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Multi-Country Report
			: Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/153

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303719.002

ISBN: 9781484303719

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Europe, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mali, Middle East, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sub-Saharan Africa

This report reviews the IMF's effort to build fiscal capacity in fragile states. It presents case studies on IMF technical assistance (TA) and capacity development in the fiscal area, provided by its Fiscal Affairs...

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Paulo Medas , Veronique Salins , and Jeff Danforth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536065.061

ISBN: 9781475536065

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Canada, Chile, Commodity prices, Malaysia, Natural resources, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Hemisphere, Commodity boom

Resource-rich countries have to manage highly volatile commodity revenues. In periods of revenue booms there is a tendency for large spending scale-ups. When facing large and persistent reductions in commodity pric...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484366806.012

ISBN: 9781484366806

Keywords: Exchange rate adjustments, Exchange rate appreciation, Exchange rate assessments, Exchange rate developments, Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate depreciation, Exchange rate guarantees, Exchange rate indicators, Exchange rate indexes, Exchange rate management

This is the 64th issue of the AREAER. It provides a description of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It also provides information on th...

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 October 2013

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484362785.011

ISBN: 9781484362785

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows, balance of payments, debt sustainability, management of capital flows, risk management, internal audit

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013 : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515398.011

ISBN: 9781475515398

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

Anchoring Growth
			: The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies

Anchoring Growth : The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Giang Ho , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , and Robert Tchaidze

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616357290.006

ISBN: 9781616357290

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developing countries, Economic growth, Agricultural sector, Fiscal reforms, Manufacturing sector, Labor markets, Labor productivity, Services sector, Total factor productivity

Fostering and sustaining robust economic growth is an imperative across advanced, emerging, and low-income countries alike. Countries will need to focus on supply-side reforms to raise their potential output and an...

Internationalization of Emerging Market Currencies
			: A Balance Between Risks and Rewards

Internationalization of Emerging Market Currencies : A Balance Between Risks and Rewards »

Volume/Issue: 2011/17

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Faisal Ahmed , Shengzu Wang , Isabelle Mateos y Lago , Samar Maziad , Stephanie Segal , Pascal Farahmand , and Udaibir Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926526.006

ISBN: 9781463926526

Keywords: Emerging markets, International monetary system, Currency internationalization, financial markets, international currencies, domestic financial markets, international currency, capital account liberalization,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

The Effectiveness of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies in Managing Large Inflows

The Effectiveness of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies in Managing Large Inflows »

Volume/Issue: 2011/14

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Karl Habermeier , Annamaria Kokenyne , and Chikako Baba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463902896.006

ISBN: 9781463902896

Keywords: Emerging markets, Exchange rate appreciation, Cross country analysis, Credit expansion, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Risk management, Macroprudential Policy, financial regulation, macroprudential policies

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth
			: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth : Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926564.006

ISBN: 9781463926564

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Economic growth, Emerging markets, Income distribution, Poverty reduction, sustainable growth, per capita income, external debt, external shocks

This note raises the IMF’s profile on a number of issues related to inequality, unemployment, governance, etc. It builds on earlier empirical work that examined correlations between growth downbreaks/duratio...

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced?

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384860.006

ISBN: 9781462384860

Keywords: global imbalances, current account, exchange rates, current account deficits, current account surpluses, exchange rate, current account deficit, Account Balances Be Reduced?,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Reaching the MDGs
			: An Action Plan for Trade

Reaching the MDGs : An Action Plan for Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2010/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Brad McDonald , Rob Gregory , and Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265343.004

ISBN: 9781455265343

Keywords: Exports, Export competitiveness, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Low-income developing countries, International trade, Millennium Development Goals, Trade integration, Tax reforms, Trade policy

The actions proposed here focus on trade integration, substantially increasing exports of the poorest countries and helping them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As the foundation for these ambitions, we e...

Government Cash Management
			: Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies

Government Cash Management : Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462318254.005

ISBN: 9781462318254

Keywords: government cash management, cash management, debt management, financial policies, central bank, debt, cash flow

This technical note describes the interaction of government cash management with other financial policies. The note offers guidance on policy, institutional, and practical issues for governments looking to develop...

Trade and the Crisis
			: Protect or Recover

Trade and the Crisis : Protect or Recover »

Volume/Issue: 2010/07

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Mika Saito , Christian Henn , Rob Gregory , and Brad McDonald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455251216.004

ISBN: 9781455251216

Keywords: Protectionism, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Trade restrictions, Trade policy, Unemployment, World Trade Organization, Transparency, WTO, trade flows, world trade

The pace of trade reforms waned from the mid-2000s as protectionist sentiment began to increase. With the onset of the global financial crisis, reform progress not only halted but began to reverse. As we show in th...

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066038.054

ISBN: 9781589066038

Este folleto (que actualiza las Directrices de 1995 para el ajuste fiscal) presenta el enfoque del FMI con respecto al ajuste fiscal, y se centra en la importancia de la solidez de las finanzas públicas para promov...

What is the International Monetary Fund?

What is the International Monetary Fund? »

Series: EXR Pamphlets

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065338.052

ISBN: 9781589065338

Keywords: IMF, Fund role, balance of payments, debt relief, central bank, world trade, debt reduction

An introductory guide to the IMF, its history, and its role in the international financial system. Explains for a general audience the IMF's lending policies, how decisions are made, and where the money comes from....

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065130.054

ISBN: 9781589065130

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, fiscal adjustment, expenditure, public expenditure, aggregate demand

The pamphlet (which updates the 1995 Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustment) presents the IMF's approach to fiscal adjustment, and focuses on the role that sound government finances play in promoting macroeconomic stabil...

Integrating Poor Countries into the World Trading System

Integrating Poor Countries into the World Trading System »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064454.051

ISBN: 9781589064454

Keywords: Developing countries, Trade policy, Trade relations, trade liberalization, export earnings, trade facilitation, multilateral trade, export markets

Efforts to liberalize world trade are increasingly focusing on strengthening the links between low-income countries' trade policies and their development strategies. However, although greater trade openness promise...

Vanishing Contagion?

Vanishing Contagion? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Tatiana Didier , and Sergio Schmukler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946062.003

ISBN: 9781451946062

Keywords: Economic integration, Financial crisis, Emerging markets, crises, international integration, international transmission of shocks, contagion, investors, mutual funds, emerging market

While a number of emerging market crises were characterized by widespread contagion during the 1990s, more recent crises (notably, in Argentina) have been mostly contained within national borders. This has led some...

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Primary Dealers in Government Securities

Primary Dealers in Government Securities »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Marco Arnone , and Piero Ugolini

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063792.058

ISBN: 9781589063792

Keywords: Securities regulations, government securities, central bank, securities market, government securities market, open market operations

In the past 10 years a growing number of countries have established or began establishing a primary dealer system. This paper discusses the role of primary dealers, as well as theoretical, operational, and technica...

Cómo se gobierna el FMI
			:  Toma de decisiones, control institucional, transparencia y rendicion de cuentas

Cómo se gobierna el FMI : Toma de decisiones, control institucional, transparencia y rendicion de cuentas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063037.054

ISBN: 9781589063037

El autor -quien ocupó un alto cargo en el FMI durante dos décadas- en primer lugar centra la atención en el sistema de cuotas y la distribución del poder de voto en el FMI y concluye que se requieren reformas para...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062184.012

ISBN: 9781589062184

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2003 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

Managing Systemic Banking Crises

Managing Systemic Banking Crises »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and David Hoelscher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062245.084

ISBN: 9781589062245

Keywords: Banking, banking crises, recapitalization, debt restructuring, deposit insurance

Recent financial sector crises and their resolution have raised new issues and provided additional experiences to draw on in the future. Banking sector problems in Russia, Turkey, and a few Latin American countries...

Fiscal Vulnerability and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies

Fiscal Vulnerability and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Richard Hemming , Axel Schimmelpfennig , and Michael Kell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 May 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061965.084

ISBN: 9781589061965

Keywords: Emerging markets, fiscal variables, public debt, currency crises, fiscal policy, external debt

Fiscal problems have long been considered a central feature of financial--that is, currency, debt, and banking--crises. This paper addresses four questions: What are the fiscal causes of crises? Which fiscal vulner...

Le casse-tête des retraites
			: Impératifs et choix des régimes de retraite

Le casse-tête des retraites : Impératifs et choix des régimes de retraite »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): N. Barr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2003

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061460.051

ISBN: 9781589061460

Keywords: pension, pensions, pension systems, funded schemes, pensioners, retirement, private pensions, pension scheme, state pension, pension system

Looks at the policy choices involved in creating pension schemes, particularly whether it is advisable to move away from government pay-as-you-go pensions toward private or publicly funded plans. Examines the reaso...

El sistema jubilatorio:  Un rompecabezas
			:  Prerrequisitos y opciones de políticas en el diseño de jubilaciones y pensiones

El sistema jubilatorio: Un rompecabezas : Prerrequisitos y opciones de políticas en el diseño de jubilaciones y pensiones »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): N. Barr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061477.051

ISBN: 9781589061477

Examina las opciones de política a la hora de diseñar un sistema de pensiones, y en especial analiza si es aconsejable reemplazar un régimen estatal basado en el sistema de reparto por planes privados o públicos ba...

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061613.054

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable
			: Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable : Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 2002

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061606.054

ISBN: 9781589061606

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure, primary education, forest, health care, government expenditure, government spending

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2002

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2002 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061255.012

ISBN: 9781589061255

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, direct investment, forward exchange, foreign investment, exchange control

This 2002 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

La pauvreté rurale dans les pays en développement
			: Orientation pour l'action publique

La pauvreté rurale dans les pays en développement : Orientation pour l'action publique »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mahmood Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 2002

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060074.051

ISBN: 9781589060074

Keywords: rural poverty, health care, agricultural land, paper, literacy, staple foods, food programs, rural women, food shortages, agricultural growth

Reviews causes of poverty in rural areas and presents a policy framework for reducing rural poverty, including through land reform, public works programs, access to credit, physical and social infrastructure, subsi...

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities »

Volume/Issue: 2001/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Zelmer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971583.003

ISBN: 9781451971583

Keywords: Central banks, Central banks and their policies, Bonds, Monetary policy, Monetary policy, Monetary operations, central bank, government securities, balance sheets, financial institutions,

The limited supply of government securities in some industrial countries has important ramifications for the operating techniques used by central banks to implement monetary policy, provide credit to the financial...

L'art difficile de prévoir les crises économiques

L'art difficile de prévoir les crises économiques »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Catherine Pattillo , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 February 2001

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758859.051

ISBN: 9781557758859

Keywords: early warning, warning system, early warning system, financial markets, currency crises, international reserves, international financial markets, overvaluation, financial institutions, real exchange rate overvaluation

The integration of financial markets around the world over the past decade has posed new challenges for policymakers. The speed with which money can be switched in and out of currencies and countries has increased...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2000

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2000 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758989.012

ISBN: 9781557758989

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, exchange rate, forward exchange, foreign investment, exchange control

The exchange and trade systems of IMF member countries are presented in this comprehensive volume in a tabular format. There is expanded coverage of the regulatory framework for capital movements. The information g...

Fonds de couverture
			: Que savons-nous vraiment d'eux?

Fonds de couverture : Que savons-nous vraiment d'eux? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Donald Mathieson , and Barry Eichengreen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758507.051

ISBN: 9781557758507

Keywords: hedge funds, hedge, hedge fund, financial markets, derivative, financial institutions, bonds, financial market, futures markets, hedge? funds

Each episode of volatility in financial markets heightens the attention of government officials and others to the role played by the hedge fund industry in financial market dynamics. Hedge funds were implicated in...

Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy?

Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757906.051

ISBN: 9781557757906

Keywords: fiscal affairs, income distribution, fiscal affairs department, expenditure policy, unskilled workers

Over the past decade, global output has grown by more than 3 percent a year and inflation has slowed in most regions. The fruits of this growthhave not been shared equally, however, and income disparities have grow...

El FMI y la pobreza
			:  Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas

El FMI y la pobreza : Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757869.054

ISBN: 9781557757869

El FMI hace cada vez más hincapié en un "crecimiento de alta calidad" - es decir, un crecimiento que sea sostenible, que esté acompañado de saldos internos y externos apropiados, que respete el medio ambiente y qu...

Le FMI et la pauvreté
			: Département des finances publiques

Le FMI et la pauvreté : Département des finances publiques »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757852.054

ISBN: 9781557757852

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures, military expenditures, capital expenditures, public expenditure, total expenditures, health expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

Fiscal Policy Rules

Fiscal Policy Rules »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Kopits , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757043.017

ISBN: 9781557757043

Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal rules, public debt, fiscal policy rules, fiscal rule

What are fiscal policy rules? What are the principal benefits and drawbacks associated with various fiscal rules, particularly compared with alternative approaches to fiscal adjustment? Can fiscal rules contribute...

Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Liam Ebrill , Sanjeev Gupta , Anthony Pellechio , Jerald Schiff , George Abed , Ronald McMorran , and Marijn Verhoeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757173.084

ISBN: 9781557757173

Keywords: Developing countries, expenditure, tax administration, tax revenue, wage, expenditures

The reform of fiscal policies and institutions lies at the heart of structural adjustment in developing countries. Although the immediate aim of such reform is to reduce fiscal imbalances to achieve macroeconomic s...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1997

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1997 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756664.012

ISBN: 9781557756664

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, exchange rate, exchange control, forward exchange, foreign investment

This 1997 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange restrictions of individual member countries, including Hong Kong,...

Why is China Growing So Fast?

Why is China Growing So Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Zuliu Hu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1997

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451940916.051

ISBN: 9781451940916

Keywords: Economic growth

Since 1978 the Chinese economy has grown on average more than 9 percent a year. Per capita income has nearly quadrupled in the past 15 years and some analysts predict that within 20 years the Chinese economy will b...

Transformations to Open Market Operations
			: Developing Countries and Emerging Markets

Transformations to Open Market Operations : Developing Countries and Emerging Markets »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 January 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756275.051

ISBN: 9781557756275

Keywords: central bank, open market operations, monetary policy, government securities, reserve requirements

Open market operations are the major instruments of monetary control in industrial countries and are becoming important in developing countriesand countries in transition. This paper shows how open market operation...

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756008.084

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass not only a wide geographic area but also broad differences in stages of economic development, including among them some of the fastes...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942712.012

ISBN: 9781451942712

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment, foreign exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1995

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1995 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944990.011

ISBN: 9781451944990

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, inflation, balance of payments

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942651.012

ISBN: 9781451942651

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, direct investment, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1994

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1994 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944938.011

ISBN: 9781451944938

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, current account balance, repurchases, current account deficit

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1994

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1994 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942606.012

ISBN: 9781451942606

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, foreign bank, foreign trade

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Restructuring of Commercial Bank Debt by Developing Countries
			: Lessons from Recent Experience

Restructuring of Commercial Bank Debt by Developing Countries : Lessons from Recent Experience »

Volume/Issue: 1993/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mohamed El-Erian , and Charles Collyns

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971187.003

ISBN: 9781451971187

Keywords: debt reduction, debt restructuring, bank debt, debt service, debt service reduction

A number of developing countries, including some of the largest debtors, have recently completed comprehensive debt and debt service restructuring packages with their commercial bank creditors. The experience of th...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1993

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1993 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944891.011

ISBN: 9781451944891

Keywords: inflation, balance of payments, monetary policy, monetary fund, world economy

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1993

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1993 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942545.012

ISBN: 9781451942545

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange transactions, foreign currencies, exchange rates, foreign trade, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1992

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1992 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944853.011

ISBN: 9781451944853

Keywords: balance of payments, general resources account, repurchases, repayments, inflation

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1992

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1992 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942491.012

ISBN: 9781451942491

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, foreign trade, direct investment

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1991

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1991 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942446.012

ISBN: 9781451942446

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1990

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1990 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944792.011

ISBN: 9781451944792

Keywords: balance of payments, debt reduction, general resources account, repurchases, debt strategy

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1989

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1989 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944754.011

ISBN: 9781451944754

Keywords: balance of payments, debt reduction, general resources account, repayments, repurchases

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1988

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1988 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944716.011

ISBN: 9781451944716

Keywords: balance of payments, repurchases, current account, general resources account, exporting countries

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1988

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1988 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942262.012

ISBN: 9781451942262

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

DTS, monnaies et or
			: Septième exposé sur les changements intervenus dans le domaine juridique

DTS, monnaies et or : Septième exposé sur les changements intervenus dans le domaine juridique »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Joseph Gold

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1987

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451949520.054

ISBN: 9781451949520

Keywords: court, exchange rate, exchange rates, courts, exchange rate policies, claim, legal developments, court of appeals, supreme court, exchange arrangements

This paper presents the seventh survey of developments in international and national monetary law and practice involving special drawing rights (SDRs), currencies, and gold. The IMF has adopted three published deci...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1987

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1987 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 August 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934973.012

ISBN: 9780939934973

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

This report discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1986 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1987. The report highlights...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1986

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1986 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352004.012

ISBN: 9781616352004

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange control, exchange rate, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

This report describes developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1985 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1986. The report highlights...

Export Credit Cover Policies and Payments Difficulties

Export Credit Cover Policies and Payments Difficulties »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Chanpen Puckahtikom , and Eduard Brau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934492.084

ISBN: 9780939934492

Keywords: export credit, export credit agencies, debtor countries, export credits, debtor country

In the current environment of payments difficulties, a principal role of the Fund remains the encouragement and support of timely adjustment policies of member countries....

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1985

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1985 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352011.012

ISBN: 9781616352011

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange control, exchange rate, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, direct investment, exchange rates, exchange transactions

This paper discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. Global output and trade recovered strongly in 1984, as inflation in the industrial countries remained relatively...

Foreign Private Investment in Developing Countries

Foreign Private Investment in Developing Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 January 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750662.084

ISBN: 9781557750662

Keywords: direct investment, foreign investment, foreign direct investment, industrial countries, foreign ownership

Since the early 1970s foreign direct and portfolio equity investment flows into developing countries, although continuing to increase in absolute terms, have been relatively less important than in previous years, a...

World Economic Outlook
			: September 1984

World Economic Outlook : September 1984 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750860.084

ISBN: 9781557750860

Keywords: current account, oil exporting countries, exports of goods, exporters, official creditors

Recent indicators suggest that activity in the world economy is strengthening more rapidly than projected by the staff six months ago. This is especially true of the United States, but the staff has also revised up...

The Exchange Rate System
			: Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future

The Exchange Rate System : Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750648.084

ISBN: 9781557750648

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate system, exchange rate movements, balance of payments

The last few years have witnessed a resurgence of calls for a re-examination, or perhaps even a reform, of the international monetary system. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on that subject in three wa...