge in the issuance of Islamic capital market securities (sukuk) by corporates and public sector entities amid growing demand for alternative investments. As the sukuk market continu...

Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures
			: Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies

Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures : Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2008/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Bikas Joshi , Manuela Goretti , Uma Ramakrishnan , Alun Thomas , Atish Ghosh , and Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451945997.003

ISBN: 9781451945997

Keywords: Economic policy, Balance of payments, Capital inflows, Capital flows, Developing countries, Policy Discussion Paper, policy responses, current account, exchange rate,

Although capital inflows are generally beneficial to recipient countries, they also pose a challenge for the conduct of economic policy. This paper proposes a conceptual taxonomy to guide the design of policy respo...

Should Italy Sell Its Nonfinancial Assets to Reduce the Debt?

Should Italy Sell Its Nonfinancial Assets to Reduce the Debt? »

Volume/Issue: 2008/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451945959.003

ISBN: 9781451945959

Keywords: Fiscal policy, Fiscal adjustment, Asset liquidation, Italy, Public debt reduction, public net worth, sustainability of public finances, strategy for managing public assets, debt, public debt

This paper assesses the proposal, publicly debated in recent years in Italy, to reduce public debt by selling public assets, especially nonfinancial tangible assets. The main findings indicate that, although sellin...

Conquering Fear of Floating
			: Australia's Successful Adaptation to a Flexible Exchange Rate

Conquering Fear of Floating : Australia's Successful Adaptation to a Flexible Exchange Rate »

Volume/Issue: 2007/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Craig Beaumont , and Li Cui

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975383.003

ISBN: 9781451975383

Keywords: Australia, Floating exchange rates, Flexible exchange rates, Floating, Flexible, Exchange Rate, Monetary, Fiscal, Structural Reform, Macroeconomic Stability

Australia has enjoyed fifteen years of uninterrupted economic expansion since 1992 despite shocks such as the Asian crisis in 1997-98 and the information technology bust in 2000-01. This resilient economic performa...

Lessons from Successful Labor Market Reformers in Europe

Lessons from Successful Labor Market Reformers in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2007/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Anthony Annett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975352.003

ISBN: 9781451975352

Keywords: Fiscal adjustment, Europe, Employment, Labor supply, Labor market reforms, Political economy, Wage moderation, Wage bargaining, Tax reductions, labor market

Welfare states can be reformed successfully, and popular support for reforms can be maintained. But this requires an internally consistent package of labor market, fiscal, and product market reforms, including some...

Trade Issues in the Doha Round
			: Dispelling Some Misconceptions

Trade Issues in the Doha Round : Dispelling Some Misconceptions »

Volume/Issue: 2006/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stephen Tokarick

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946161.003

ISBN: 9781451946161

Keywords: Developing countries, Agricultural production, Agricultural subsidies, Multilateral trade negotiations, Tariffs, Subsidies, Trade liberalization, Trade policy, preference erosion, tariff reductions

The current round of multilateral trade negotiations-the Doha Round-presents an opportunity for countries to reap the benefits of trade liberalization. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions about the likely imp...

Strengthening Transparency in the Oil Sector in Cameroon
			: Why Does it Matter?

Strengthening Transparency in the Oil Sector in Cameroon : Why Does it Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stéphane Cossé

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972535.003

ISBN: 9781451946123

Keywords: Cameroon, Fiscal transparency, Governance, Oil producing countries, Oil sector, Transparency, African economies, EITI, oil revenue, public expenditure

There has been a growing recognition of the importance of transparency for economic growth and social development in oil producing countries. This paper analyzes transparency issues in Cameroon's oil sector. It sho...

Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm

Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm »

Volume/Issue: 2006/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , and Raghuram Rajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946147.003

ISBN: 9781451946147

Keywords: Economic reforms, Economic growth, China, International finance, Policy reforms, market-oriented economy, trade and financial integration, policy complementarities, exchange rate, international monetary fund

China has achieved tremendous economic progress in the last three decades, but there is much work to be done to make the economy resilient to large shocks, ensure the sustainability of its growth, and translate thi...

Vanishing Contagion?

Vanishing Contagion? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Tatiana Didier , and Sergio Schmukler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946062.003

ISBN: 9781451946062

Keywords: Economic integration, Financial crisis, Emerging markets, crises, international integration, international transmission of shocks, contagion, investors, mutual funds, emerging market

While a number of emerging market crises were characterized by widespread contagion during the 1990s, more recent crises (notably, in Argentina) have been mostly contained within national borders. This has led some...

Considerations in the Choice of the Appropriate Discount Rate for Evaluating Sovereign Debt Restructurings

Considerations in the Choice of the Appropriate Discount Rate for Evaluating Sovereign Debt Restructurings »

Volume/Issue: 2005/9

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Julie Kozack

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975840.003

ISBN: 9781451975840

Keywords: Financial crisis, Discount rates, International financial markets, Sovereign debt restructuring, Discount rate, net present value, debt, debt restructuring, debt sustainability, debt service

Assessments regarding the effectiveness of sovereign debt restructurings are often summarized by comparisons of the net present value of debt service before and after the restructuring. These calculations are inher...

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Controlled Capital Account Liberalization
			: A Proposal

Controlled Capital Account Liberalization : A Proposal »

Volume/Issue: 2005/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , and Raghuram Rajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975741.003

ISBN: 9781451975741

Keywords: Capital account liberalization, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Reserves, Foreign exchange reserves, International finance, closed-end mutual fund, international portfolio diversification, capital account, capital outflows

In this paper, we develop a proposal for a controlled approach to capital account liberalization for economies experiencing large capital inflows. The proposal essentially involves securitizing a portion of capital...

Primary Surpluses and sustainable Debt Levels in Emerging Market Countries

Primary Surpluses and sustainable Debt Levels in Emerging Market Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2005/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Abdul Abiad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975703.003

ISBN: 9781451975703

Keywords: Primary surplus;, public debt sustainability, debt, public debt, primary surplus, debt sustainability, interest rates, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt,

This paper aims to put some constraints on the way primary surpluses are projected when making assessments of public debt sustainability. Projections should be tied either to the country's historical track record i...

Does Excess Liquidity Pose a Threat in Japan?

Does Excess Liquidity Pose a Threat in Japan? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Gauti Eggertsson , and Jonathan Ostry

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975666.003

ISBN: 9781451975666

Keywords: Expectations, Deflation, Japan, Monetary policy, Monetary policy, Inflation, quantitative easing, interest rates, interest, interest rate

This paper examines the effects of quantitative easing implemented by the Bank of Japan (BoJ) since early 2001, looking specifically at the impact on inflation expectations and real asset prices. It suggests a numb...

Deterring Abuse of the Financial System
			: Elements of an Emerging International Integrity Standard

Deterring Abuse of the Financial System : Elements of an Emerging International Integrity Standard »

Volume/Issue: 2005/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): John Abbott , and R. Johnston

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975581.003

ISBN: 9781451975581

Keywords: Financial crisis, Anti-money laundering, International capital markets, Standards and codes, Financial integrity, combating the financing of terrorism, financial system, financial sector, money laundering, internal controls

Assessing financial systems' stability has required the IMF to dig deeper into financial sector issues and to include financial integrity elements in its assessments. Integrity elements are increasingly being addre...

Understanding Fiscal Space

Understanding Fiscal Space »

Volume/Issue: 2005/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975635.003

ISBN: 9781451975635

Keywords: Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal space, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Fiscal policy, Fiscal policy, MDGs, borrowing, debt sustainability, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General, National Budget

With new initiatives to provide low income countries with external assistance in support of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), donors and NGOs are seeking to understand whether "fiscal space" can be provided...

Reforming the Stability and Growth Pact

Reforming the Stability and Growth Pact »

Volume/Issue: 2005/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Anthony Annett , Jörg Decressin , and Michael Deppler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975482.003

ISBN: 9781451975482

Keywords: Economic stabilization, Fiscal policy, Fiscal rules, Political economy, structural reforms, implicit liabilities, international monetary fund

A rules-based fiscal framework, such as the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), can be an important bulwark against short-sighted policies. Although policies have improved following the SGP’s adopti...

Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Capital Account Liberalization and Exchange Rate Flexibility in China

Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Capital Account Liberalization and Exchange Rate Flexibility in China »

Volume/Issue: 2005/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , Qing Wang , and Thomas Rumbaugh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975451.003

ISBN: 9781451975451

Keywords: Capital controls, China, exchange rate regime, financial sector reforms, capital account, capital inflows, capital account liberalization, capital flows, financial sector weakness,

This paper reviews the issues involved in moving towards greater exchange rate flexibility and capital account liberalization in China. A more flexible exchange rate regime would allow China to operate a more indep...

Banking Reform in the Lower Mekong Countries

Banking Reform in the Lower Mekong Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2004/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Olaf Unteroberdoerster

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972870.003

ISBN: 9781451972870

Keywords: Cambodia, Vietnam, Banking reform, transition economics, Lao P.D.R., banking system, recapitalization, transition economies, loan classification, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation

This paper reviews recent banking reform efforts in the lower Mekong countries (LMCs), comprising Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam. Linked by close economic and cultural ties, the three L...

Pension Reform, Investment Restrictions and Capital Markets

Pension Reform, Investment Restrictions and Capital Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2004/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Jorge Roldos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973730.003

ISBN: 9781451973730

Keywords: Capital markets, Capital market development, Investment, Pensions, Pension fund regulation, asset allocation, securities, capital market, securities markets, portfolios,

Pension reform in several emerging market countries has been associated with rapid growth in assets under management and a positive impact on the development of local securities markets. However, limitations on suc...

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies »

Volume/Issue: 2004/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stefan Ingves , Steven Seelig , and Dong He

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974225.003

ISBN: 9781451974225

Keywords: Asset management, Bank restructuring, Financial crisis, corporate restructuring, loan restructuring, restructuring, asset management companies, impaired assets, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper discusses the role of asset management companies (AMCs) in facilitating bank restructuring and specifies some policy lessons learned from international experience. The paper concludes that there is no si...

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer »

Volume/Issue: 2004/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Parthasarathi Shome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974577.003

ISBN: 9781451974577

Keywords: Services sector, Tax policy, Tax administration, small taxpayers, large taxpayer units, tax administration and the small taxpayer, taxpayers, income tax, single tax, tax system,

Small taxpayers should pay their appropriate revenue share while their compliance costs should be reduced. This assumes importance as restructuring in emerging markets has meant rapid growth in services through sel...

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2004/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975062.003

ISBN: 9781451975062

Keywords: Economic integration, Trade, emerging Asia, intraregional trade, export markets, export growth, trading partners, intermediate goods, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

The share of emerging Asia in world trade has increased sharply over the past 25 years. A large part of this increase is the result of booming intraregional trade. This paper investigates the key factors behind the...

International Trade in Services
			: Implications for the Fund

International Trade in Services : Implications for the Fund »

Volume/Issue: 2003/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Natalia Tamirisa , Alexander Lehmann , and Jaroslaw Wieczorek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972207.003

ISBN: 9781451972207

Keywords: International trade, international services trade, coherence, WTO, trade in services, services trade, services sectors, financial services, international trade in services,

This paper reviews the characteristics of international trade in services and of the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) framework, which was established to regulate it....

FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries

FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972849.003

ISBN: 9781451972849

Keywords: Former Soviet Union, Montenegro, Transition economies, Investment climate, FDI, Regional issues, investment, capital flows, direct investment,

In view of disappointing levels of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), this paper examines capital flows into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries and investigates the main impediments to a mo...

Issuing Government Bonds to Finance Bank Recapitalization and Restructuring
			: Design Factors that Affect Banks' Financial Performance

Issuing Government Bonds to Finance Bank Recapitalization and Restructuring : Design Factors that Affect Banks' Financial Performance »

Volume/Issue: 2003/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Michael Andrews

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973662.003

ISBN: 9781451973662

Keywords: Banking crisis, Bank restructuring, Financial crisis, systemic crisis, bank recapitalization, bank privatization, government bonds, government debt management, restructuring, recapitalization

Bonds issued by the government or government agencies are often used to finance bank restructuring following a systemic crisis. Many conflicting considerations affect the design of the bonds used to pay for public...

Financial Integration in Central America
			: Prospects and Adjustment Needs

Financial Integration in Central America : Prospects and Adjustment Needs »

Volume/Issue: 2003/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Jorge Canales Kriljenko , Padamja Khandelwal , and Alexander Lehmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974195.003

ISBN: 9781451974195

Keywords: Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Trade liberalization, CAFTA, Trade in Financial Services

We assess the current barriers to trade in financial services in the six Central American countries seeking a free trade agreement with the United States (the CAFTA) and examine the relative merits of regional and...

The Energy Sector Reform and Macroeconomic Adjustment in a Transition Economy
			: The Case of Romania

The Energy Sector Reform and Macroeconomic Adjustment in a Transition Economy : The Case of Romania »

Volume/Issue: 2003/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stéphane Cossé

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974546.003

ISBN: 9781451974546

Keywords: Europe, European Economic and Monetary Union, Social security, Romania, energy sector, quasi-fiscal activities, macroeconomic stabilization, transition, energy, natural gas

This paper assesses the main issues faced by the energy sector in a transition economy such as Romania and their macroeconomic dimension. It examines how the size of quasi-fiscal subsidies, owing mainly to inapprop...

Large and Complex Financial Institutions
			: Challenges and Policy Responses:  Lessons from Sweden

Large and Complex Financial Institutions : Challenges and Policy Responses: Lessons from Sweden »

Volume/Issue: 2003/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): R. Johnston , Balázs Horváth , Luca Errico , and Jingqing Chai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975031.003

ISBN: 9781451975031

Keywords: Capital markets, Moral hazard, Sweden, Sweden, Large and complex financial institutions, policy lessons, financial institutions, financial sector, financial system, central banks

This paper examines the regulatory and supervisory implications stemming from the dominance of large and complex financial institutions, drawing on the recent Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) mission work...

Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries

Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/13

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Clinton Shiells , John Dodsworth , and Paul Mathieu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968958.003

ISBN: 9781451968958

Keywords: Energy sector, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Former Soviet Union, Transition economies, Regional issues, oil products, crude oil, natural gas

This paper explores from a regional perspective the distorted nature of trade in energy products within the CIS countries. The persistence of pricing distortions, barter arrangements, and discriminatory access to p...

On a Common Currency for the GCC Countries

On a Common Currency for the GCC Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/12

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Esteban Jadresic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969481.003

ISBN: 9781451969481

Keywords: Currencies, Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Currency, GCC countries, common currency, exchange rate, international monetary fund, exchange rates, monetary policy,

This paper assesses the eventual replacement of the currencies of the GCC countries with a common currency. It concludes that a properly implemented currency union may contribute to enhance economic efficiency in t...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2002/11

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969856.003

ISBN: 9781451969856

Keywords: Poverty, Fund-supported adjustment programs, IMF Programs, Social Impact, poverty reduction, impact analysis, social impact analysis, civil service, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, General Welfare,

This paper aims to inform on the status of Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) in IMF-supported programs, detailing the results presented in the recent review of PRGF-supported programs. The review showed tha...

Reviving the Case for GDP-Indexed Bonds

Reviving the Case for GDP-Indexed Bonds »

Volume/Issue: 2002/10

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970173.003

ISBN: 9781451970173

Keywords: Emerging markets, International financial markets, GDP-indexed bonds, debt, indexed bonds, indexation, interest rate, interest, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Lending and Debt Problems

This paper seeks to revive the case for countries to self-insure against economic growth slowdowns by issuing GDP-indexed bonds. We simulate the effects of GDP-indexed bonds under different assumptions about fiscal...

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy"

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy" »

Volume/Issue: 2002/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971019.003

ISBN: 9781451971019

Keywords: Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund, fiscal sustainability, fiscal position, fiscal policies, public debt, Fiscal Policies And Behavior Of Economic Agents, Macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy

This paper provides a perspective on how the IMF assesses a “sound fiscal policy,” focusing principally on industrial and emerging market economies. It observes six central criteria: the short-term fi...

The Role of Monthly Economic Statistical Bulletins

The Role of Monthly Economic Statistical Bulletins »

Volume/Issue: 2002/9

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , and Mei Jin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970562.003

ISBN: 9781451970562

Keywords: Central banks and their policies, Technical Assistance, Economic information, statistical capacity building, central banks, central bank, balance of payments, industrial countries, government debt, Relation of Economics to Social Values

Monthly economic statistical bulletins issued by central banks and national statistical offices, the focus of this study, are well established in countries with advanced statistical systems. Such bulletins present...

Privatization in Ukraine
			: Challenges of Assessment and Coverage in Fund Conditionality

Privatization in Ukraine : Challenges of Assessment and Coverage in Fund Conditionality »

Volume/Issue: 2002/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , and Mark Lewis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971620.003

ISBN: 9781451971620

Keywords: Privatization, Public enterprises, Ukraine, Ukraine, Use of Fund resources, transition, privatization program, privatization procedures, privatization receipts, privatization programs

The paper examines the recent privatization experience in Ukraine in the context of the streamlining of Fund structural conditionality. A particular focus is the shift from privatization-related conditionality base...

Challenges in Expanding Development Assistance

Challenges in Expanding Development Assistance »

Volume/Issue: 2002/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972788.003

ISBN: 9781451972788

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, Poverty, Foreign aid, ODA, international public goods, exchange rate, capita income, industrial countries, real exchange, public goods

This paper highlights the macro and microeconomic challenges associated with success of the effort to mobilize 0.7 percent of GNP for official development assistance (ODA). To promote achievement of the Millennium...

Issues in Electronic Banking
			: An Overview

Issues in Electronic Banking : An Overview »

Volume/Issue: 2002/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Andrea Schaechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972177.003

ISBN: 9781451972177

Keywords: Bank regulations, Banking supervision, electronic banking, banking regulation, banking services, monetary authority, money laundering, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

Using electronic delivery channels for banking services and products has become increasingly popular in recent years. Electronic banking makes it possible to offer banking services around the world 24 hours a day....

The New Approach to Sovereign Debt Restructuring
			: Setting the Incentives Right

The New Approach to Sovereign Debt Restructuring : Setting the Incentives Right »

Volume/Issue: 2002/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Carlo Sdralevich , and Biaggio Bossone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973594.003

ISBN: 9781451973594

Keywords: Financial crisis, Crisis resolution, International financial markets, Private sector, Private sector involvement, sovereign debt, debt default, debt, debt sustainability, debt restructuring

The paper discusses key incentive-related issues of the sovereign debt restructuring mechanism recently outlined by the IMF First Deputy Managing Director. The structure of incentives in the mechanism should be con...

Stabilization Policies and Structural Reforms in Albania Since 1997
			: Achievements And Remaining Challenges

Stabilization Policies and Structural Reforms in Albania Since 1997 : Achievements And Remaining Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2002/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Volker Treichel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974508.003

ISBN: 9781451974508

Keywords: Economic stabilization, Albania, Albania, macroeconomic stabilization, structural reform, deficit, interest, budget, balance of payments, interest rates

This paper assesses the effectiveness of stabilization policies and structural reforms in Albania since 1997 and seeks to identify the remaining key challenges in various policy areas. It also draws lessons for oth...

Foreign Direct Investment in China
			: Some Lessons for Other Countries

Foreign Direct Investment in China : Some Lessons for Other Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs , and Wanda Tseng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974171.003

ISBN: 9781451974171

Keywords: Foreign direct investment, China, fdi, investment, foreign investors, foreign investment

China's increasing openness to foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed importantly to its exceptional growth performance. This paper examines China's experience with FDI and identifies some lessons for othe...

Public Financial Management
			: Principal Issues in Small Pacific Island Countries

Public Financial Management : Principal Issues in Small Pacific Island Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Klaus-Walter Riechel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974973.003

ISBN: 9781451974973

Keywords: Budgeting, Fiscal policy, Public financial management, Public finance, Pacific Island Countries, budget systems, small country issues, financial management, budget, output budgeting

The paper discusses reform in public financial management in small, resource-constrained economies such as the Pacific island countries (PICs). It describes the efforts undertaken by PICs in the past and assesses t...

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities »

Volume/Issue: 2001/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Zelmer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971583.003

ISBN: 9781451971583

Keywords: Central banks, Central banks and their policies, Bonds, Monetary policy, Monetary policy, Monetary operations, central bank, government securities, balance sheets, financial institutions,

The limited supply of government securities in some industrial countries has important ramifications for the operating techniques used by central banks to implement monetary policy, provide credit to the financial...

Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision
			: The Case of Small Pacific Island Countries

Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision : The Case of Small Pacific Island Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2001/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Klaus-Walter Riechel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972146.003

ISBN: 9781451972146

Keywords: Bank regulations, Money laundering, Bank and nonbank financial intermediaries regulation and supervision, offshore financial sector issues, financial sector, financial sector regulation, technical assistance, international standards,

This paper discusses issues of financial sector regulation and supervision--including those concerning nonbank financial intermediaries--in small resource-constrained Pacific island countries. It advocates stronger...

Globalization Facts and Figures

Globalization Facts and Figures »

Volume/Issue: 2001/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973563.003

ISBN: 9781451973563

Keywords: Economic integration, Globalization, Trade liberalization, Trade, integration, mortality rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, birth, life expectancy at birth

Globalization has become the focus for a wide range of protests against various features of the world economy. This paper aims to give a concise summary of the economic dimensions of globalization, while leaving to...

Reviewing Some Early Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers in Africa

Reviewing Some Early Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers in Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2001/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Caroline Kende-Robb , and Alison Scott

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972726.003

ISBN: 9781451972726

Keywords: Burkina Faso, Africa, Poverty, Mozambique, Mali, Gambia, The, Tanzania, Uganda, PRSP, poverty reduction

This paper reviews some early interim and full PRSPs for countries with which the authors worked during 1999-2000 (Uganda, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Mozambique, Mali and The Gambia). The purpose of the review is to c...

Providing Health Care to HIV Patients in Southern Africa

Providing Health Care to HIV Patients in Southern Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2001/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Markus Haacker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974140.003

ISBN: 9781451974140

Keywords: Botswana, Botswana, Namibia, Mozambique, Malawi, Lesotho, Health, Health care, Government expenditures, South Africa

The paper provides an economic analysis of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector i Southern Africa. It provides indicators for the scale of the impact, including estimates of tr. costs of various forms treatm...

The IMF and Civil Society
			: Striking A Balance

The IMF and Civil Society : Striking A Balance »

Volume/Issue: 2001/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Thomas Dawson , and Gita Bhatt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974485.003

ISBN: 9781451974485

Keywords: IMF and Civil Society, NGOs, debt relief, poverty reduction, structural adjustment, macroeconomic policies, low-income countries,

In the space of just a few years, the term “civil society” has entered the international policy vocabulary in many contexts. The IMF’s engagement with civil society organizations (CSOs) raises...

Economic Integration and the Exchange Rate Regime
			: Some Lessons from Canada

Economic Integration and the Exchange Rate Regime : Some Lessons from Canada »

Volume/Issue: 2001/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Vivek Arora , and Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974942.003

ISBN: 9781451974942

Keywords: Canada, Canada, Economic integration, Floating exchange rates, Trade, United States, exchange rate regime, exchange rate, fixed exchange rate, interest rates

The Canadian experience with a floating exchange rate regime can shed some light on the question of whether A question of current interest in many parts of the world is whether with growing economic integration amo...

Large-Scale Post-Crisis Corporate Sector Restructuring

Large-Scale Post-Crisis Corporate Sector Restructuring »

Volume/Issue: 2000/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971538.003

ISBN: 9781451971538

Keywords: Corporate sector, Financial crisis, Financial crises, Corporate restructuring, Financial restructuring, restructuring, recapitalization, debt restructuring, bank restructuring

This paper summarizes the objectives, tasks, and modalities of large-scale, post-crisis corporate restructuring based on nine recent episodes with a view to organizing the policy choices and drawing some general co...

Reconsidering External Financing of Domestic Budget Deficits
			: Debunking Some Received Wisdom

Reconsidering External Financing of Domestic Budget Deficits : Debunking Some Received Wisdom »

Volume/Issue: 2000/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): David Woo , and Simon Gray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970951.003

ISBN: 9781451970951

Keywords: Debt management, Budget deficits, External financing, foreign currency denominated sovereign debt, foreign currency, domestic currency, exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign investors

The past decade has witnessed a steady increase in outstanding external sovereign debt issued by emerging market economies. This paper examines some of the “received wisdom” regarding the benefits of...

Capital Flight from Russia

Capital Flight from Russia »

Volume/Issue: 2000/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Prakash Loungani , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972115.003

ISBN: 9781451972115

Keywords: Capital outflows, Russian Federation, Transition economies, Russia, capital flight, transition, capital controls, capital account, balance of payments

This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be rev...

The Role of MULTIMOD in the IMF's Policy Analysis

The Role of MULTIMOD in the IMF's Policy Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2000/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Isard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972689.003

ISBN: 9781451972689

Keywords: Economic models, Fund policies, MULTIMOD, macroeconomic policy analysis, monetary policy, exchange rate, international monetary fund, exchange rate regime, government spending

This paper describes the basic structure, underlying philosophy, and key behavioral properties of MULTIMOD. It also focuses on several recent applications of macromodels in the IMF’s policy analysis, emphasi...

Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: What Can be Done?

Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa : What Can be Done? »

Volume/Issue: 2000/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Hernández-Catá

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973518.003

ISBN: 9781451973518

Keywords: Economic growth, Investment, Sub-Saharan Africa, Growth, Africa, private investment, poverty reduction, trade liberalization, macroeconomic stability, debt relief

This paper argues that sub-Saharan Africa’s growth performance needs to be improved substantially in order to raise standards of living to an acceptable level and achieve a visible reduction in poverty. The...

Exchange Rate Regimes in Selected Advanced Transition Economies
			: Coping with Transition, Capital Inflows, and EU Accession

Exchange Rate Regimes in Selected Advanced Transition Economies : Coping with Transition, Capital Inflows, and EU Accession »

Volume/Issue: 2000/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974119.003

ISBN: 9781451974119

Keywords: Estonia, Exchange rate regimes, European Union, Capital inflows, Czech Republic, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Transition economies

Since beginning economic transition, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia have—with much success—employed diverse exchange rate regimes. As these countries approach EU accession,...

Interventions in Banks During Banking Crises
			: The Experience of Indonesia

Interventions in Banks During Banking Crises : The Experience of Indonesia »

Volume/Issue: 2000/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974461.003

ISBN: 9781451974461

Keywords: Financial crisis, Banks, Indonesia, banking crisis, recapitalization, bank closures, banking sector, restructuring, state banks

Interventions in banks are often an integral element of a government’s program for addressing a systemic banking crisis. Interventions may be warranted because the banks are deeply insolvent or riddled with...

Pros and Cons of Currency Board Arrangements in the Lead-Up to EU Accession and Participation in the Euro Zone

Pros and Cons of Currency Board Arrangements in the Lead-Up to EU Accession and Participation in the Euro Zone »

Volume/Issue: 2000/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Anne Gulde , Juha Kähkönen , and Peter Keller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974928.003

ISBN: 9781451974928

Keywords: Currency boards, European Economic and Monetary Union, European Union, Euro Area, EU accession, EMU, euro, currency board, exchange rate, exchange rate regime

Historically, countries with currency board arrangements (CBAs) have experienced lower inflation and higher growth than those with other regimes. The experiences of three candidates for EU membership with CBAs (Est...

Inflation Targeting
			: What is the Meaning of the Bottom of the Band?

Inflation Targeting : What is the Meaning of the Bottom of the Band? »

Volume/Issue: 1999/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eric Clifton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970906.003

ISBN: 9781451970906

Keywords: Inflation targeting, credibility, monetary policy, inflation, price stability, inflation target

This paper investigates the meaning of the bottom of target bands in inflation targeting regimes. It is argued that the design of lower limits on target bands, if not done with care, can lead to a lack of transpare...

A Modernized Approach to Managing the Risks in Cross-Border Capital Movements

A Modernized Approach to Managing the Risks in Cross-Border Capital Movements »

Volume/Issue: 1999/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , and R. Johnston

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972092.003

ISBN: 9781451972092

Keywords: Exchange rate policy, Capital flows, Monetary policy, Cross-border capital movements, prudential risk management, consistency of policy mix, time consistency of exchange rate policy, capital movements, capital controls, capital account

This paper outlines a “modern” approach to managing risks in cross-border capital movements that is consistent with an environment of increased and liberalized capital flows. Key elements of this appr...

Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy of Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe after the Launch of EMU

Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy of Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe after the Launch of EMU »

Volume/Issue: 1999/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972641.003

ISBN: 9781451972641

Keywords: Central and Eastern Europe, European Economic and Monetary Union, Exchange rate policy, Monetary policy, Transition economies, EMU, exchange rates, exchange rate, international monetary fund, currency board

The more advanced Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) face an evolving set of considerations in choosing their exchange rate policies. On the one hand, capital mobility is increasing, and this imposes ad...

Would Saving U.S. Social Security Raise National Saving?

Would Saving U.S. Social Security Raise National Saving? »

Volume/Issue: 1999/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Jan Walliser

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971484.003

ISBN: 9781451971484

Keywords: Savings, Social security, United States, United States, National saving, budget, private saving, individual accounts, budget office

Analysts agree that raising national saving is one of the key objectives of social security reform in the United States. Hence, to judge the merits of proposals requires a comparison of saving responses. The paper...

Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country

Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country »

Volume/Issue: 1999/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , Patrick Downes , and Dewitt Marston

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973433.003

ISBN: 9781451973433

Keywords: Financial crisis, Financial systems, Financial system soundness, indicators of financial vulnerability, banking crisis, stress tests, financial system, financial institutions, central bank, balance sheet

The forward-looking framework expounded in this paper links a qualitative evaluation of system-wide vulnerability (covering macro, sectoral, institutional, and systemic liquidity issues) with a quantitative assessm...

The Role of the Currency Board in Bulgaria's Stabilization

The Role of the Currency Board in Bulgaria's Stabilization »

Volume/Issue: 1999/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Anne Gulde

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974102.003

ISBN: 9781451974102

Keywords: Currency boards, Bulgaria, Bulgaria, Financial crisis, Stabilization measures

...

Tax Policy and the Asian Crisis

Tax Policy and the Asian Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 1999/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): David Nellor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974454.003

ISBN: 9781451974454

Keywords: Asia, Capital, Financial crisis, Tax policy

...

Honduras's Growth Performance During 1970-1997

Honduras's Growth Performance During 1970-1997 »

Volume/Issue: 1999/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): V. Juan-Ramon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974874.003

ISBN: 9781451974874

Keywords: Economic growth, Investment, Honduras, Honduras, Productivity, growth, input productivity, human capital, investment composition, education

For more than three decades, Honduras’s average annual growth in real per capita GDP has been almost zero and highly uneven, even though its total investment-to-GDP ratio has been relatively large. This pape...

Economic Transition and Social Protection
			: Issues and Agenda for Reform

Economic Transition and Social Protection : Issues and Agenda for Reform »

Volume/Issue: 1998/14

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451967760.003

ISBN: 9781451967760

Keywords: Montenegro, Former Soviet Union, Social policy, Subsidies, Transition, Social Protection, health care, social contributions, contribution rates, public spending

This paper briefly describes the factors constraining the social protection policies in the Baltics, Russia, and other countries of the former Soviet Union (BRO). The analysis considers public spending in social pr...

Corporate Debt Restructuring in East Asia
			: Some Lessons from International Experience

Corporate Debt Restructuring in East Asia : Some Lessons from International Experience »

Volume/Issue: 1998/13

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968729.003

ISBN: 9781451968729

Keywords: Debt, Debt restructuring, Asia, Malaysia, Korea, Republic of, Indonesia, Thailand, East Asia, corporate debt, corporate restructuring

This paper summarizes some lessons from international experience for corporate debt restructuring in east Asia. Basic principles of debt restructuring are described, the experiences of Mexico, Chile, the United Kin...

Inflation, Credibility, and the Role of the International Monetary Fund

Inflation, Credibility, and the Role of the International Monetary Fund »

Volume/Issue: 1998/12

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Curzio Giannini , and Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969337.003

ISBN: 9781451969337

Keywords: Inflation, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Fund role, International Monetary Fund, credibility, price stability, central bank, exchange rate, current account

This paper argues that many developing countries may find it difficult to buttress disinflation programs purely through the adoption of traditional credibility-enhancing devices (such as monetary anchors and centra...

Mitigating the Social Costs of the Economic Crisis and the Reform Programs in Asia

Mitigating the Social Costs of the Economic Crisis and the Reform Programs in Asia »

Volume/Issue: 1998/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Marijn Verhoeven , Sanjeev Gupta , Gerd Schwartz , Calvin McDonald , Željko Bogetic , and Christian Schiller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971408.003

ISBN: 9781451971408

Keywords: Asia, Financial crisis, Social policy, Poverty, social safety nets, social impact, unemployment, disability, price increases, safety nets

This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the likely social impact of the economic crisis and the reform programs in three Asian countries—Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand. The focus is on likely changes i...

Africa
			: Is This the Turning Point?

Africa : Is This the Turning Point? »

Volume/Issue: 1998/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , Stanley Fischer , and Ernesto Hernández-Catá

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972061.003

ISBN: 9781451972061

Keywords: Economic growth, Africa, Structural adjustment

...

External Borrowing in the Baltics, Russia, and Other States of the Former Soviet Union
			: The Transition to a Market Economy

External Borrowing in the Baltics, Russia, and Other States of the Former Soviet Union : The Transition to a Market Economy »

Volume/Issue: 1998/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): John Odling-Smee , and Basil Zavoiceo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972610.003

ISBN: 9781451972610

Keywords: Baltics, External financing, External debt, Former Soviet Union, Montenegro, Russian Federation, Transition economies, Russia, CIS, debt

The external debt of many countries of the Baltics, Russia, and the former Soviet Union has been growing rapidly in recent years and has played an important part in the transition process. However, it is vital to s...

Taxing Agriculture in Pakistan

Taxing Agriculture in Pakistan »

Volume/Issue: 1998/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mahmood Khan , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974058.003

ISBN: 9781451974058

Keywords: Agriculture, Pakistan, Taxation, taxes, income tax, tax system, tax rate, wealth tax

Pakistan’s economic performance has been marred by persistently high fiscal deficits which have resulted largely from the inability to raise sufficient revenues. Agriculture is a dominant sector of the econo...

The Payment System and Monetary Policy

The Payment System and Monetary Policy »

Volume/Issue: 1998/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Omotunde Johnson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973389.003

ISBN: 9781451973389

Keywords: Payment systems, Monetary policy, central bank, payment system, central banks, interest rates

Achieving the primary objective of price stability without unduly compromising the operational efficiency of the payment system constitutes a major problem for central banks. Routine monetary policy presumes a give...

Aid Effectiveness
			: A Survey of the Recent Empirical Literature

Aid Effectiveness : A Survey of the Recent Empirical Literature »

Volume/Issue: 1998/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Tsidi Tsikata

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974850.003

ISBN: 9781451974850

Keywords: Development assistance, Economic growth, Foreign Aid, Growth, exchange rate, real exchange, real exchange rate, international monetary fund, public investment

The preponderance of evidence from the empirical literature on aid effectiveness suggests that development aid has not had a significant impact on growth in recipient countries. However, there is some evidence that...

Transparency in Central Bank Operations in the Foreign Exchange Market

Transparency in Central Bank Operations in the Foreign Exchange Market »

Volume/Issue: 1998/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974430.003

ISBN: 9781451974430

Keywords: Exchange markets, Central banks, Foreign exchange, transparency, central bank, foreign exchange market, exchange rate

Transparency in the economic sphere involves making public sector action visible and understandable to the private sector. Transparency in central bank operations can be seen a complement to the greater transparenc...

Legal and Institutional Obstacles to Growth and Business in Russia

Legal and Institutional Obstacles to Growth and Business in Russia »

Volume/Issue: 1997/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Elaine Buckberg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970814.003

ISBN: 9781451970814

Keywords: Economic growth, Private sector, Russian Federation, tax system, corruption, organized crime, tax rates, tax burden, Economic Reform,

Although financial stabilization has laid the foundation for growth, structural reform of the economy will determine whether Russia achieves sustained medium-term growth. The next step for Russia is to create an in...

Dedicated Road Funds
			: A Preliminary View on a World Bank Initiative

Dedicated Road Funds : A Preliminary View on a World Bank Initiative »

Volume/Issue: 1997/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Barry Potter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971378.003

ISBN: 9781451971378

Keywords: Budgetary policy, World Bank, Road Funds, Budget Management Policy, Budget Policy, road, road maintenance, budget, road fund

In the past, Road Funds have been criticized as inconsistent with effective expenditure control, as distorting the allocation of public sector resources, and as incompatible with efficient management of government...

Monetary Frameworks
			: Is There a Preferred Option for the European Central Bank?

Monetary Frameworks : Is There a Preferred Option for the European Central Bank? »

Volume/Issue: 1997/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Ramana Ramaswamy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972030.003

ISBN: 9781451972030

Keywords: European Central Bank, Monetary policy, Inflation, EMU, Inflation targeting, Monetary targeting, monetary union

This paper discusses how the size of the monetary union in Europe can influence the choice of the monetary framework. The main conjecture is that the European Central Bank ought to target inflation if monetary unio...

Exchange Rate Policy and Monetary Strategy Options in the Philippines
			: The Search for Stability and Sustainability

Exchange Rate Policy and Monetary Strategy Options in the Philippines : The Search for Stability and Sustainability »

Volume/Issue: 1997/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Aerdt Houben

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973341.003

ISBN: 9781451973341

Keywords: Exchange rate policy, Exchange rate regimes, Monetary policy, Philippines, exchange rate, central bank, nominal anchor

This paper evaluates the Philippines’ experience with different exchange regimes since 1970. It argues that the shift to a flexible regime was crucial to restoring external viability and generating an export...

Fiscal Accounting of Bank Restructuring

Fiscal Accounting of Bank Restructuring »

Volume/Issue: 1997/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Andy Wolfe , Jeffrey Davis , and James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972573.003

ISBN: 9781451972573

Keywords: Bank restructuring, Fiscal management, Fiscal, Accounting, Banks, fiscal balance, debt, central bank, interest, financial institutions

Current guidelines and practice for classifying government bank assistance operations inadequately capture in the fiscal balance some of the most common, and important, operations. The shortcomings result from the...

Are Europe's Social Security Finances Compatible with EMU?

Are Europe's Social Security Finances Compatible with EMU? »

Volume/Issue: 1997/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): George Kopits

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974034.003

ISBN: 9781451974034

Keywords: European Economic and Monetary Union, Europe, Social security, unemployment, unemployment benefits, survivors ? pensions, payroll tax

Pursuant to the Treaty of Maastricht, members of the European Union (EU) intend to participate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), in part through convergence toward specified limits on the overall deficit an...

Conditionality as an Instrument of Borrower Credibility

Conditionality as an Instrument of Borrower Credibility »

Volume/Issue: 1997/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Pierre Dhonte

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974423.003

ISBN: 9781451974423

Keywords: Conditionality, Conditionality/Credibility, credit ratings, external financing, credit rating, institutional investor, debt

Fund member countries that adopt market-friendly policies often encounter a credibility problem—market-friendly policies are not effective in stimulating private investment as long as there remains a signifi...

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions »

Volume/Issue: 1996/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972009.003

ISBN: 9781451972009

Keywords: tax authorities, tax treatment, tax deductible, fiscal authorities, tax deductions

Provisioning for loan losses is a method for recognizing the reduction in the value of a hank’s loan portfolio. Provisions are an essential element of prudential risk management and capital adequacy measurem...

Social Protection in Transition Countries
			: Emerging Issues

Social Protection in Transition Countries : Emerging Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1996/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , and Ke-young Chu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972535.003

ISBN: 9781451972535

Keywords: Social policy, Tax policy, benefits, payroll, wage, pensions, informal sector

The paper discusses the social protection implications of the weakening financial and administrative capacity of countries undergoing economic transition. The formal sector is shrinking, and unemployment and undere...

Ukraine's Gas Arrears
			: Issues and Recommendations

Ukraine's Gas Arrears : Issues and Recommendations »

Volume/Issue: 1996/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Amer Bisat

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974010.003

ISBN: 9781451974010

Keywords: gas, gas import, local distribution, gas distribution, gas sector

This paper discusses issues related to the gas arrears ‘crisis’ in Ukraine. It concludes that the problem, which can be traced to policy distortions, can be contained through an acceleration of struct...

Borrowing by Subnational Governments
			: Issues and Selected International Experiences

Borrowing by Subnational Governments : Issues and Selected International Experiences »

Volume/Issue: 1996/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Teresa Ter-Minassian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973280.003

ISBN: 9781451973280

...

A U.S. Value-Added Tax
			: A Review of the Issues

A U.S. Value-Added Tax : A Review of the Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1995/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Christopher Towe , and Saurin Shah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970739.003

ISBN: 9781451970739

Keywords: Tax policy, United States, taxes, added tax, consumption tax, income tax, tax base

This paper reviews issues related to the introduction of a value-added tax in the United States. In particular, the paper distinguishes between European-styled value-added taxes that are levied similarly to sales t...

Three Propositions on African Economic Growth

Three Propositions on African Economic Growth »

Volume/Issue: 1995/9

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Pierre Dhonte

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970357.003

ISBN: 9781451970357

Keywords: Africa, Investment

...

Commercial Bank Debt Restructuring
			: The Experience of Bulgaria

Commercial Bank Debt Restructuring : The Experience of Bulgaria »

Volume/Issue: 1995/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Aerdt Houben

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971941.003

ISBN: 9781451971941

Keywords: Bulgaria, debt, debt reduction, interest, debt service, external debt

This paper reviews commercial bank debt restructuring based on the recent experience of Bulgaria. While the deal is shown to have generated substantial debt relief at a remarkably low cost, several lessons are draw...

Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries and China

Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries and China »

Volume/Issue: 1995/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mahmood Khan , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971248.003

ISBN: 9781451971248

Keywords: China, Sub-Saharan Africa, crops, agricultural growth, agricultural land, food production, agricultural products

Agriculture remains the dominant sector in the economies of most Sub-Saharan African countries. However, the experience of agricultural growth in the region stands in sharp contrast to the robust performance of agr...

Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules
			: How Tough a Challenge is it to Join the Basle Club?

Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules : How Tough a Challenge is it to Join the Basle Club? »

Volume/Issue: 1995/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , María Nieto , and Olivier Frecaut

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972467.003

ISBN: 9781451972467

Keywords: Bank regulations, capital accord, balance sheet, capital ratio, risk weights, capital adequacy

The 1988 Basle Capital Accord has introduced the norm of a risk-based capital ratio of 8 percent. It was negotiated among the G-10 countries to strengthen their international banks’ capital base while simult...

Unemployment in Ireland
			: A Survey of Features and Causes

Unemployment in Ireland : A Survey of Features and Causes »

Volume/Issue: 1994/27

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Julio Santaella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960457.003

ISBN: 9781451960457

Keywords: Ireland, Ireland, Labor policy, unemployment, employment, unemployment rate, unemployment problem, unemployed

This paper examines the problem of unemployment in Ireland. A brief description of the main distinctive features of the structure of Irish unemployment is presented. Based on up to date literature, the possible cau...

The IMF and the Latin American Debt Crisis
			: Seven Common Criticisms

The IMF and the Latin American Debt Crisis : Seven Common Criticisms »

Volume/Issue: 1994/23

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): James Boughton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 October 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451962154.003

ISBN: 9781451962154

Keywords: Ecuador, Chile, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Guyana, Suriname

The IMF played a key role in developing and implementing the debt strategy throughout the 1980s. That strategy not only overcame the crisis but also produced successful transformationsof several major economiesin L...

Russia and the IMF
			: The Political Economy of Macro-Stabilization

Russia and the IMF : The Political Economy of Macro-Stabilization »

Volume/Issue: 1994/20

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Hernández-Catá

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963939.003

ISBN: 9781451963939

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, central bank, monetary financing, monetary fund, European II Department,

This paper reviews the experience with macroeconomic stabilization in Russia during the 2 1/2 years following the beginning of reforms in January 1992. It focuses on the different perceptions about the nature, the...

Currency Boards
			: Issues and Experiences

Currency Boards : Issues and Experiences »

Volume/Issue: 1994/18

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451965056.003

ISBN: 9781451965056

Keywords: Argentina, Estonia, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, currency board, exchange rate, currency boards, central bank, foreign exchange

This paper discusses some of the issues that concern the operation of currency boards, by comparison to conventional exchange rate pegs, and looks at the experiences of three examples of this type of arrangement: A...

Structural Policies in Developing Countries

Structural Policies in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1994/19

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964615.003

ISBN: 9781451964615

Keywords: International trade, financial markets, interest rates, financial repression, real interest rates

This paper discusses the broad orientation of the economic systems adopted in developing countries. While government-led development strategies were widely followed by developing countries since the 1950s and 1960s...

Monetary Transmission and Financial Indexation
			: Evidence from the Chilean Economy

Monetary Transmission and Financial Indexation : Evidence from the Chilean Economy »

Volume/Issue: 1994/17

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451965407.003

ISBN: 9781451965407

Keywords: Turkey, inflation, monetary policy, real interest rates, money growth, real interest rate

This paper reviews empirical evidence on the operation of the monetary transmission mechanism based on targeting of interest rates on indexed assets in the Chilean economy. The empirical evidence has two policy imp...

Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle

Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle »

Volume/Issue: 1994/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Garry Schinasi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971927.003

ISBN: 9781451971927

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, inflationary pressures, price inflation, monetary fund

The business cycle in several industrial countries during the period 1989-1993 was different from previous post World War II business cycles in important ways. This paper describes the unique character of the recen...

The United States
			: Japan Current Account Imbalance:  A Review

The United States : Japan Current Account Imbalance: A Review »

Volume/Issue: 1994/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stephen Golub

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970708.003

ISBN: 9781451970708

Keywords: exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, trade flows, real exchange rates

This paper reviews the macroeconomic and microeconomic dimensions of the United States-Japan conflict over trade. From a macroeconomic perspective, there is nothing surprising about Japan’s surpluses, given...

Emerging Equity Markets
			: Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns

Emerging Equity Markets : Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns »

Volume/Issue: 1994/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Manmohan Kumar , and Robert Feldman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971217.003

ISBN: 9781451971217

Keywords: Monetary policy, equity markets, stock market, capital inflows, equity prices, stock markets

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a very substantial increase in stock market activity in many developing countries. This paper first examines the main characteristics of the emerging stock markets, and illustrat...