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I. Introduction

I. Introduction »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

Income and production developments in the Russian Federation began to diverge conspicuously in the late 1980s, when increases in the measured real wage significantly outstripped gains in measured productivit...

II. Prices and Shortages

II. Prices and Shortages »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

Price reforms in Russia were carried out in several steps. Partial liberalization measures coupled with administrative price increases caused a sizable jump in producer prices in January 1991, and a comparab...

III. Household Incomes

III. Household Incomes »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

An important phenomenon of the late 1980s was the growth of nominal incomes and wages considerably in excess of price increases or any conceivable advances in labor productivity. The ensuing growing macroeco...

IV. Household Expenditure and Saving

IV. Household Expenditure and Saving »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

The emergence of substantial open inflation in 1991, the surge in measured real incomes in that year, the anticipated price jumps of April 1991 and January 1992, and the fall in measured real incomes in 1992...

Price Liberalization in Russia
			: Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752956.084

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

Prices in the Russian Federation have been decontrolled in several steps since early 1991, after decades of near fixity. This paper documents and analyzes the behavior of prices, income, consumption, and savings be...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

Prices in the Russian Federation have been decontrolled in several steps since early 1991, after decades of near fixity. This paper documents and analyzes the behavior of prices, income, consumption, and savings be...

Statistical Appendix

Statistical Appendix »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

Table 1. Industrial Producer Price Index (Monthly percentage change unless otherwise specified)...

V. Concluding Remarks

V. Concluding Remarks »

Source: Price Liberalization in Russia : Behavior of Prices, Household Incomes, and Consumption During the First Year

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Vincent Koen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752956

Keywords: wage, wages, inflation, minimum wage, milk

In considering the aftermath of price liberalization in Russia, a number of essential points emerge from an analysis of the data available for 1992. Some of these findings raise questions of interpretation a...

Appendix I The European Community: Aims and Instruments of Trade and Industrial Policies

Appendix I The European Community: Aims and Instruments of Trade and Industrial Policies »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Overview The European Communities (EC) were established by the Treaty of Paris (1951) and the Treaties of Rome (1957). 1 The original six EC members...

Appendix II Ministerial Declaration on the Uruguay Round1

Appendix II Ministerial Declaration on the Uruguay Round1 »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Ministers, meeting on the occasion of the Special Session of CONTRACTING PARTIES at Punta del Este, have decided to launch Multilateral Trade Negotiations (The Uruguay Round). To this end, they have adopted...

Appendix III Country Classifications

Appendix III Country Classifications »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

GATT Classifications GATT publication International Trade, 1986/87 divides the trading world into: (a) Developed countr...

Appendix IV Glossary of Terms

Appendix IV Glossary of Terms »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Administered protection: Use of administrative procedures (e.g., in antidumping and countervailing duty investigations) in a manner that impedes trade flows. Antidumping du...

Appendix V Statistical Tables

Appendix V Statistical Tables »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

List of Tables Al. Shares in World Merchandise Exports, 1963-86...

I Overview

I Overview »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Issues in International Trade The growth in world trade slowed in the first half of the 1980s compared with both the previous decade and relative to output. The slowdown in the early...

II Industrial Countries’ Trade and Industrial Policies

II Industrial Countries’ Trade and Industrial Policies »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Trade Trends Since 1981, the industrial countries have restored their share of world exports to almost the level prevailing in 1973, before the quadrupling of oil prices (Table A1)....

III Issues Affecting Developing Countries

III Issues Affecting Developing Countries »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Trade Trends Since 1981, major changes have occurred in the pattern of trade of developing countries (Tables A15 and A16). Their share of world exports has declined, reflecting the s...

Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy
			: Occa Paper No.63

Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750372.084

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

This paper discusses reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and outlines the problems in the multilateral trading system that governments face as they seek to liberalize trade in the Uruguay Round...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

This paper discusses reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and outlines the problems in the multilateral trading system that governments face as they seek to liberalize trade in the Uruguay Round...

IV Evolving Framework for International Trade

IV Evolving Framework for International Trade »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Overview of Multilateral Trade Initiatives The Uruguay Round The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) celebrated its fortieth anniversary in 1...

V Agricultural Trade Policies

V Agricultural Trade Policies »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Introduction and Summary The agricultural support policies of major industrial countries have resulted in large imbalances and excess production. These policies have reduced market a...

VI Industrial Trade Policies

VI Industrial Trade Policies »

Source: Issues and Developments in international Trade Policy : Occa Paper No.63

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1988

ISBN: 9781557750372

Keywords: voluntary export restraints, export restraints, exporters, trade liberalization, export subsidies

Recent Trends A review of recent trade policy developments in selected sectors (steel, textiles and clothing, automobiles, shipbuilding, electronics, footwear, and civil aircraft) in...

I The Salient Features of the Present Situation

I The Salient Features of the Present Situation »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Protectionism Continued Drift Poses Threat The continued drift toward protectionism poses a threat to the balanced expansion of world trade in the medi...

I Trade Trends, Policy, and Legislation and Protectionism

I Trade Trends, Policy, and Legislation and Protectionism »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Trade Trends Recent trade developments have been influenced by a number of factors. Recovery of world output commenced in 1983, although growth was uneven among industrial countries....

II Evolving Framework for International Trade

II Evolving Framework for International Trade »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Introduction In the past several years, increased international attention has been given to maintaining and improving the liberal world trading order, especially in the GATT, which,...

II Prospects for Global Trade Liberalization

II Prospects for Global Trade Liberalization »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Since the last session of the GATT Contracting Parties 11 in November 1984, a broader international consensus has begun to emerge on the need to launch a new round of multilateral...

III Industrial Trade Policies

III Industrial Trade Policies »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Trade Trends in Manufactured Products World output of manufactures rose by 4 percent in 1983, in contrast to a decline of 2 percent in 1982. 60 The...

IV Agricultural Trade Policies

IV Agricultural Trade Policies »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Overall Developments Following several years of decelerating growth, the value of world agricultural exports declined by 9 percent in 1982 to $212 billion. In 1981–82, marked decline...

Part One Issues and Prospects

Part One Issues and Prospects »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

...

Part Two Main Developments

Part Two Main Developments »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

...

Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Trade Policy Issues and Developments »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934461.084

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

This paper discusses the salient features of recent developments and outlines the prospects for trade policy by highlighting the main issues that will determine the scope and timing of liberalization under a possib...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

This paper discusses the salient features of recent developments and outlines the prospects for trade policy by highlighting the main issues that will determine the scope and timing of liberalization under a possib...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

This paper discusses the salient features of recent developments and outlines the prospects for trade policy by highlighting the main issues that will determine the scope and timing of liberalization under a possib...

V Some Issues Affecting Developing Countries

V Some Issues Affecting Developing Countries »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

Trade Trends Over the past decade, the economies of the developing countries 99 have become increasingly integrated with the world economy. Between...

VI Role of the Fund

VI Role of the Fund »

Source: Trade Policy Issues and Developments

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Shailendra Anjaria , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1985

ISBN: 9780939934461

Keywords: Trade policy, trade liberalization, milk, quantitative restrictions, international trade, voluntary export restraints

One of the underlying purposes of the Fund is to facilitate the balanced expansion of international trade with a view to promoting economic growth (Article I of the Fund’s Articles of Agreement). Accordingly...

Developments in International Trade Policy

Developments in International Trade Policy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750600.084

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This paper contains further work by the Fund staff on trade issues and developments following the pattern of the surveys prepared in 1978 and 1981, mainly focusing on commercial policies of the major trading nation...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This paper contains further work by the Fund staff on trade issues and developments following the pattern of the surveys prepared in 1978 and 1981, mainly focusing on commercial policies of the major trading nation...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This paper contains further work by the Fund staff on trade issues and developments following the pattern of the surveys prepared in 1978 and 1981, mainly focusing on commercial policies of the major trading nation...

I Introduction and Overview

I Introduction and Overview »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This paper contains further work by the Fund staff on trade issues and developments following the pattern of the surveys prepared in 1978 and 1981, 1...

II Trade Trends and Economic Setting

II Trade Trends and Economic Setting »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

Changing Trade Trends and Patterns Since 1973, the growth of international trade has been slower and more uneven than in the previous two decades, and there have been significant shi...

III Industrial Trade Policies

III Industrial Trade Policies »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This section reviews the principal trends in the evolution of international trade in manufactures, discusses briefly some estimates of levels of protection, and describes recent tra...

IV Agricultural Trade Policies

IV Agricultural Trade Policies »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This section discusses, somewhat extensively, the principal trends in international agricultural trade, agricultural policy objectives and instruments employed in major trading nati...

V Evolving International Trading System

V Evolving International Trading System »

Source: Developments in International Trade Policy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

With the conclusion of the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) in 1979, tariff reductions and a wide-ranging set of new rules governing international trade came int...