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Manufacturing Jobs and Inequality: Why is the U.S. Experience Different?

Manufacturing Jobs and Inequality: Why is the U.S. Experience Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2019/191

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Natalija Novta , and Evgenia Pugacheva

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498320450.001

ISBN: 9781498320450

Keywords: Agriculture, Capital income, Cross country analysis, Data analysis, Demographic indicators, Disposable income, Economic indicators, Economic sectors, Economies, Education

We examine the extent to which declining manufacturing employment may have contributed to increasing inequality in advanced economies. This contribution is typically small, except in the United States. We explore t...

Gender Equality and Electoral Violence in Africa: Unlocking the Peacemaking Potential of Women

Gender Equality and Electoral Violence in Africa: Unlocking the Peacemaking Potential of Women »

Volume/Issue: 2019/174

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rasmané Ouedraogo , and Idrissa Ouedraogo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 August 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510545.001

ISBN: 9781513510545

Keywords: Labor force participation, Demographic indicators, Nonmetropolitan areas, Labor force, Poverty, gender equality, electoral violence, Africa, female-to-male, structural violence

We examine the impact of gender equality on electoral violence in Africa using micro-level data from the sixth round of Afrobarometer surveys. The sample covers 30 countries. We find that gender equality is associa...

Fiscal Buffers for Natural Disasters in Pacific Island Countries

Fiscal Buffers for Natural Disasters in Pacific Island Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2019/152

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hidetaka Nishizawa , Scott Roger , and Huan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 July 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498320801.001

ISBN: 9781498320801

Keywords: Access to foreign markets, Accounting, Accounting standards, Agriculture, Aid flows, Balance of payments, Bank deposits, Bank financing, Banks, Bonds

Pacific island countries (PICs) are vulnerable severe natural disasters, especially cyclones, inflicting large losses on their economies. In the aftermath of disasters, PIC governments face revenue losses and spend...

Analyzing the Effects of Financial and Housing Wealth on Consumption using Micro Data

Analyzing the Effects of Financial and Housing Wealth on Consumption using Micro Data »

Volume/Issue: 2019/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carlos Caceres

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498316477.001

ISBN: 9781498316477

Keywords: Price indexes, Demographic indicators, Consumption, Disposable income, Private consumption, housing and financial wealth, household surveys, MPCs, stock holding, MPC

This paper analyzes the existence of 'wealth effects' derived from net equity (in the form of housing, financial assets, and total net worth) on consumption. The study uses longitudinal household-level data?from th...

Africa Rising
			: Harnessing the Demographic Dividend

Africa Rising : Harnessing the Demographic Dividend »

Volume/Issue: 2014/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paulo Drummond , Vimal Thakoor , and Shu Yu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498379878.001

ISBN: 9781498379878

Keywords: Demographic Dividend, Economic Growth, Sub-Saharan Africa, Panel Estimates, working age population, gdp per capita, demographic transition, growth rate, Models with Panel Data, Demographic Trends and Forecasts

Africa will account for 80 percent of the projected 4 billion increase in the global population by 2100. The accompanying increase in its working age population creates a window of opportunity, which if properly ha...

Future of Asia's Finance
			: How Can it Meet Challenges of Demographic Change and Infrastructure Needs?

Future of Asia's Finance : How Can it Meet Challenges of Demographic Change and Infrastructure Needs? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Waikei Lam , and Shanaka Peiris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498321082.001

ISBN: 9781498321082

Keywords: Demographic change, infrastructure financing, financial deepening, financial integration, capital and financial flows, bond, financial markets, financial sector development, bonds, Models with Panel Data

There is a role for Asia's financial sector to play to address the challenges associated with the region's changing demographics and infrastructure investment needs. Enhancing financial innovation and integration i...

China's Demography and its Implications

China's Demography and its Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2013/82

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Il Houng Lee , Xu Qingjun , and Murtaza Syed

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484363362.001

ISBN: 9781484363362

Keywords: Demographics, demography, dependency ratio, working population, pension, Forecasting and Simulation, Demographic Trends and Forecasts, Public Policy, China, Peoples Republic of,

In coming decades, China will undergo a notable demographic transformation, with its old-age dependency ratio doubling to 24 percent by 2030 and rising even more precipitously thereafter. This paper uses the perman...

The Quality of the Recent High-Growth Episode in Sub-Saharan Africa

The Quality of the Recent High-Growth Episode in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2013/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marcelo Martinez , and Montfort Mlachila

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475551426.001

ISBN: 9781475551426

Keywords: Quality of growth, real gdp, school enrollment, gdp growth, life expectancy, General, Measurement and Analysis of Poverty,

The paper explores the quality of the recent high-growth episode in sub-Saharan Africa by examining the following two questions: (i) what has been the nature and pattern of SSA growth over the past 15 years and how...

Excerpt
			: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Excerpt : Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Miscellaneous Publication (Other)

Author(s): Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/CPVIEAEX.073

ISBN: CPVIEAEX

Keywords: Agricultural sector, Balance of trade, Central banking, Central banks, Civil society, Commodities, Commodity price shocks, Commodity prices, Consumption, Credit

In the years following the global financial crisis, many low-income countries experienced rapid recovery and strong economic growth. However, many are now facing enormous difficulties because of rapidly rising food...

The Impact of Longevity Improvements on U.S. Corporate Defined Benefit Pension Plans

The Impact of Longevity Improvements on U.S. Corporate Defined Benefit Pension Plans »

Volume/Issue: 2012/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Kiff , Michael Kisser , Mauricio Soto , and S. Oppers

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505184.001

ISBN: 9781475505184

Keywords: Pension Plans, Longevity Risk, Life Expectancy, pension, pension liabilities, mortality tables, mortality table, Demographic Economics,

This paper provides the first empirical assessment of the impact of life expectancy assumptions on the liabilities of private U.S. defined benefit (DB) pension plans. Using detailed actuarial and financial informat...

New Zealand
			: Selected Issues Paper

New Zealand : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2011/103

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455274512.002

ISBN: 9781455274512

Keywords: private saving, dependency ratio, life expectancy, age dependency ratio

The Savings Working Group in New Zealand presented recommendations in February 2011, and suggested raising national saving by 2-3 percent of GDP. The increase in net public saving in the country explains part of th...

The Demographic Dividend
			: Evidence from the Indian States

The Demographic Dividend : Evidence from the Indian States »

Volume/Issue: 2011/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ashoka Mody , and Shekhar Aiyar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455217885.001

ISBN: 9781455217885

Keywords: Demographic dividend, Indian states, age-structure, convergence, growth rate, per capita income, per capita income growth, economic growth, age distribution, Economywide Country Studies: Asia including Middle East,

Large cohorts of young adults are poised to add to the working-age population of developing economies. Despite much interest in the consequent growth dividend, the size and circumstances of the potential gains rema...

What is Really Good for Long-Term Growth? Lessons from a Binary Classification Tree (BCT) Approach

What is Really Good for Long-Term Growth? Lessons from a Binary Classification Tree (BCT) Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2008/263

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rupa Duttagupta , and Montfort Mlachila

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871210.001

ISBN: 9781451871210

Keywords: Binary Classification Tree, population density, terms of trade, trade growth, life expectancy, school enrollment,

Although the economic growth literature has come a long way since the Solow-Swan model of the fifties, there is still considerable debate on the "real' or "deep" determinants of growth. This paper revisits the ques...

The Macroeconomic Effects of Migration from the New European Union Member States to the United Kingdom

The Macroeconomic Effects of Migration from the New European Union Member States to the United Kingdom »

Volume/Issue: 2007/61

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dora Iakova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866254.001

ISBN: 9781451866254

Keywords: new EU member states, free labor movement, dependency ratio, labor income, labor force, retirement, birth, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production

The United Kingdom allowed workers from the ten new European Union member countries immediate access to its labor market after the accession in 2004. This paper uses a general equilibrium framework to explore the d...

Mortality and Lifetime Income
			: Evidence from U.S. Social Security Records

Mortality and Lifetime Income : Evidence from U.S. Social Security Records »

Volume/Issue: 2007/15

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Greenlees , James Duggan , and Robert Gillingham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865790.001

ISBN: 9781451865790

Keywords: welfare distribution, life expectancy, lifetime earnings, birth, mortality rates, retirement, Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics: General, Input-Output Models, Personal Income, Wealth

Studies of the empirical relationship between income and mortality often rely on data aggregated by geographic areas and broad population groups and do not distinguish disabled and nondisabled persons. We investiga...

Cambodia
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Cambodia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2006/266

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969245.002

ISBN: 9781451969245

Keywords: births, mortality rate, maternal mortality, live births

Cambodians have displayed tremendous resilience. The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) has been formulated using the comprehensive Rectangular Strategy of the Royal Government of Cambodia and synthesizes t...

Macroeconomic Effects and Policy Challenges of Population Aging

Macroeconomic Effects and Policy Challenges of Population Aging »

Volume/Issue: 2006/95

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hamid Faruqee , and Natalia Tamirisa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863550.001

ISBN: 9781451863550

Keywords: simulation, general equilibrium model, dependency ratio, labor income, labor force, retirement, birth, Social Security and Public Pensions, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: Forecasting and Simulation,

This paper simulates the macroeconomic effects of population aging in a dynamic overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The model is calibrated to data for the Czech Republic, where population aging...

Economic Transformation, Population Growth, and the Long-Run World Income Distribution

Economic Transformation, Population Growth, and the Long-Run World Income Distribution »

Volume/Issue: 2006/21

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marcos Chamon , and Michael Kremer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862812.001

ISBN: 9781451862812

Keywords: growth, economic development, world economy, population growth, world population, population growth rates, Economic Growth of Open Economies, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

This paper considers the long-run evolution of the world economy in a model where countries' opportunities to develop depend on their trade with advanced economies. As developing countries become advanced, they fur...

The Global Impact of Demographic Change

The Global Impact of Demographic Change »

Volume/Issue: 2006/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tim Callen , Warwick McKibbin , and Nicoletta Batini

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862690.001

ISBN: 9781451862690

Keywords: demographics, saving, demographic change, demographic transition, population growth, life expectancy, adult population

The world is in the midst of a major demographic transition. This paper examines the implications of such transition over the next 80 years for Japan, the United States, other industrial countries, and the developi...

Statistical Capacity Building
			: Case Studies and Lessons Learned

Statistical Capacity Building : Case Studies and Lessons Learned »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Thomas Morrison

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064423.069

ISBN: 9781589064423

Keywords: statistics, national accounts, surveys, monetary statistics, statistical offices

IMF technical assistance provided by the Statistics Department--toward assisting IMF member countries in developing the ability to provide reliable and comparable economic and financial data on a timely basis to po...

Republic of Madagascar
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Republic of Madagascar : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2005/321

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938616.002

ISBN: 9781451938616

Keywords: international monetary fund, exchange rate, school enrollment, age group, birth

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes the relationship among prices, income, and money in Madagascar over the period 1982-2004. It finds that a stable long-run relationship for the price leve...

Mauritius
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Mauritius : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2005/280

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451827804.002

ISBN: 9781451827804

Keywords: international monetary fund, labor market, birth rate, death rate

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix provide background information and analytical support for key policy issues discussed in the 2004 Article IV Consultation discussions with Mauritius. The impact o...

Can PRGF Policy Levers Improve Institutions and Lead to Sustained Growth?

Can PRGF Policy Levers Improve Institutions and Lead to Sustained Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/044

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 August 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498331319.007

ISBN: 9781498331319

Keywords: Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Agriculture, Capital, Capital goods, Central banking, Central banks, Corruption, Currencies, Developing countries, Development

Broad economic institutions are of fundamental importance for sustained economic growth. Changing these institutions is difficult, particularly for outsiders. But this does not mean that there is no role for the Fu...

Does Foreign Aid Reduce Poverty? Empirical Evidence from Nongovernmental and Bilateral Aid

Does Foreign Aid Reduce Poverty? Empirical Evidence from Nongovernmental and Bilateral Aid »

Volume/Issue: 2005/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Boriana Yontcheva , and Nadia Masud

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861198.001

ISBN: 9781451861198

Keywords: Official Development Aid, NGOs, Panel Data Econometrics, infant mortality, mortality rates, aid effectiveness,

This paper assesses the effectiveness of foreign aid in reducing poverty through its impact on human development indicators. We use a dataset of both bilateral aid and NGO aid flows. Our results show that NGO aid r...

Azerbaijan Republic
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

Azerbaijan Republic : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report »

Volume/Issue: 2004/322

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451802603.002

ISBN: 9781451802603

Keywords: births, mortality rate, maternal mortality, number of children, abortions

This paper examines the progress report on Azerbaijan Republic's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. The share of the production and non-oil sector in GDP has increased. The shares of industry, construction, wholesal...

Bhutan
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Bhutan : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2004/246

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451806243.002

ISBN: 9781451806243

Keywords: expenditure, expenditures, census, births, mtef

This paper discusses Bhutan's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The Royal Government of Bhutan has initiated the PRSP process as part of broader ongoing efforts to combat poverty. The main objective of the P...

Finance & Development, December 2003

Finance & Development, December 2003 »

Volume/Issue: 40/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451952018.022

ISBN: 9781451952018

Keywords: country inequality, infant mortality, mortality rate, life expectancy, world inequality

This paper describes why the international community needs to act now to stand a chance of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The paper gives example of Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the w...

Welfare Implications of HIV/AIDS

Welfare Implications of HIV/AIDS »

Volume/Issue: 2003/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Markus Haacker , and N. Crafts

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854107.001

ISBN: 9781451854107

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, value of statistical life, life expectancy, mortality rates, hiv, prevalence rate, Health: General, Welfare and Poverty: General, General Welfare, Economic Development: General,

The paper evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS on welfare in several countries affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Unlike studies focusing on the impact of HIV/AIDS on GDP per capita, we evaluate the impact of increased...

The Impact of External Indebtednesson Poverty in Low-Income Countries

The Impact of External Indebtednesson Poverty in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/61

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kadima Kalonji , Boileau Loko , Raj Nallari , and Montfort Mlachila

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848199.001

ISBN: 9781451848199

Keywords: Growth, mortality rate, life expectancy, debt service, infant mortality, International Lending and Debt Problems, Welfare and Poverty, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics, Growth and Fluctuations,

This paper explores the relationship between external debt and poverty. A number of observers have argued that high external indebtedness is a major cause of poverty. Using the first-differenced general method of m...

Economic Implications of China's Demographics in the 21st Century

Economic Implications of China's Demographics in the 21st Century »

Volume/Issue: 2003/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kevin Cheng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844825.001

ISBN: 9781451844825

Keywords: demographic structure, fertility, fertility rates, children per woman, fertility rate, number of children, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment

This study assesses the economic implications of China's changing population in the 21st century using a numerical general equilibrium model. The simulations show that lower fertility rates yield lower saving rates...

Debt, Deficits, and Age-Specific Mortality

Debt, Deficits, and Age-Specific Mortality »

Volume/Issue: 2002/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843750.001

ISBN: 9781451843750

Keywords: Ricardian Equivalence, Saving, mortality rates, mortality rate, birth, birth rate, death rate, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Production, Employment

This paper develops an overlapping agents model with age-specific mortality rates. The analytical framework also nests Blanchard's (1985) "perpetual youth" model as a special, though perhaps not realistic, case. Wi...

Population Aging and its Macroeconomic Implications
			: A Framework for Analysis

Population Aging and its Macroeconomic Implications : A Framework for Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2002/16

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843415.001

ISBN: 9781451843415

Keywords: Population Aging, saving, birth rate, birth, birth ? rate, birth rates, population growth, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Production, Employment

This paper develops a model to examine the macroeconomic implications of population aging. Using a general equilibrium framework, the analysis examines the various channels through which changes in demographics aff...

Globalization Facts and Figures

Globalization Facts and Figures »

Volume/Issue: 2001/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973563.003

ISBN: 9781451973563

Keywords: Economic integration, Globalization, Trade liberalization, Trade, integration, mortality rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, birth, life expectancy at birth

Globalization has become the focus for a wide range of protests against various features of the world economy. This paper aims to give a concise summary of the economic dimensions of globalization, while leaving to...

Public Spending on Health Care and the Poor

Public Spending on Health Care and the Poor »

Volume/Issue: 2001/127

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marijn Verhoeven , Sanjeev Gupta , and Erwin Tiongson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854985.001

ISBN: 9781451854985

Keywords: public spending, child mortality, mortality rate, mortality rates, health status, births, Health Production, Welfare and Poverty: General,

This paper estimates the impact of public spending on the poor's health status in over 70 countries. It provides evidence that the poor have significantly worse health status than the rich and that they are more fa...

Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa

Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2001/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gary Moser , and Toshihiro Ichida

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853605.001

ISBN: 9781451853605

Keywords: Growth, Human Development, primary school, primary school enrollment, school enrollment, life expectancy, mortality rates, Health Production, Analysis of Education, General Welfare

This study confirms a strong and robust relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Employing a panel of 46 countries covering the period 1972-97, the analysis finds that a 10...

Population Aging in Japan
			: Demographic Shock and Fiscal Sustainability

Population Aging in Japan : Demographic Shock and Fiscal Sustainability »

Volume/Issue: 2001/40

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Mühleisen , and Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845976.001

ISBN: 9781451845976

Keywords: saving, general equilibrium analysis, social security, birth rate, elderly, Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Production, Employment, and Investment: Forecasting and Simulation,

The paper develops a general equilibrium framework to examine the economic implications of population aging in Japan. Particular attention is paid to aggregate saving behavior which is modeled on the basis of empir...

Japan
			: Selected Issues

Japan : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2000/144

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 November 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451820591.002

ISBN: 9781451820591

Keywords: aging, social security, birth rate, elderly, birth

A sustained decline in fertility rates underlies a rapid aging and decline of Japan's population. This will have profound social and economic implications. The paper illustrates the difficult situation facing Japan...

Population Aging and Global Capital Flows in a Parallel Universe

Population Aging and Global Capital Flows in a Parallel Universe »

Volume/Issue: 2000/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robin Brooks

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857023.001

ISBN: 9781451857023

Keywords: population aging, international capital flows, current account, old-age dependency, current account balance, dependency ratios, demographic change

This paper explores the global impact of population aging, using a calibrated overlapping generations model of eight world regions to simulate the effects of historical and projected demographic trends on internati...

Demographic Change in Asia
			: The Impacton Optimal National Saving, Investment, and the Current Account

Demographic Change in Asia : The Impacton Optimal National Saving, Investment, and the Current Account »

Volume/Issue: 2000/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian McDonald , Serge Bésanger , and Ross Guest

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853858.001

ISBN: 9781451853858

Keywords: Current Account Balance, Investments, Aging, Demography, national saving, consumption demands, demographic projections, age group, older people

This paper calculates the levels of optimal national saving, investment, and the current account balance for five Asian economies—Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines—for the...

A Study Guide to The Fabric of Reform

A Study Guide to The Fabric of Reform »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451947984.038

ISBN: 9781451947984

Keywords: mortality rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, balance of payments, international trade

This guide is designed to facilitate classroom use of The Fabric of Reform, a 30-minute educational video created by the International Monetary Fund. It is intended for use with students in economics and internatio...

Republic of Kazakhstan
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Republic of Kazakhstan : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2000/29

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451820805.002

ISBN: 9781451820805

Keywords: international monetary fund, current account, mortality rate, life expectancy, life expectancy at birth

The paper provides information on recent economic developments in Kazakhstan. Adoption of the new budget system law was an important step toward a more transparent and stable system of intergovernmental fiscal rela...

Demographic Transition in the Middle East
			: Implications for Growth, Employment, and Housing

Demographic Transition in the Middle East : Implications for Growth, Employment, and Housing »

Volume/Issue: 2000/41

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rina Bhattacharya , Tarik Yousef , and Pierre Dhonte

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846096.001

ISBN: 9781451846096

Keywords: demography, growth, working age population, unemployment, population growth

The working age population is expected to grow faster in the Middle East than in any other region in the world between now and 2015—rising annually by 2.7 percent, or 10 million people. This demographic expl...

Republic of Kazakhstan
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Republic of Kazakhstan : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1999/95

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451820799.002

ISBN: 9781451820799

Keywords: monetary fund, mortality rate, life expectancy, inflation

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix describes economic developments in the Republic of Kazakhstan during 1996-99. The paper provides information on the magnitude of large external shocks felt by Kaz...

Republic of Lithuania
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Republic of Lithuania : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1999/96

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823998.002

ISBN: 9781451823998

Keywords: mortality rate, current account balance, domestic demand, balance of payments

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes economic developments in Lithuania during 1996-99. The paper discusses macroeconomic developments and policies in detail. It discusses the importance of...

Namibia
			: Recent Economic Developments

Namibia : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1997/119

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 January 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451828368.002

ISBN: 9781451828368

Keywords: monetary fund, population per nurse, life expectancy at birth, life expectancy, population per physician

This paper reports economic developments in Namibia during the 1990s. Since the early 1990s, average GDP growth has been higher than in the previous decade, owing to the opening of two new diamond mines, the extens...

Brunei Darussalam
			: Statistical Appendix

Brunei Darussalam : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 1997/113

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451806144.002

ISBN: 9781451806144

Keywords: oil and gas, gas sector, oil and gas sector, natural gas, census

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Internal Migration, Center-State Grants and Economic Growth in the States of India

Internal Migration, Center-State Grants and Economic Growth in the States of India »

Volume/Issue: 1995/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , and Ratna Sahay

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848762.001

ISBN: 9781451848762

Keywords: per capita incomes, per capita income, census, economic growth, growth rate

This paper examines the growth experience of twenty states of India during the period 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evid...

Trinidad and Tobago
			: Economic Developments and Selected Background Issues

Trinidad and Tobago : Economic Developments and Selected Background Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1995/16

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 March 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451837520.002

ISBN: 9781451837520

Keywords: current account, death rate, balance of payments, school enrollment, demographic indicators

This paper examines economic developments in Trinidad and Tobago during 1990-94. Economic activity in 1992-93 was severely affected by a fall in output in the oil/gas sector, a sharp drop in the average oil export...

Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth »

Volume/Issue: 1994/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Sarel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451926880.001

ISBN: 9781451926880

Keywords: economic growth, demographic effects, growth rates, baby boom, gdp per capita

This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic...

Aging Population and Canadian Public Pension Plans

Aging Population and Canadian Public Pension Plans »

Volume/Issue: 1994/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851236.001

ISBN: 9781451851236

Keywords: pension, contribution rates, public pension, contribution rate, life expectancy

Canadian public pension plans are run on a "pay-as-you-go" basis. As the baby boom ages, contribution rates for the two main plans are projected to rise significantly, from their current level of arou...

Effects of Long-Run Demographic Changes in a Multi-Country Model

Effects of Long-Run Demographic Changes in a Multi-Country Model »

Volume/Issue: 1991/123

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854534.001

ISBN: 9781451854534

Keywords: foreign assets, net foreign assets, dependency ratio, dependency ratios, death rates

The macroeconomic effects of population aging are explored using data for the G-7 countries and Australia. The link between changes in birth and mortality rates on the one hand, and dependency ratios on the other,...

Finance & Development, September 1991

Finance & Development, September 1991 »

Volume/Issue: 28/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451952087.022

ISBN: 9781451952087

Keywords: population growth, capital markets, death rates, capital market, life expectancy

We need to understand more deeply a number of critical issues that confront the World Bank and its member countries before we can transform knowledge into effective actions...

Macroeconomic Effects of Prelected Population Aging in Industrial Countries

Macroeconomic Effects of Prelected Population Aging in Industrial Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1990/5

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson , and Ralph Tryon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451929553.001

ISBN: 9781451929553

Keywords: dependency ratio, dependency ratios, private saving, labor force, demographic shift

The effects of population aging are examined with the aid of a theoretical model and simulations of MULTIMOD. An older population will consume more of aggregate disposable income, require higher government expendit...

Fiscal Restraint, Demographic Change, and Social Services in Israel, 1985-1987, and Application of the Methodology to Latin America

Fiscal Restraint, Demographic Change, and Social Services in Israel, 1985-1987, and Application of the Methodology to Latin America »

Volume/Issue: 1988/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451966312.001

ISBN: 9781451966312

Keywords: expenditure, dependency ratio, age group, social expenditure, expenditures, Fiscal Affairs Department,

The paper analyzes the development of government social expenditure during the economic stabilization period, with specific reference to the changing needs for such expenditure arising from the change in Israel&#x2...

International Comparisons of Government Expenditure

International Comparisons of Government Expenditure »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller , and Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 1982

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750747.084

ISBN: 9781557750747

Keywords: expenditure, government expenditure, public expenditure, expenditures, capital expenditure

Many studies on International tax compaisons have been undertaken since the early 1970s. While controversial, such studies have facilitated more subtle comparisons of a country's tax performance than would be affor...

Finance & Development, December 1976

Finance & Development, December 1976 »

Volume/Issue: 13/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1976

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353278.022

ISBN: 9781616353278

Keywords: contraceptive, contraceptives, family planning, contraception, population growth rate

This paper highlights that the World Bank and its affiliate, the International Development Association (IDA), will support three projects in Kenya-one for rural access roads, an additional for integrated rural deve...

Finance & Development, December 1973

Finance & Development, December 1973 »

Volume/Issue: 10/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1973

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353148.022

ISBN: 9781616353148

Keywords: fertility, live births, population growth, births, fertility rates

This paper reviews the population policy in developed countries. The paper highlights that despite the weakness of population concerns in most developed countries compared with less-developed countries, most of the...

Finance & Development, December 1972

Finance & Development, December 1972 »

Volume/Issue: 9/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1972

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353100.022

ISBN: 9781616353100

Keywords: pollution, population growth, population problem, demographers, world population

This paper describes what the limits to growth are. The paper highlights that many critical variables in global society-particularly population and industrial production-have been growing at a constant percentage r...

Finance & Development, March 1969

Finance & Development, March 1969 »

Volume/Issue: 6/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1969

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352936.022

ISBN: 9781616352936

Keywords: fertility, population growth, birth, birth rate, birth rates

This paper analyzes economic implications of high rates of population growth in the world. The paper highlights that today, the world population is growing at a rate that is 30 times as high as the average rate of...

Finance & Development, March 1966

Finance & Development, March 1966 »

Volume/Issue: 3/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1966

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352813.022

ISBN: 9781616352813

Keywords: population growth, world population, birth, family planning, birth rate

This paper analyzes how increasing population will impact the lives of people in the world in 2000. It underscores that in 2000, there will be more people, many living in crowded towns, suffering from even greater...