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In the Wake of the Global Economic Crisis
			: Adjusting to Lower Revenue of the Southern African Customs Union in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland

In the Wake of the Global Economic Crisis : Adjusting to Lower Revenue of the Southern African Customs Union in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland »

Volume: 11

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Thomson Fontaine , Dalmacio Benicio , Joannes Mongardini , Genevieve Verdier , and Gonzalo Pastor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462343492.087

ISBN: 9781462343492

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal adjustment, spending cuts, government spending, tax increases

The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is facing its biggest challenge in its 100 years of existence. The global economic crisis has significantly reduced its revenue outlook, which is having a disproportionate...

Lifting Euro Area Growth
			: Priorities for Structural Reforms and Governance

Lifting Euro Area Growth : Priorities for Structural Reforms and Governance »

Volume/Issue: 2010/19

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Luc Everaert , and Céline Allard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462302109.004

ISBN: 9781462302109

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Economic growth, Euro Area, Europe, Financial sector, Political economy, Services sector, Labor markets, Labor market reforms, Governance

To live up to its growth potential and secure its inclusive social model, the euro area must make better use of its available labor. In the aftermath of the crisis, boosting growth is essential to prevent unemploym...

Reaching the MDGs
			: An Action Plan for Trade

Reaching the MDGs : An Action Plan for Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2010/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Brad McDonald , Rob Gregory , and Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265343.004

ISBN: 9781455265343

Keywords: Exports, Export competitiveness, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Low-income developing countries, International trade, Millennium Development Goals, Trade integration, Tax reforms, Trade policy

The actions proposed here focus on trade integration, substantially increasing exports of the poorest countries and helping them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As the foundation for these ambitions, we e...

Trade and the Crisis
			: Protect or Recover

Trade and the Crisis : Protect or Recover »

Volume/Issue: 2010/07

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Mika Saito , Christian Henn , Rob Gregory , and Brad McDonald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455251216.004

ISBN: 9781455251216

Keywords: Protectionism, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Trade restrictions, Trade policy, Unemployment, World Trade Organization, Transparency, WTO, trade flows, world trade

The pace of trade reforms waned from the mid-2000s as protectionist sentiment began to increase. With the onset of the global financial crisis, reform progress not only halted but began to reverse. As we show in th...

Trade Issues in the Doha Round
			: Dispelling Some Misconceptions

Trade Issues in the Doha Round : Dispelling Some Misconceptions »

Volume/Issue: 2006/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stephen Tokarick

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946161.003

ISBN: 9781451946161

Keywords: Developing countries, Agricultural production, Agricultural subsidies, Multilateral trade negotiations, Tariffs, Subsidies, Trade liberalization, Trade policy, preference erosion, tariff reductions

The current round of multilateral trade negotiations-the Doha Round-presents an opportunity for countries to reap the benefits of trade liberalization. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions about the likely imp...

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2004/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975062.003

ISBN: 9781451975062

Keywords: Economic integration, Trade, emerging Asia, intraregional trade, export markets, export growth, trading partners, intermediate goods, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

The share of emerging Asia in world trade has increased sharply over the past 25 years. A large part of this increase is the result of booming intraregional trade. This paper investigates the key factors behind the...

International Trade in Services
			: Implications for the Fund

International Trade in Services : Implications for the Fund »

Volume/Issue: 2003/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Natalia Tamirisa , Alexander Lehmann , and Jaroslaw Wieczorek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972207.003

ISBN: 9781451972207

Keywords: International trade, international services trade, coherence, WTO, trade in services, services trade, services sectors, financial services, international trade in services,

This paper reviews the characteristics of international trade in services and of the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) framework, which was established to regulate it....

Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations?

Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations? »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Gabriela Inchauste , Nita Thacker , Thomas Dorsey , Shamsuddin Tareq , Emanuele Baldacci , Sanjeev Gupta , and Mark Plant

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061125.084

ISBN: 9781589061125

Keywords: conditionality, pem, poverty reduction, structural conditionality, public spending

In late 1999 the IMF established the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) to integrate the objectives of poverty reduction and growth more fully into its operations for the poorest countries, and to base th...

Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Vito Tanzi , M. Yücelik , Peter Griffith , and Carlos Aguirre

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 1981

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750815.084

ISBN: 9781557750815

Keywords: taxation, sales tax, tax system, tax administration, sales taxes

This study indentifies some of the taxation problems most frequently encountered by Fund member countries in sub-Saharan Africa and seeks solutions that may be useful to either the region as a whole or to groups of...