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Tax Biases to Debt Finance
			: Assessing the Problem, Finding Solutions

Tax Biases to Debt Finance : Assessing the Problem, Finding Solutions »

Volume/Issue: 2011/11

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ruud A. Mooij

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463935139.006

ISBN: 9781463935139

Keywords: Corporate taxation, investors, tax system, cost of capital, corporate tax, interest payments, Interest Deductibility, Corporate Financial Structure, Multinational Debt Shifting, Bank Leverage

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Revenue Administration
			: Developing a Taxpayer Compliance Program

Revenue Administration : Developing a Taxpayer Compliance Program »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Barrie Russell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462314218.005

ISBN: 9781462314218

Keywords: Risk management, Taxpayer segmentation, compliance program, taxpayers, tax system, taxpayer compliance, compliance strategies, Compliance Model, Effectiveness Measures, Risk Prioritization

This technical note describes the importance of a taxpayer compliance program. Improving tax compliance requires long-term reform efforts, beginning with strengthening the organization and management of the revenue...

Revenue Administration
			: Managing the Shadow Economy

Revenue Administration : Managing the Shadow Economy »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Barrie Russell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462355587.005

ISBN: 9781462355587

Keywords: PLEASE PROVIDE, revenue, taxpayers, tax system, taxes, tax returns

This technical note focuses on the concept of a shadow economy and explains its main characteristics. Although a shadow economy is acknowledged by all G-20 countries as a major and enduring revenue risk, by its nat...

Revenue Administration
			: Performance Measurement in Tax Administration

Revenue Administration : Performance Measurement in Tax Administration »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): William Joseph Crandall

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462316236.005

ISBN: 9781462316236

Keywords: tax administration, performance measurement, performance management, performance indicators, operational planning, strategic planning, tax administrations, taxpayers

This technical note describes measuring performance in tax administration. Performance measurement is an ongoing process of ascertaining how well, or how poorly, an organization is achieving its goals and objective...

Revenue Administration
			: Functionally Organized Tax Administration

Revenue Administration : Functionally Organized Tax Administration »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Maureen Kidd

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462332380.005

ISBN: 9781462332380

Keywords: tax organization, organization model, function-based organization, policy direction, oversight, management direction, tax administration, internal audit, tax administrations, taxes

This technical note analyzes the functionally organized tax administration. The organization structure of tax organizations has evolved considerably over time. From organization structures based on type of tax, to...

Tax Administration in Small Economies

Tax Administration in Small Economies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455273416.005

ISBN: 9781455273416

Keywords: tax administration, organization structure, small and micro economies, organizational models, tax administrations, taxpayers, taxes, fiscal affairs

This technical note analyzes tax administration in small economies. Choosing the right organization structure is a key component of any program of tax administration reform and modernization. It creates a solid pla...

Revenue Administration
			: Taxpayer Audit--Development of Effective Plans

Revenue Administration : Taxpayer Audit--Development of Effective Plans »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462306145.005

ISBN: 9781462306145

Keywords: taxpayer audit, audit plans, audit planning, taxpayers, tax administration, auditors, taxes, national audit

This technical note describes how to develop effective plans for a taxpayer audit. The note highlights that a well-managed audit program plays a major role in managing compliance. An effective audit program will ha...

Revenue Administration
			: Taxpayer Audit--Use of Indirect Methods

Revenue Administration : Taxpayer Audit--Use of Indirect Methods »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455238101.005

ISBN: 9781455238101

Keywords: taxpayer audit, tax audit methods, indirect methods, indirect audit methods, taxpayers, financial affairs, auditors, taxable income, tax liabilities

This technical note examines the use of indirect methods in a taxpayer audit. Indirect methods involve the determination of tax liabilities through an analysis of a taxpayer's financial affairs utilizing informatio...

Petroleum Product Subsidies
			: Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise

Petroleum Product Subsidies : Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Piotrowski , David Coady , Justin Tyson , Rolando Ossowski , Robert Gillingham , and Shamsuddin Tareq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455239108.004

ISBN: 9781455239108

Keywords: Commodity price fluctuations, Oil exporting countries, Oil product prices, Oil subsidies, Price stabilization, Fiscal reforms, Governance, Taxes, Subsidies, Petroleum products

Petroleum product subsidies have again started to increase with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that reforming the policy framework for settin...

Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers »

Volume/Issue: 2009/23

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Steven Symansky , and Thomas Baunsgaard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455290567.004

ISBN: 9781455290567

Keywords: Fiscal stability, macroeconomic stabilization, personal income tax, income tax, taxes, fiscal policy, tax rates

This paper discusses how to enhance automatic stabilizers without increasing the size of government. We distinguish between permanent changes in the parameters of the tax and expenditure system (e.g., changes in ta...

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis
			: Challenges and Policy Options

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis : Challenges and Policy Options »

Volume/Issue: 2009/17

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Brondolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462339440.004

ISBN: 9781462339440

Keywords: Financial crisis, Corporate sector, Collection of taxes, Fiscal policy, Tax collection, Tax administration, Tax revenues, Value added tax, taxpayers, tax agencies

The global financial and economic crisis presents major challenges for tax agencies. With the economic downturn, tax agencies are encountering emerging compliance problems and greater demands for taxpayer support i...

Tax Amnesties
			: Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067363.058

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer »

Volume/Issue: 2004/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Parthasarathi Shome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974577.003

ISBN: 9781451974577

Keywords: Services sector, Tax policy, Tax administration, small taxpayers, large taxpayer units, tax administration and the small taxpayer, taxpayers, income tax, single tax, tax system,

Small taxpayers should pay their appropriate revenue share while their compliance costs should be reduced. This assumes importance as restructuring in emerging markets has meant rapid growth in services through sel...

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance
			: A Review of Country Experience

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance : A Review of Country Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Olivier Benon , Katherine Baer , and Juan Toro R.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061187.084

ISBN: 9781589061187

Keywords: Taxes, Taxation, tax administration, large taxpayers, tax collection, tax administrations, taxpayer compliance

One area that has not been reviewed in developing countries is the growing focus on different segments of the taxpayer population-including the large taxpayers-as a way to encourage greater stability in public reve...

People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region1
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region1 : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2001/146

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451807790.002

ISBN: 9781451807790

Keywords: Economic conditions, Hong Kong SAR, Statistics, tax base, budget, stamp duties, taxes, fiscal balance

This Selected Issues paper analyzes the long-term fiscal policy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) and the anticipated structural changes in the economy. The paper examines the factors that contribute...

Tax Policy for Developing Countries

Tax Policy for Developing Countries »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Howell Zee , and Vito Tanzi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060203.051

ISBN: 9781589060203

Keywords: tax incentives, tax policy, tax system, tax systems, personal income tax

Discusses important tax policy issues facing developing countries today, provides a review of the role of tax incentives, and identifies some policy challenges posed by the globalization of the world economy. Draws...

Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization

Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Reint Gropp , Liam Ebrill , and Janet Stotsky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758132.084

ISBN: 9781557758132

Keywords: trade liberalization, tariff rate, trade taxes, tariff rates, international trade

The apparent contradiction between trade liberalization and continuing high trade tax revenue raises the important question of how, precisely, the one affects the other. Although policymakers generally recognize th...

Taxing Agriculture in Pakistan

Taxing Agriculture in Pakistan »

Volume/Issue: 1998/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mahmood Khan , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974058.003

ISBN: 9781451974058

Keywords: Agriculture, Pakistan, Taxation, taxes, income tax, tax system, tax rate, wealth tax

Pakistan’s economic performance has been marred by persistently high fiscal deficits which have resulted largely from the inability to raise sufficient revenues. Agriculture is a dominant sector of the econo...

Legal and Institutional Obstacles to Growth and Business in Russia

Legal and Institutional Obstacles to Growth and Business in Russia »

Volume/Issue: 1997/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Elaine Buckberg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970814.003

ISBN: 9781451970814

Keywords: Economic growth, Private sector, Russian Federation, tax system, corruption, organized crime, tax rates, tax burden, Economic Reform,

Although financial stabilization has laid the foundation for growth, structural reform of the economy will determine whether Russia achieves sustained medium-term growth. The next step for Russia is to create an in...

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions »

Volume/Issue: 1996/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972009.003

ISBN: 9781451972009

Keywords: tax authorities, tax treatment, tax deductible, fiscal authorities, tax deductions

Provisioning for loan losses is a method for recognizing the reduction in the value of a hank’s loan portfolio. Provisions are an essential element of prudential risk management and capital adequacy measurem...

A U.S. Value-Added Tax
			: A Review of the Issues

A U.S. Value-Added Tax : A Review of the Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1995/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Christopher Towe , and Saurin Shah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970739.003

ISBN: 9781451970739

Keywords: Tax policy, United States, taxes, added tax, consumption tax, income tax, tax base

This paper reviews issues related to the introduction of a value-added tax in the United States. In particular, the paper distinguishes between European-styled value-added taxes that are levied similarly to sales t...

The Taxation of High Income Earners

The Taxation of High Income Earners »

Volume/Issue: 1993/19

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Parthasarathi Shome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964578.003

ISBN: 9781451964578

Keywords: tax rates, personal income tax, income tax, taxes, taxpayers

The 1980s trends were to lower marginal personal income tax rates, scale down rate structures, and apply the highest rate at lower levels of per capita GDP. In the 1990s, driven by fiscal deficits and unemployment,...

The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS)

The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States (NIS) »

Volume/Issue: 1993/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Julio Escolano , and Parthasarathi Shome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970678.003

ISBN: 9781451970678

Keywords: tax reform, taxation, tax structures, tax structure, tax systems

Two possible tax policy strategies for the NIS are: (1) an optimal nondistortionary tax structure as a one-shot action; and (2) a structure with identifiable and clearly understood distortionary elements as a tempo...