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Being Poor, Feeling Poorer
			: Inequality, Poverty and Poverty Perceptions in the Western Balkans

Being Poor, Feeling Poorer : Inequality, Poverty and Poverty Perceptions in the Western Balkans »

Volume/Issue: 2016/31

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zsoka Koczan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515060.001

ISBN: 9781475515060

Keywords: Poverty and inequality, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of, Montenegro, Serbia, Poverty measurement, Cross country analysis

Emerging Europe has undergone a major economic transformation over the past 25 years. Most countries experienced initial drops in output during transition, followed by recovery in the second half of the 1990s. The...

Cyprus
			: Selected Issues

Cyprus : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/314

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498371018.002

ISBN: 9781498371018

Keywords: unemployment, unemployment rate, recession, expected unemployment

...

Republic of Congo
			: Selected Issues

Republic of Congo : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/273

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498305990.002

ISBN: 9781498305990

Keywords: fiscal consolidation, cash transfers, safety net, fiscal policy, social safety net

...

Unemployment and Structural Unemployment in the Baltics

Unemployment and Structural Unemployment in the Baltics »

Volume/Issue: 2014/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Ebeke , and Greetje Everaert

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498317207.001

ISBN: 9781498317207

Keywords: Structural Unemployment, unemployment rate, nairu, beveridge, Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search, Public Policy,

While the unemployment rate in the Baltics has fallen sharply from its crisis-peaks, it remains close to double digits. This paper estimates the structural component of the jobless rate in the three Baltic countrie...

Republic of Kazakhstan
			: Selected Issues

Republic of Kazakhstan : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/243

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484355671.002

ISBN: 9781484355671

Keywords: unemployment, employment, unemployment rate, labor market, labor force

...

Euro Area Policies
			: Selected Issues

Euro Area Policies : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/199

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498308007.002

ISBN: 9781498308007

Keywords: youth unemployment, labor market, employment

This Selected Issues paper assesses the youth unemployment problem in advanced European economies, especially the euro area. Youth unemployment rates increased sharply in the euro area after the crisis. Much of the...

Haiti
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Haiti : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2014/154

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498329019.002

ISBN: 9781498329019

Keywords: food security, social services, living conditions, detention centers, street children

This paper focuses on Haiti's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and 2014-2016 Three-Year Investment Program. The Haiti Strategic Development Plan presents the new framework for the planning, programming, and managem...

Hysteresis in Unemployment and Jobless Recoveries

Hysteresis in Unemployment and Jobless Recoveries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/77

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dmitry Plotnikov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484371749.006

ISBN: 9781484371749

Keywords: hysteresis, sunspots, unemployment rate, recession, jobless, General,

This paper develops and estimates a general equilibrium rational expectations model with search and multiple equilibria where aggregate shocks have a permanent effect on the unemployment rate. If agents' wealth dec...

Do Forecasters Believe in Okun's Law? An Assessment of Unemployment and Output Forecasts

Do Forecasters Believe in Okun's Law? An Assessment of Unemployment and Output Forecasts »

Volume/Issue: 2014/24

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laurence Ball , João Tovar Jalles , and Prakash Loungani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475584097.001

ISBN: 9781475584097

Keywords: forecast revisions, Okun&;amp;#x2019;s Law, Great Recession, forecast assessment, unemployment rate, unemployment forecasts, recession, employment, Forecasting and Other Model Applications, Forecasting and Simulation

This paper provides an assessment of the consistency of unemployment and output forecasts. We show that, consistent with Okun's Law, forecasts of real GDP growth and the change in unemployment are negatively correl...

Bulgaria
			: Selected Issues Paper

Bulgaria : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2014/24

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484396339.002

ISBN: 9781484396339

Keywords: social protection, social assistance, social transfers, social protection spending

This Selected Issues paper reviews recent developments in growth and employment in Bulgaria and highlights key constraints to growth suggested by cross-country competitiveness studies. Bulgaria's GDP has grown subs...

Is Labor Market Mismatch a Big Deal in Japan?

Is Labor Market Mismatch a Big Deal in Japan? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/196

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ippei Shibata

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484392270.001

ISBN: 9781484392270

Keywords: mismatch, vacancies, Japanese labor market, employment, unemployed, unemployment rate, labor market, Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence

Despite its low unemployment rate, the recent shift in the Japanese Beveridge curve indicates increased labor mismatch. This paper quantifies the age, employment-type (full or part-time), and occupational mismatch...

Sweden
			: Selected Issues

Sweden : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/277

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484382554.002

ISBN: 9781484382554

Keywords: unemployment, unemployment rate, rate of unemployment, natural rate of unemployment

This 2013 Article IV Consultation examines the performance of Sweden's fiscal policies to counter effects of global financial crisis. Economic growth in Sweden has been moderate since global financial crisis of 200...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues Paper

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2013/179

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336670.002

ISBN: 9781484336670

Keywords: unemployment, labor market, employment, unemployment rates, labor force

The Macedonian labor market exhibits a high unemployment rate, yet does not demonstrate obvious and large enough constraints on the demand or supply side. Considerable achievements can be made by maintaining macroe...

Does Public-Sector Employment Fully Crowd Out Private-Sector Employment?

Does Public-Sector Employment Fully Crowd Out Private-Sector Employment? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/146

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alberto Behar , and Junghwan Mok

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484329412.001

ISBN: 9781484329412

Keywords: unemployment, public employment, employment rate, public-sector employment, Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure, Public Policy, Other,

We quantify the extent to which public-sector employment crowds out private-sector employment using specially assembled datasets for a large cross-section of developing and advanced countries, and discuss the impli...

Morocco
			: Selected Issues

Morocco : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/110

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484340769.002

ISBN: 9781484340769

Keywords: unemployment, labor market, employment, youth unemployment, labor force

Morocco has made substantial progress in increasing inclusive growth over the past decade, but additional efforts in terms of growth-enhancing structural reforms are needed. Preserving economic efficiency and foste...

Labor Market Policies and IMF Advice in Advanced Economies during the Great Recession

Labor Market Policies and IMF Advice in Advanced Economies during the Great Recession »

Volume/Issue: 2013/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Florence Jaumotte , and Prakash Loungani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484301289.006

ISBN: 9781484301289

Keywords: Labor market institutions, Unemployment, Great Recession, employment, employment protection, labor market, unemployment insurance,

This paper does two things. First, it articulates what are the main implications of theoretical and empirical research for design of labor market policies and labor market institutions. Second, in this light, the p...

A Framework for Efficient Government Investment

A Framework for Efficient Government Investment »

Volume/Issue: 2013/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Warner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475579147.001

ISBN: 9781475579147

Keywords: Welfare economics, scope and performance of government, externalities, cost-benefit analysis, subsidy, private returns, rates of return, investment projects, Structure and Scope of Government, Business Taxes and Subsidies

Welfare economics, scope and performance of government, externalities, public goods, cost-benefit analysis, subsidies economize on spending without losing effectiveness by modifying the conceptual framework guiding...

Macroeconomic Evaluation of Labor Market Reform in Germany

Macroeconomic Evaluation of Labor Market Reform in Germany »

Volume/Issue: 2013/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tom Krebs , and Martin Scheffel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062702.001

ISBN: 9781589062702

Keywords: Labor Market Reform, unemployed, unemployment rate, labor market, employment

In 2005 the German government implemented the so-called Hartz IV reform, which amounted to a complete overhaul of the German unemployment insurance system and resulted in a significant reduction in unemployment ben...

Republic of Latvia
			: Selected Issues

Republic of Latvia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/29

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475578522.002

ISBN: 9781475578522

Keywords: unemployment, unemployment rate, nairu, employment, natural unemployment rate

This note presents estimates of potential growth and the output gap in Latvia. The estimates suggest that the output has marked below potential in the early 2000s but the output gap becomes positive and large after...

Okun's Law
			: Fit at 50?

Okun's Law : Fit at 50? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/10

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laurence Ball , Daniel Leigh , and Prakash Loungani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475574265.001

ISBN: 9781475574265

Keywords: Unemploymnent, Okun&;amp;#x2019;s law, Economic fluctuations, employment, recession, unemployment rate, jobless, Economic fluctuations.,

This paper asks how well Okun's Law fits short-run unemployment movements in the United States since 1948 and in twenty advanced economies since 1980. We find that Okun's Law isa strong and stable relationship in m...

Sudan
			: Selected Issues Paper

Sudan : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2012/299

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 November 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616355722.002

ISBN: 9781616355722

Keywords: subsidies, subsidy, price subsidies, fiscal cost, direct impact

This selected issues paper on Sudan was prepared by a staff team of the International Monetary Fund as background documentation for the periodic consultation with the member country. It is based on the information...

Ukraine Gas Pricing Policy
			: Distributional Consequences of Tariff Increases

Ukraine Gas Pricing Policy : Distributional Consequences of Tariff Increases »

Volume/Issue: 2012/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pritha Mitra , and Ruben Atoyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475512878.001

ISBN: 9781475512878

Keywords: government expenditure and related policies, welfare, social assistance, gas consumption, gas demand, gas imports, gas pricing policy, welfare., General,

Ukraine's gas pricing policy subsidizes gas and heating for all households. As the cost of imported gas rises, this policy increasingly weighs on government finances, sustains energy over-consumption, dampens inves...

Emerging Market Business Cycles
			: The Role of Labor Market Frictions

Emerging Market Business Cycles : The Role of Labor Market Frictions »

Volume/Issue: 2012/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emine Boz , Ceyhun Bora Durdu , and Nan Li

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475511208.001

ISBN: 9781475511208

Keywords: search frictions, unemployment, employment, unemployment rate, bargaining, unemployed, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Emerging economies are characterized by higher consumption and real wage variability relative to output and a strongly countercyclical current account. A real business cycle model of a small open economy that embed...

Excerpt
			: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Excerpt : Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Miscellaneous Publication (Other)

Author(s): Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/CPVIEAEX.073

ISBN: CPVIEAEX

Keywords: Agricultural sector, Balance of trade, Central banking, Central banks, Civil society, Commodities, Commodity price shocks, Commodity prices, Consumption, Credit

In the years following the global financial crisis, many low-income countries experienced rapid recovery and strong economic growth. However, many are now facing enormous difficulties because of rapidly rising food...

Japan
			: Selected Issues

Japan : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/209

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506341.002

ISBN: 9781475506341

Keywords: pension, basic pension, pension benefit, life expectancy, pension system

Japan has a universal public pension system. Social security spending is a key fiscal policy challenge in Japan. The 2004 pension reforms have increased the ratio of the government subsidy to the basic pension bene...

Nigeria
			: Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation

Nigeria : Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/194

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506679.002

ISBN: 9781475506679

Keywords: fiscal adjustment, primary deficit, fiscal policy, tax policy

The Nigerian economy remained strong, with a non-oil real GDP of 8.3 percent and an overall real GDP of 6.7 percent. A modest fiscal consolidation took place in 2011 as a response to the substantial monetary tight...

Jordan
			: Selected Issues

Jordan : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/120

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503845.002

ISBN: 9781475503845

Keywords: subsidies, price subsidies, subsidy, energy subsidies

This Selected Issues Paper focuses on economic condition, energy subsidies, and oil prices in Jordan. Energy price subsidies pose a serious fiscal risk in the present context of increasing and volatile internationa...

Unemployment and Labor Market Issues in Algeria

Unemployment and Labor Market Issues in Algeria »

Volume/Issue: 2012/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Davide Furceri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502893.001

ISBN: 9781475502893

Keywords: Labor market, flexibility, employment, unemployment rate, youth unemployment, unemployment rates, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment and Investment: Other

The aim of this paper is to analyze unemployment and labor market developments in Algeria and assess the factors that may hamper employment creation. The results of the paper suggest that the relative low output-em...

Can Institutional Reform Reduce Job Destruction and Unemployment Duration? Yes it Can

Can Institutional Reform Reduce Job Destruction and Unemployment Duration? Yes it Can »

Volume/Issue: 2012/54

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Esther Perez Ruiz , and Yao Yao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463937140.001

ISBN: 9781463937140

Keywords: Search model, unemployment inflows, unemployment duration, unemployment, unemployment rates, unemployment rate, employment, Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: General

We read search theory's unemployment equilibrium condition as an Iso-Unemployment Curve(IUC).The IUC is the locus of job destruction rates and expected unemployment durations rendering the same unemployment level....

Algeria
			: Selected Issues Paper

Algeria : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2012/22

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463934460.002

ISBN: 9781463934460

Keywords: employment, unemployment rate, youth unemployment, unemployment rates

This paper analyzes Algeria's unemployment and labor market developments and assesses the factors that may hamper employment creation. It estimates employment-to-GDP elasticity for Algeria's main sectors and differ...

Using Credit Subsidies to Counteract a Credit Bust
			: Evidence From Serbia

Using Credit Subsidies to Counteract a Credit Bust : Evidence From Serbia »

Volume/Issue: 2011/285

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jiri Podpiera

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463927196.001

ISBN: 9781463927196

Keywords: Credit Subsidy, Financial Accelerator, Countercyclical Policy, subsidies, subsidy, financial sector

Emerging markets are particularly vulnerable to boom-bust credit cycles, due to excessive capital flows, shallow equity markets, and companies' high leverage and open FX positions. While the policy debate on how to...

Unemployment in Latin America and the Caribbean

Unemployment in Latin America and the Caribbean »

Volume/Issue: 2011/252

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laurence Ball , Nicolas de Roux Uribe , and Marc Hofstetter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463923341.001

ISBN: 9781463923341

Keywords: Hysteresis, unemployment rates, unemployment rate, employment, unemployed, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies: General,

JEL Cl This study constructs a new data set on unemployment rates in Latin America and the Caribbean and then explores the determinants of unemployment. We compare different countries, finding that unemployment is...

Burkina Faso
			: Policies to Protect the Poor From the Impact of Food and Energy Price Increases

Burkina Faso : Policies to Protect the Poor From the Impact of Food and Energy Price Increases »

Volume/Issue: 2011/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Isabell Adenauer , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463902117.001

ISBN: 9781463902117

Keywords: fuel price subsidies, food price shock, conditional cash transfer system, cash transfer, subsidies, conditional cash transfer, subsidy, cash transfers, Taxation, and Revenue: General

This paper assesses the effectiveness of policies taken by the Burkinabè authorities to protect the poor from the adverse impact of a combined food and oil price shock in 2008. Estimates of the impact based on hous...

Iran
			: The Chronicles of the Subsidy Reform

Iran : The Chronicles of the Subsidy Reform »

Volume/Issue: 2011/167

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dominique Guillaume , Roman Zytek , and Mohammad Reza Farzin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462303212.001

ISBN: 9781462303212

Keywords: subsidy, oil dividend, prices, subsidies, payments, credit, Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: General, Energy: General,

On December 18, 2010, Iran increased domestic energy and agricultural prices by up to 20 times, making it the first major oil-exporting country to reduce substantially implicit energy subsidies. This paper reviews...

Kingdom of Netherlands
			: Netherlands:  Selected Issues and Analytical Notes

Kingdom of Netherlands : Netherlands: Selected Issues and Analytical Notes »

Volume/Issue: 2011/143

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455286645.002

ISBN: 9781455286645

Keywords: employment, unemployment rate, unemployment benefits, employment protection

Important issues of the Netherlands are discussed. Openness to trade has benefited the Netherlands before the crisis and has supported the recent recovery process. However, both financial openness and trade linkage...

Finance & Development, June 2011

Finance & Development, June 2011 »

Volume/Issue: 48/2

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451953589.022

ISBN: 9781451953589

Keywords: aging, international monetary fund, unemployment, emerging markets

'Wising Up to the Costs of Aging' looks at how falling fertility and rising life expectancy have combined to threaten the ability of many countries to provide a decent standard of living for the old without imposin...

Inflation Dynamics and the Great Recession

Inflation Dynamics and the Great Recession »

Volume/Issue: 2011/121

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sandeep Mazumder , and Laurence Ball

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455263387.001

ISBN: 9781455263387

Keywords: Phillips curve, Great Recession, unemployment, actual inflation, monetary policy, inflation dynamics,

This paper examines inflation dynamics in the United States since 1960, with a particular focus on the Great Recession. A puzzle emerges when Phillips curves estimated over 1960-2007 are ussed to predice inflation...

Has the Great Recession Raised U.S. Structural Unemployment?

Has the Great Recession Raised U.S. Structural Unemployment? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/105

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marcello Estevão , and Evridiki Tsounta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455260409.001

ISBN: 9781455260409

Keywords: skills mismatches, foreclosures, unemployment rate, labor market, unemployment rates, structural unemployment, unemployed, Labor And Demographic Economics, Mobility, Unemployment

The recent crisis has had differential effects across U.S. states and industries causing a wide geographic dispersion in skill mismatches and housing market performance. We document these facts and, using data from...

New Evidenceon Cyclical and Structural Sources of Unemployment

New Evidenceon Cyclical and Structural Sources of Unemployment »

Volume/Issue: 2011/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jinzhu Chen , Bharat Trehan , Prakash Kannan , and Prakash Loungani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455260416.001

ISBN: 9781455260416

Keywords: structural unemployment, uncertainty, unemployment rate, unemployment rates, high unemployment, unemployment duration,

We provide cross-country evidence on the relative importance of cyclical and structural factors in explaining unemployment, including the sharp rise in U.S. long-term unemployment during the Great Recession of 2007...

The Electricity Sector in FYR Macedonia

The Electricity Sector in FYR Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2011/30

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Tieman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455216772.001

ISBN: 9781455216772

Keywords: FYR Macedonia, Liberalization, EU acquis, ECT, subsidy, electricity sector, subsidization, Electric Utilities, Industry Studies: Utilities and Transportation: Government Policy, Energy and the Macroeconomy

This paper describes the current state of the Macedonian electricity sector. It looks at ongoing structural changes, driven by the gradual adoption of the EU acquis on energy, and comes up with estimates for electr...

The Spanish Labor Market in a Cross-Country Perspective

The Spanish Labor Market in a Cross-Country Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2011/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Florence Jaumotte

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455211890.001

ISBN: 9781455211890

Keywords: Employment, Collective Bargaining, Severance Pay, unemployment rate, bargaining, unemployment benefits, Labor-management Relations,

The Spanish labor market is not working: the unemployment rate is structurally very high; wages are not very responsive to labor market conditions, causing a high cyclicality of unemployment; and the labor market i...

The Human Cost of Recessions
			: Assessing It, Reducing It

The Human Cost of Recessions : Assessing It, Reducing It »

Volume/Issue: 2010/17

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Mai Dao , and Prakash Loungani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462308163.004

ISBN: 9781462308163

Keywords: Developed countries, Cross country analysis, Economic recession, Emerging markets, Fiscal consolidation, Recessions, Human capital, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy, Labor markets

Recessions leave scars on the labor market. Over 200 million people across the globe are estimated to be unemployed at present resulting from the Great Recession of 2007-09. We assess the human cost of increased un...

Unemployment and Productivity in the Long Run
			: the Role of Macroeconomic Volatility

Unemployment and Productivity in the Long Run : the Role of Macroeconomic Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2010/259

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paolo Surico , Luca Ricci , and Pierpaolo Benigno

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209590.001

ISBN: 9781455209590

Keywords: macroeconomic volatility, downward wage rigidities, unemployment rate, employment, unemployment rates, rate of unemployment, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production

We propose a theory of low-frequency movements in unemployment based on asymmetric real wage rigidities. The theory generates two main predictions: long-run unemployment increases with (i) a fall in long-run produc...

The Unequal Benefits of Fuel Subsidies
			: A Review of Evidence for Developing Countries

The Unequal Benefits of Fuel Subsidies : A Review of Evidence for Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2010/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Coady , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205325.001

ISBN: 9781455205325

Keywords: fuel subsidies, impact of subsidy reform, distribution of fuel consumption, subsidies, fuel prices, subsidy, fuel price, fuel consumption, Taxation, and Revenue: General

This paper reviews evidence on the impact of fuel subsidy reform on household welfare in developing countries. On average, the burden of subsidy reform is neutrally distributed across income groups; a $0.25 decreas...

United States
			: Selected Issues Paper

United States : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2010/248

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455206759.002

ISBN: 9781455206759

Keywords: unemployment, unemployment rate, unemployment rates, labor market, equilibrium unemployment

This Selected Issues Paper of the United States analyses the Report on Standards and Codes (ROSC) and the Detailed Assessment Report (DAR) on the current state of the U.S. implementation of the Basel Core Principle...

Republic of Tajikistan
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Republic of Tajikistan : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2010/104

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455206933.002

ISBN: 9781455206933

Keywords: social services, social protection, social insurance, food security

The Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2010-12 aims to serve as a medium-term program for the implementation of the National Development Strategy up to 2015. It will determine the ma...

Estimating Poland's Potential Output
			: A Production Function Approach

Estimating Poland's Potential Output : A Production Function Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2010/15

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Natan Epstein , and Corrado Macchiarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451962093.001

ISBN: 9781451962093

Keywords: Production function, potential growth, output gap, NAIRU, unemployment rate, rate of unemployment,

The paper develops a methodology based on the production-function approach to estimate potential output of the Polish economy. The paper concentrates on obtaining a robust estimate of the labor input by deriving Po...

Fiscal Policy Rules for Oil-Producing Countries
			: A Welfare-Based Assessment

Fiscal Policy Rules for Oil-Producing Countries : A Welfare-Based Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2009/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wojciech Maliszewski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872736.001

ISBN: 9781451872736

Keywords: nonrenewable resource, oil producers, oil, permanent income, social welfare, welfare function, social welfare function, welfare functions, social welfare functions,

The paper presents numerical simulations of various fiscal rules for oil-producing countries. Welfare implications are sensitive to the choice of the social welfare function, initial conditions, and non-oil growth...

Where Does the Public Sector End and the Private Sector Begin?

Where Does the Public Sector End and the Private Sector Begin? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian Lienert

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872699.001

ISBN: 9781451872699

Keywords: general government, market, nonmarket, social insurance, social security, private partnerships, social insurance schemes,

The boundary between the public and private sectors can be defined on the basis of ownership of institutional units. Nonmarket government-owned entities and corporations that are owned or controlled by government u...

Republic of Congo
			: Selected Issues

Republic of Congo : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2009/72

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451816044.002

ISBN: 9781451816044

Keywords: subsidies, subsidy, petroleum products, price subsidies, natural gas, Congo,

This Selected Issues Paper for the Republic of Congo discusses economic development and policies. Domestic prices of refined petroleum products are administratively set by the authorities below import parity. Non-...

Republic of Congo
			: Selected Issues

Republic of Congo : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2009/72

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451951967.002

ISBN: 9781451951967

Keywords: subsidies, subsidy, petroleum products, price subsidies, natural gas, Congo,

This Selected Issues Paper for the Republic of Congo discusses economic development and policies. Domestic prices of refined petroleum products are administratively set by the authorities below import parity. Non-...

Reforming Government Subsidies in the New Member States of the European Union

Reforming Government Subsidies in the New Member States of the European Union »

Volume/Issue: 2008/165

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alex Segura-Ubiergo , Taline Koranchelian , and Carlos Mulas-Granados

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870237.001

ISBN: 9781451870237

Keywords: new member states, subsidy reform, state aid to enterprises, energy subsidies, and transportation subsidies, subsidies, subsidy, energy subsidy,

Subsidy reform has been a key component of the pre-accession reform agenda of the 10 new member states that joined the EU in 2004 (EU-10). During the pre-accession period, these countries had to undertake a number...

Measuring the Informal Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

Measuring the Informal Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean »

Volume/Issue: 2008/102

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Guillermo Javier Vuletin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869637.001

ISBN: 9781451869637

Keywords: Informal economy, latent variable, equation, correlation, surveys, social security schemes,

This paper estimates the size of the informal economy for 32 mainly Latin American and Caribbean countries in the early 2000s. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we find that a stringent tax system and...

Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the EU

Regional Wage Differentiation and Wage Bargaining Systems in the EU »

Volume/Issue: 2008/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Athanasios Vamvakidis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869057.001

ISBN: 9781451869057

Keywords: regional wage differentiation, wage bargaining system, wage, bargaining, wage bargaining, wage differentiation,

The theoretical literature has argued that a centralized wage bargaining system may result in low regional wage differentiation and high regional unemployment differentials. The empirical literature has found that...

Evaluating Alternative Approaches to Poverty Alleviation
			: Rice Tariffs Versus Targeted Transfers in Madagascar

Evaluating Alternative Approaches to Poverty Alleviation : Rice Tariffs Versus Targeted Transfers in Madagascar »

Volume/Issue: 2008/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul A. Dorosh , David Coady , and Bart Minten

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868715.001

ISBN: 9781451868715

Keywords: Rice tariffs, targeted transfers, efficiency, distribution, revenue, welfare impact, social welfare, welfare distribution, welfare function, household welfare,

This paper uses a partial equilibrium framework to evaluate the relative efficiency, distributional and revenue implications of rice tariffs and targeted transfers in Madagascar, especially in the context of identi...

Senegal
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Senegal : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2007/316

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451834031.002

ISBN: 9781451834031

Keywords: social protection, social services, living conditions, vulnerable groups, food security

This paper focuses on Senegal's second poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP-II). It summarizes the results of the participatory PRSP review process prior to final validation and adoption by the government. As an...

Finland
			: Selected Issues

Finland : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2007/278

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 August 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451813272.002

ISBN: 9781451813272

Keywords: disability, unemployed, unemployment benefits

This Selected Issues paper investigates the possible contribution of activation strategies-in a broad sense-to improve employment rates in Finland. It summarizes recent labor market developments in Finland, and inv...

Global Aging Pressures
			: Impact of Fiscal Adjustment, Policy Cooperation, and Structural Reforms

Global Aging Pressures : Impact of Fiscal Adjustment, Policy Cooperation, and Structural Reforms »

Volume/Issue: 2007/196

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Manmohan Kumar , and Dennis Botman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867602.001

ISBN: 9781451867602

Keywords: Global aging, fiscal cooperation, Lisbon Agenda, IMF&;amp;#x2019;s Global Fiscal Mode, aging, social security, government spending, fiscal variables,

Demographic pressures will materialize in many economies over the next few decades. We examine the macroeconomic impact of alternative fiscal adjustment and structural reform strategies to address these global agin...

Democracy and Foreign Education

Democracy and Foreign Education »

Volume/Issue: 2007/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866155.001

ISBN: 9781451866155

Keywords: democracy, institutions, international students, host country, foreign investors, host countries, foreign national, Models of Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Elections, Legislatures

Do foreign-educated individuals play a role in promoting democracy in their home countries? Despite the large amount of private and public resources spent on foreign education, there is no systematic evidence that...

Domestic Petroleum Product Prices and Subsidies
			: Recent Developments and Reform Strategies

Domestic Petroleum Product Prices and Subsidies : Recent Developments and Reform Strategies »

Volume/Issue: 2007/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Coady , Taimur Baig , Joseph Ntamatungiro , and Amine Mati

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866353.001

ISBN: 9781451866353

Keywords: fuel prices, subsidy, petroleum products, fuel price

The paper reviews recent developments in the pass-through of international to domestic petroleum product prices, in the different fuel pricing regimes, and in fuel subsidies in a range of emerging market and develo...

Public Pension Reform
			: A Primer

Public Pension Reform : A Primer »

Volume/Issue: 2007/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alain Jousten

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865929.001

ISBN: 9781451865929

Keywords: household behavior, welfare programs, demographic trends, pension, social insurance, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Household, National Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs, Social Security and Public Pensions,

The present paper reviews key issues in pension design and pension reform encountered all across the world. The paper heavily refers to the recent U.S. Social Security reform debate in general and to the Personal R...

Lucas vs. Lucas
			: On Inequality and Growth

Lucas vs. Lucas : On Inequality and Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2007/17

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Carlos Cordoba , and Genevieve Verdier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865813.001

ISBN: 9781451865813

Keywords: Welfare costs, inequality, social welfare, country inequality, welfare function, welfare measures, Distribution, General Aggregative Models, Consumption, Saving

Lucas (2004) asserts that "Of the tendencies that are harmful to sound economics, the most seductive, and in my opinion the most poisonous, is to focus on questions of distribution... The potential for improving th...

Quasi-Fiscal Deficit in Non-Financial Enterprises

Quasi-Fiscal Deficit in Non-Financial Enterprises »

Volume/Issue: 2007/10

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robert Tchaidze

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865745.001

ISBN: 9781451865745

Keywords: quasi-fiscal deficit, implicit subsidies, tax arrears, payment arrears, subsidies, fiscal deficit, budget deficit, quasi-fiscal activities, National Deficit Surplus,

This paper discusses two ways of evaluating the quasi-fiscal deficit (QFD) and the link between them. It also suggests how to properly account for the QFD when calculating the overall deficit of the public sector....

The Magnitude and Distribution of Fuel Subsidies
			: Evidence from Bolivia, Ghana, Jordan, Mali, and Sri Lanka

The Magnitude and Distribution of Fuel Subsidies : Evidence from Bolivia, Ghana, Jordan, Mali, and Sri Lanka »

Volume/Issue: 2006/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robert Gillingham , David Locke Newhouse , David Coady , Kangni Kpodar , Moataz El-Said , and Paulo Medas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865073.001

ISBN: 9781451865073

Keywords: welfare distribution, subsidy, consumer subsidies, domestic prices, safety net, Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics: General, Input-Output Models, Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions

With the recent jump in world oil prices, the issue of petroleum product pricing has become increasingly important in developing countries. Reflecting a reluctance of many governments to pass these price increases...

Denmark
			: Selected Issues

Denmark : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2006/342

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451811117.002

ISBN: 9781451811117

Keywords: labor market, unemployment rate, labor market policies, active labor market, unemployment benefits

The paper discusses the flexicurity model, its key policy elements, and association with a low unemployment rate and a high standard of social security for the unemployed. It provides details of an empirical analys...

Fuel Price Subsidies in Gabon
			: Fiscal Cost and Distributional Impact

Fuel Price Subsidies in Gabon : Fiscal Cost and Distributional Impact »

Volume/Issue: 2006/243

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Leigh , and Moataz El-Said

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865035.001

ISBN: 9781451865035

Keywords: Fuel-price subsidies, subsidies, fuel price, price subsidies, refinery price, ex-refinery price, Taxation, and Revenue: General, Taxation and Subsidies: Incidence,

This paper looks at the fiscal cost and distributional impact of implicit fuel price subsidies in Gabon, where fuel prices have remained largely unchanged since 2002. Using estimated implicit import parity prices,...

Dominica
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper:  Joint Staff Advisory Note

Dominica : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Joint Staff Advisory Note »

Volume/Issue: 2006/290

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451810936.002

ISBN: 9781451810936

Keywords: poverty reduction strategy, macroeconomic framework, social protection

The Growth and Social Protection Strategy (GSPS) attaches great importance to the promotion of economic growth and job creation, given the nature of poverty in Dominica. The GSPS also stresses that existing health...

Republic of Armenia
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

Republic of Armenia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report »

Volume/Issue: 2006/239

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451801620.002

ISBN: 9781451801620

Keywords: expenditures, social insurance, social expenditures, expenditure, budget expenditures

The Armenian government adopted the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), and the first years of the PRSP implementation have evidently resulted in the significant reduction of both poverty and extreme poverty....

Republic of Moldova
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Evaluation Report 2005

Republic of Moldova : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Evaluation Report 2005 »

Volume/Issue: 2006/185

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451825084.002

ISBN: 9781451825084

Keywords: social insurance, poverty line, social assistance, unemployment

This paper reviews the Poverty Reduction Strategy Annual Evaluation Report 2005 for Moldova. Economic growth and income redistribution policies promoted in the context of Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strat...

Luxembourg
			: Selected Issues

Luxembourg : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2006/165

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451824377.002

ISBN: 9781451824377

Keywords: pension, pension fund, pension system, labor force

This Selected Issues paper on Luxembourg reports that exemplary high growth rates and prudent fiscal policies provided the financial basis for the welfare system. Social expenditures in per capita terms, even adjus...

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
			: Macroeconomic Impact of an Aging Population in a Highly Open Economy

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region : Macroeconomic Impact of an Aging Population in a Highly Open Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2006/87

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lamin Leigh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863475.001

ISBN: 9781451863475

Keywords: Productivity Growth, Fiscal Impact, Health Care Costs, pension, health care, elderly, dependency, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production

Hong Kong SAR's population is aging rapidly. This paper concludes that, without a change in policies, aging could adversely affect growth and living standards. While higher labor productivity growth and increased m...

Panama
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Panama : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2006/26

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451830866.002

ISBN: 9781451830866

Keywords: social security agency, social security reform, social security system, retirement age

This Selected Issues paper on Panama explores the current situation and trends of the Caja del Seguro Social (CSS) in Panama. The autonomy is embedded in its Organic Law, which also provides the agency with the rig...

Global Aging and Fiscal Policy with International Labor Mobility
			: A Political Economy Perspective

Global Aging and Fiscal Policy with International Labor Mobility : A Political Economy Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2005/140

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mehmet Tosun

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861594.001

ISBN: 9781451861594

Keywords: population aging, overlapping generations, endogenous fiscal policy, international labor mobility, international capital mobility, aging, labor mobility, social security, labor migration, Economic Growth of Open Economies

This paper uses an overlapping generations model with international labor mobility and a politically responsive fiscal policy to examine aging in developed and developing regions. Migrant workers change the politic...

Republic of Armenia
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

Republic of Armenia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report »

Volume/Issue: 2005/175

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451801576.002

ISBN: 9781451801576

Keywords: expenditures, social insurance, expenditure, social expenditures, social security

This paper evaluates Armenia's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Progress Report covering August 2003-December 2004. The developments in 2003-04 are rather reassuring. The resulting pattern, overall, is more...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Republic of Uzbekistan : Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2005/160

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839814.002

ISBN: 9781451839814

Keywords: living standards, health care, social protection, social security, disabled

This paper reviews Uzbekistan's Interim Welfare Improvement Strategy Paper (I-WISP). I-WISP defines the main directions and measures aimed at improving living standards and reducing poverty among the population of...

Eurosclerosis or Financial Collapse
			: Why Did Swedish Incomes Fall Behind?

Eurosclerosis or Financial Collapse : Why Did Swedish Incomes Fall Behind? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Valerie Cerra , and Sweta Saxena

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860481.001

ISBN: 9781451860481

Keywords: Welfare State, Output Loss, unemployment, economic growth, per capita income, business cycle, Economywide Country Studies: Europe, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Structure, Scope

Sweden represents an archetypal welfare state economy, with extensive government safety nets. Some scholars have attributed a decline in its per capita income ranking since 1970 to "eurosclerosis" or sluggish growt...

Republic of Moldova
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Republic of Moldova : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2004/395

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451824995.002

ISBN: 9781451824995

Keywords: social insurance, public administration, social protection, civil society, social assistance

This paper examines Moldova's Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (EGPRSP) covering 2004-06. The EGPRSP has the potential to become an effective tool for continuous strategic planning, and for prov...

Integrating a Unified Revenue Administration for Tax and Social Contribution Collections
			: Experiences of Central and Eastern European Countries

Integrating a Unified Revenue Administration for Tax and Social Contribution Collections : Experiences of Central and Eastern European Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2004/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875744.001

ISBN: 9781451875744

Keywords: Integration, tax/revenue administration, social contribution collection, social insurance, pension, contribution collection, revenue collection,

During the 1990s, a failure to collect social contributions in Central and Eastern European countries deprived pension schemes of resources needed to meet their obligations. Based on these countries' experience, th...

Regional Economic Disparities in Australia

Regional Economic Disparities in Australia »

Volume/Issue: 2004/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Uma Ramakrishnan , and Martin Cerisola

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856477.001

ISBN: 9781451856477

Keywords: Regional disparities, government transfers, unemployment, unemployment rate, unemployment rates, employment, bargaining, State and Local Government, Intergovernmental Relations, Labor-Management Relations

Australia's remarkable economic performance during the 1990s has not resulted in a significant convergence of real per capita income, output, and employment levels across the country's states and territories. This...

Dominica
			: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Dominica : Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2004/7

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451810844.002

ISBN: 9781451810844

Keywords: poverty line, social protection, poverty reduction strategy, social security, macroeconomic framework

Poverty in Dominica exhibits the following: poor households tend to be larger than nonpoor households; poor households contain proportionately fewer persons of working age, and there is no significant difference in...

Republic of Armenia
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Republic of Armenia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2003/362

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451801491.002

ISBN: 9781451801491

Keywords: employment, unemployment, social insurance, social security, self-employment

The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) has been developed for eradicating poverty in Armenia. It analyzes the poverty situation of Armenia, and evaluates the methodology and methodological issues. It discusses...

Real and Distributive Effects of Petroleum Price Liberalization
			: The Case of Indonesia

Real and Distributive Effects of Petroleum Price Liberalization : The Case of Indonesia »

Volume/Issue: 2003/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Sanjeev Gupta , and Hong-Sang Jung

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874525.001

ISBN: 9781451874525

Keywords: Public expenditure, CGE, petroleum prices, subsidy, income groups, household consumption, household groups, Computable General Equilibrium Models, State and Local Taxation, Subsidies

The impact of higher petroleum prices on the aggregate price level, real growth, and income distribution is appraised within a multisector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. A reduction in the government s...

Mongolia
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Mongolia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2003/277

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826814.002

ISBN: 9781451826814

Keywords: social insurance, living standards, social welfare, unemployment, maternal mortality

The report provides the details of the assessment on Mongolia's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. It describes the Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EGPRS), which presents main policy directions of th...

Georgia
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Georgia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2003/265

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451814484.002

ISBN: 9781451814484

Keywords: pension, social security, social protection, social insurance, pension system

The Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Program (EDPRP) was developed with the active participation and support of society, executive authorities, nongovernment organizations, academia, businessmen, and dono...

Ukraine
			: Statistical Appendix

Ukraine : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2003/174

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839012.002

ISBN: 9781451839012

Keywords: social insurance, social protection, social security, interest payments, taxes on income

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Azerbaijan Republic
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Azerbaijan Republic : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2003/105

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 May 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451802597.002

ISBN: 9781451802597

Keywords: expenditure, social insurance, social assistance, social protection, expenditures

This paper reviews Azerbaijan's State Program on Poverty Reduction and Economic Development 2003-2005 (SPPRED). The Poverty Reduction Program in Azerbaijan has attracted an extensive and high degree of interest, ma...

Measuring the Impact of Distortions in Agricultural Trade in Partial and General Equilibrium

Measuring the Impact of Distortions in Agricultural Trade in Partial and General Equilibrium »

Volume/Issue: 2003/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stephen Tokarick

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853360.001

ISBN: 9781451853360

Keywords: Models, input subsidies, production subsidies, price support, world price, Agriculture in International Trade,

This paper provides quantitative estimates of the impact of removing agricultural support (both tariffs and subsidies) in partial- and general-equilibrium frameworks. The results show that agricultural support in i...

Argentina
			: Macroeconomic Crisis and Household Vulnerability

Argentina : Macroeconomic Crisis and Household Vulnerability »

Volume/Issue: 2003/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste , Ana Corbacho , and Mercedes Garcia-Escribano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851304.001

ISBN: 9781451851304

Keywords: macroeconomic crisis, household welfare, unemployment, employment, unemployed, unemployment insurance, unemployment rates, National Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs, General Welfare,

Using urban household surveys, we constructed a panel dataset to study the effects of the Argentine macroeconomic crisis of 1999-2002 with the aim of (1) identifying the most vulnerable households, (2) investigatin...

Implications of Migrationon Income and Welfare of Nationals

Implications of Migrationon Income and Welfare of Nationals »

Volume/Issue: 2002/215

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kenichi Ueda

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875058.001

ISBN: 9781451875058

Keywords: Welfare cost of migration, GMP, wage, social security, unemployment, compensation, unemployment rate, Labor and Demographic Economics: General, Fiscal Policies And Behavior Of Economic Agents,

As labor has become more mobile in today's world, it is important to understand the income and welfare of nationals regardless of their residence. This paper develops two key concepts, gross migration-corrected pro...

France
			: Selected Issues

France : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2002/249

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451813531.002

ISBN: 9781451813531

Keywords: unemployment, unemployment rate, labor market, labor demand, labor productivity

This Selected Issues paper for France provides an analytical framework to explain the consequences of the downward shift in the unemployment/wages relationship. This framework is also used to analyze possible chang...

How Does Conditional Aid (Not) Work?

How Does Conditional Aid (Not) Work? »

Volume/Issue: 2002/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859324.001

ISBN: 9781451859324

Keywords: policy reform, policy conditionality, conditional lending, subsidy,

Does policy conditionality worsen domestic welfare, as governments are forced to attempt unpopular reforms resulting in damaging protests, or does conditionality help implement reforms that otherwise would have bee...

Issues in Domestic Petroleum Pricing in Oil-Producing Countries

Issues in Domestic Petroleum Pricing in Oil-Producing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/140

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Benedict Clements , Kevin Fletcher , and Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856132.001

ISBN: 9781451856132

Keywords: Oil, petroleum, subsidies, domestic prices, incidence, subsidy, fuel oil, petroleum products, oil exporters, Energy and the Macroeconomy

This paper discusses issues relating to the domestic pricing of petroleum in oil-producing countries. It finds that in most major oil-exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices below free-market...

Seductions of an Underdevelopment Trap
			: Systemic Impediments to Agricultural Reform in Russia

Seductions of an Underdevelopment Trap : Systemic Impediments to Agricultural Reform in Russia »

Volume/Issue: 2002/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dmitry Gershenson , and Maria Amelina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854916.001

ISBN: 9781451854916

Keywords: collective farms, transition, subsidy, farms, farm, collective farm, Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation,

Despite ambitious agricultural reforms initiated by the federal government, inefficient and unprofitable producers predominate in post-Soviet Russia. However, in some regions a more robust restructuring has taken p...

Kingdom of the Netherlands-Netherlands
			: Selected Issues

Kingdom of the Netherlands-Netherlands : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2002/123

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 June 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829365.002

ISBN: 9781451829365

Keywords: disability, disabled, health care, pension, aging

This Selected Issues paper highlights that over the past decade, the Netherlands has undergone a remarkable fiscal adjustment, with the deficit, the tax burden, and the expenditure-to-GDP ratio falling significantl...

Statistical Inference as a Bargaining Game

Statistical Inference as a Bargaining Game »

Volume/Issue: 2002/81

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Ley

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850376.001

ISBN: 9781451850376

Keywords: Social Welfare Function, Social Information Function, Contract Curve, Nash bargaining solution, Bayesian Inference, Posterior Mode, bargaining, welfare function, social welfare, statistics

This paper extends the analogy, previously established by Learner (1978a), between a Bayesian inference problem and an economics allocation problem to show that posterior modes can be interpreted as optimal outcome...

The Aging of the Population and the Size of the Welfare State

The Aging of the Population and the Size of the Welfare State »

Volume/Issue: 2002/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Phillip Swagel , Efraim Sadka , and Assaf Razin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849004.001

ISBN: 9781451849004

Keywords: dependency ratio, labor tax, tax rate, dependency, unemployment, social security, Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government,

Data for the United States and countries in Western Europe indicate a negative correlation between the dependency ratio and both labor tax rates and the generosity of social transfers, after controlling for other f...

The Costs and Benefits of Various Wage Bargaining Structures
			: An Empirical Exploration

The Costs and Benefits of Various Wage Bargaining Structures : An Empirical Exploration »

Volume/Issue: 2002/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849257.001

ISBN: 9781451849257

Keywords: internal factors, wage, bargaining, Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: General, Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects,

The literature on the relationship between the unemployment rate and wage bargaining fails to separate the offsetting effects of a reduction in competition associated with centralized bargaining and the increased a...

Short- and Long-Term Poverty and Social Policy in a 'Snakes and Ladders' Model of Growth

Short- and Long-Term Poverty and Social Policy in a 'Snakes and Ladders' Model of Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2001/172

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858570.001

ISBN: 9781451858570

Keywords: social insurance, income distribution, social safety nets, social safety net, Welfare and Poverty: General, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models,

Throughout the world, the great popularity of programs to protect those who may fall into poverty stands in contrast with the weakness of policies aimed at helping individuals who are already poor to overcome long-...

Subsidy Reforms and Poverty Alleviation

Subsidy Reforms and Poverty Alleviation »

Volume/Issue: 2001/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chandra Bhambhri , and Parkash Chander

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854909.001

ISBN: 9781451854909

Keywords: subsidy, reforms, quality, deadweight loss, budgetary constraints, fiscal savings, fiscal balance, Consumer Economics: Theory, Publicly Provided Private Goods, Fiscal Policies And Behavior Of Economic Agents

This paper presents a general framework for characterizing the optimal pattern of subsidies for poverty alleviation under budgetary constraints and suggests possible reforms for the existing pattern of subsidies. T...

Can Inheritances Alleviate the Demographic Burden?

Can Inheritances Alleviate the Demographic Burden? »

Volume/Issue: 2001/97

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erik Lueth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852028.001

ISBN: 9781451852028

Keywords: Bequests, computable GEM, social insurance, aging, budget constraint, welfare loss, Social Security and Public Pensions, Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models,

With pay-as-you-go schemes in place, population aging will impose a heavy fiscal burden on young and future cohorts. However, these cohorts may also profit from larger inheritances as the number of heirs declines....