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World Economic Outlook, April 2014
			: Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven

World Economic Outlook, April 2014 : Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven »

Series: World Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484308349.081

ISBN: 9781484308349

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, real interest rates, gdp growth, real rates

Global activity has broadly strengthened and is expected to improve further in 2014-15, according to the April 2014 WEO, with much of the impetus for growth coming from advanced economies. Although downside risks h...

Economic Growth and Integration in Central America

Economic Growth and Integration in Central America »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfred Schipke , and Dominique Desruelle

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066168.084

ISBN: 9781589066168

Keywords: Economic conditions, Economic growth, Public debt, debt, inflation, pension, monetary policy

How to entrench hard-won gains, increase resilience to shocks, and improve growth performance to reduce poverty? As Central America moves forward in regaining macroeconomic stability, these are the challenges. This...

Growth in the Central and Eastern European Countries of the European Union

Growth in the Central and Eastern European Countries of the European Union »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Abdul Abiad , Ashoka Mody , Susan Schadler , and Daniel Leigh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065543.084

ISBN: 9781589065543

Keywords: Eastern Europe, Economic growth, European Union, per capita income, growth rates, tfp, gdp growth, current account deficit

The central challenges facing the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia as they work to catch up to advanced European Union (EU) income levels are discussed in this new...

Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064942.058

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has recently shown signs of improvement, but is still short of levels needed to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Economists have placed increasing emphasis on understanding the...

Rebuilding Fiscal Institutions in Postconflict Countries

Rebuilding Fiscal Institutions in Postconflict Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Rina Bhattacharya , Benedict Clements , Sanjeev Gupta , Shamsuddin Tareq , Alex Segura-Ubiergo , and Todd Mattina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064492.084

ISBN: 9781589064492

Keywords: Post-conflict emergency assistance, public expenditure, expenditure, expenditure management, public expenditure management, fiscal institutions

This paper discusses experiences in reestablishing fiscal management in postconflict countries. Building fiscal institutions in postconflict countries essentially entails a three-step process: (1) creating a legal...

Growth and Poverty Reduction in Armenia
			: Achievements and Challenges

Growth and Poverty Reduction in Armenia : Achievements and Challenges »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Christian Beddies , Enrique Gelbard , James McHugh , Laure Redifer , and Garbis Iradian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064515.058

ISBN: 9781589064515

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty reduction, banking, banking system, tfp, tax revenues, tax administration

Since 2000, Armenia's economic performance has been remarkable. Real economic growth has averaged 11 percent a year, annual inflation has averaged 3 percent, and poverty and inequality have fallen. The country has...

Mauritius
			: Challenges of Sustained Growth

Mauritius : Challenges of Sustained Growth »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): James Yao , Gamal El-Masry , Padamja Khandelwal , and Emilio Sacerdoti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064164.058

ISBN: 9781589064164

Keywords: Development, Economic growth, inflation, monetary policy, financial system, export sector, banking

Mauritius has achieved remarkable success since its independence in 1968. It has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, the economy has diversified from complete dependence on the sugar crop, into textiles,...

The Baltics
			: Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession

The Baltics : Competitiveness on the Eve of EU Accession »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yuan Xiao , Robert Burgess , and Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063266.058

ISBN: 9781589063266

Keywords: European Union, Labor productivity, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

Large current account deficits in Estonia and Latvia, and the continued real appreciation of the exchange rate in Lithuania, have prompted concerns about the competitiveness of the Baltic economies, and called into...

The Low-Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
			: Progress and Challenges in Transition

The Low-Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States : Progress and Challenges in Transition »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Sarosh Sattar , and Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063211.072

ISBN: 9781589063211

Keywords: debt, external debt, expenditures, current account, transition economies

The CIS-7 Initiative was launched in 2002 and endorsed by ministers from the CIS-7 and donor countries, with the objective of promoting poverty reduction, economic growth, and debt sustainability among the seven po...

Hong Kong SAR
			: Meeting the Challenges of Integration with the Mainland

Hong Kong SAR : Meeting the Challenges of Integration with the Mainland »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): William Lee , Jorge Chan-Lau , Dora Iakova , Papa N'Diaye , Tao Wang , Ida Liu , Hong Liang , and Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062948.084

ISBN: 9781589062948

Keywords: Economic conditions, Hong Kong SAR, prices, wage, expenditure, wages, government expenditure

This Occasional Paper provides an overview of the main challenges facing Hong Kong SAR as it continues to become more closely integrated with the mainland of China. Section I provides an overview of recent macroeco...

Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations?

Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations? »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Gabriela Inchauste , Nita Thacker , Thomas Dorsey , Shamsuddin Tareq , Emanuele Baldacci , Sanjeev Gupta , and Mark Plant

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061125.084

ISBN: 9781589061125

Keywords: conditionality, pem, poverty reduction, structural conditionality, public spending

In late 1999 the IMF established the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) to integrate the objectives of poverty reduction and growth more fully into its operations for the poorest countries, and to base th...

Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061590.054

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Macroeconomic Policy and Poverty Reduction

Macroeconomic Policy and Poverty Reduction »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Alejandro Izquierdo , Ward Brown , Brian Ames , and Shatayanan Devarajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060173.054

ISBN: 9781589060173

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, macroeconomic stability, fixed exchange rate, exchange rate regime

This pamphlet excerpts a chapter on macroeconomic policy from the Poverty Reduction Policy Source book, a guide prepared by the World Bank and IMF to assist countries in developing and strengthening their poverty r...

Rural Poverty in Developing Countries
			: Implications for Public Policy

Rural Poverty in Developing Countries : Implications for Public Policy »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mahmood Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 March 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060067.051

ISBN: 9781589060067

Keywords: rural poverty, health care, agricultural land, paper, literacy

Reviews causes of poverty in rural areas and presents a policy framework for reducing rural poverty, including through land reform, public works programs, access to credit, physical and social infrastructure, subsi...

Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Learning What Works

Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Learning What Works »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Dhaneshwar Ghura , Anupam Basu , and Anthony Calamitsis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759665.051

ISBN: 9781557759665

Keywords: growth rates, real gdp, economic growth, gdp growth, domestic savings

Africa is the world's poorest continent, but amid all the bad news, there is hope for change. This pamphlet examines the lessons to be learned from some of the more successful economies south of the Sahara, and dis...

Why is China Growing So Fast?

Why is China Growing So Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756411.051

ISBN: 9781557756411

Keywords: capital formation, capital stock, economic growth, gnp, growth rate

Since 1978 the Chinese economy has grown on average more than 9 percenta year. Per capita income has nearly quadrupled in the past 15 years andsome analysts predict that within 20 years the Chinese economy will bel...

Fiscal Reforms That Work

Fiscal Reforms That Work »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 January 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756244.051

ISBN: 9781557756244

Keywords: fiscal consolidation, economic growth, public debt, budget deficit, business cycle

Reducing the budget deficit is not easy. Keynesian theory suggests thatlowering government expenditures and raising revenues can lead to afalloff in economic activity. This paper argues the neoclassical approach -...

Thailand
			: The Road to Sustained Growth

Thailand : The Road to Sustained Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Erik Offerdal , Kalpana Kochhar , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Jianping Zhou , Mauro Mecagni , and Balázs Horváth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756039.084

ISBN: 9781557756039

Keywords: private investment, wages, wage, fiscal policy, adjustment period

Since the mid-1960s, Thailand's growth performance has been exceptional. Although hard hit by the external shocks fo the late 1970s and the early 1980s that proved severely destabilizing to many developing countrie...

Growth in East Asia
			: What We Can and What We Cannot infer

Growth in East Asia : What We Can and What We Cannot infer »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756077.051

ISBN: 9781557756077

Keywords: economic growth, growth rates, technological progress, total factor productivity, growth rate

The spectacular growth of many economies in East Asia over the past 30years has impressed the economics profession, which often refers to thesuccess of the so-called Four Tigers of the region (Hong Kong, Korea, Sin...

Jordan
			: Strategy for Adjustment and Growth

Jordan : Strategy for Adjustment and Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ahsan Mansur , and Edouard Maciejewski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 May 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755582.084

ISBN: 9781557755582

Keywords: debt, interest, central bank, public debt, external debt

The paper analyzes the major progress Jordan has made in recent years in macroeconomic stabilization and the transformation of its economic structure. It discusses recent economic developments, macroeconomic polici...

Economic Dislocation and Recovery in Lebanon

Economic Dislocation and Recovery in Lebanon »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jose Martelino , S. Erbas , Adnan Mazarei , Sena Eken , and Paul Cashin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754592.084

ISBN: 9781557754592

Keywords: exchange rate, inflation, expenditure, monetary fund, per capita income

This paper provides background information on the Lebanese economy, based on an analysis of the economic consequences of war, and discusses several issues that will be central to Lebanon's prospects for recovery...

United Germany
			: The First Five Years:  Performance and Policy Issues

United Germany : The First Five Years: Performance and Policy Issues »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Karl Habermeier , Robert Corker , Robert Feldman , Tessa Van der Willigen , and H. Vittas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754721.084

ISBN: 9781557754721

Keywords: unemployment, wage, inflation, wages, employment

This papers reviews economic and financial developments in Germany since its reunification nearly five years ago; and analyzes some critical issues that have featured prominently in the policy debate over this peri...

India
			: Economic Reform and Growth

India : Economic Reform and Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Richard Hemming , Woosik Chu , Charles Collyns , Karen Parker , Ajai Chopra , and Oliver Fratzscher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755391.084

ISBN: 9781557755391

Keywords: capital goods, capital formation, public enterprises, private investment, expenditure

This paper explores the Indian adjustment program of 1991/92 and its initial results. The contents include long-term growth trends for output, investment, and macroeconomic condition; education, labor employment, a...

Saving Behavior and the Asset Price "Bubble" in Japan
			: Analytical Studies

Saving Behavior and the Asset Price "Bubble" in Japan : Analytical Studies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Guy Meredith , and Ulrich Baumgartner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 April 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754622.084

ISBN: 9781557754622

Keywords: inflation, fdi, direct investment, price inflation, elderly

This volume brings together various analytical studies the IMF staff has undertaken on the Japanese economy, focusing on two areas of particular interest for both longer-term economic performance and recent cyclica...

MULTIMOD Mark II
			: A Revised and Extended Model:  Occa Paper No.71

MULTIMOD Mark II : A Revised and Extended Model: Occa Paper No.71 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557751416.084

ISBN: 9781557751416

...

Federal Republic of Germany
			: Adjustment in a Surplus Country, Occ. Paper No. 64

Federal Republic of Germany : Adjustment in a Surplus Country, Occ. Paper No. 64 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750884.084

ISBN: 9781557750884

...

The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community
			: Principles and Consequences:  Occa Paper No.62

The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community : Principles and Consequences: Occa Paper No.62 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750365.084

ISBN: 9781557750365

...

Fund Supported Adjustment Programs and Economic Growth

Fund Supported Adjustment Programs and Economic Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Malcolm Knight , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 November 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934553.084

ISBN: 9780939934553

Keywords: domestic credit, balance of payments, capital formation, private investment, domestic demand

This is the first of a group of papers dealing with various aspects of Fund-supported adjustment programs. The other two, The Global Effects of Fund-supported Adjustment Programs by Morris Goldstein and Fund-Suppor...

A Case of Successful Adjustment
			: Korea's Experience During 1980-84

A Case of Successful Adjustment : Korea's Experience During 1980-84 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jorge Márquez-Ruarte , and Bijan Aghevli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934515.084

ISBN: 9780939934515

Keywords: current account deficit, current account, short-term debt, external debt, gnp

This paper was prepared by Bijan B. Aghevli, Division Chief in the international Monetary Fund's Asian Department, and Jorge Marquez-Ruarte, Senior Economist in the Asian Department. In preparing the paper, the aut...

Effects of Slowdown in Industrial Countries on Growth in Non-Oil Developing Countries

Effects of Slowdown in Industrial Countries on Growth in Non-Oil Developing Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Morris Goldstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 August 1982

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750624.084

ISBN: 9781557750624

Keywords: oil developing countries, exporters, export growth, oil exporters, oil exporting countries

One of the more important yet puzzling aspects of the recent global stagflation has been the rather surprising resiliency of growth rates of real income in non-oil developing countries during the 1973-80 period in...