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Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World

Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World »

Source: Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World : Evidence from a New Dataset

Volume/Issue: 2012/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Herbert Lui , Marc Quintyn , and Frederik Toscani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2012

ISBN: 9781475510669

Keywords: Education Attainment, Public Administration, State Capacity, government effectiveness, education attainments, educational attainment, General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

The paper provides a detailed description of a novel dataset on education attainment in public administrations covering the period 1981-2011 for 178 countries. The dataset uses information extracted from CVs for ov...

Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World
			: Evidence from a New Dataset

Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World : Evidence from a New Dataset »

Volume/Issue: 2012/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Herbert Lui , Marc Quintyn , and Frederik Toscani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510669.001

ISBN: 9781475510669

Keywords: Education Attainment, Public Administration, State Capacity, government effectiveness, education attainments, educational attainment, General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

The paper provides a detailed description of a novel dataset on education attainment in public administrations covering the period 1981-2011 for 178 countries. The dataset uses information extracted from CVs for ov...

Who Disciplines Bank Managers?

Who Disciplines Bank Managers? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrea Maechler , Klaus Schaeck , Martin Cihak , and Stéphanie Marie Stolz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874174.001

ISBN: 9781451874174

Keywords: Market discipline, executive turnover, financial soundness, discipline, banking, subordinated debt, bank risk, bank performance,

We bring to bear a hand-collected dataset of executive turnovers in U.S. banks to test the efficacy of market discipline in a 'laboratory setting' by analyzing banks that are less likely to be subject to government...

Who Disciplines Bank Managers?

Who Disciplines Bank Managers? »

Source: Who Disciplines Bank Managers?

Volume/Issue: 2009/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrea Maechler , Klaus Schaeck , Martin Cihak , and Stéphanie Marie Stolz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

ISBN: 9781451874174

Keywords: Market discipline, executive turnover, financial soundness, discipline, banking, subordinated debt, bank risk, bank performance,

We bring to bear a hand-collected dataset of executive turnovers in U.S. banks to test the efficacy of market discipline in a 'laboratory setting' by analyzing banks that are less likely to be subject to government...

How Good Are Ex Ante Program Evaluation Techniques? The Case of School Enrollment in PROGRESA

How Good Are Ex Ante Program Evaluation Techniques? The Case of School Enrollment in PROGRESA »

Source: How Good Are Ex Ante Program Evaluation Techniques? The Case of School Enrollment in PROGRESA

Volume/Issue: 2009/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fabian Bornhorst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2009

ISBN: 9781451873344

Keywords: microsimulation, conditional transfers, demand for schooling, child labor, PROGRESA, schooling, enrollment ratio, school attendance, school enrollment, Time Allocation and Labor Supply

This paper evaluates a microsimulation technique by comparing the simulated outcome of a program with its actual effect. The ex ante evaluation is carried out for a conditional cash transfer program, where poor hou...

How Good Are Ex Ante Program Evaluation Techniques? The Case of School Enrollment in PROGRESA

How Good Are Ex Ante Program Evaluation Techniques? The Case of School Enrollment in PROGRESA »

Volume/Issue: 2009/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fabian Bornhorst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873344.001

ISBN: 9781451873344

Keywords: microsimulation, conditional transfers, demand for schooling, child labor, PROGRESA, schooling, enrollment ratio, school attendance, school enrollment, Time Allocation and Labor Supply

This paper evaluates a microsimulation technique by comparing the simulated outcome of a program with its actual effect. The ex ante evaluation is carried out for a conditional cash transfer program, where poor hou...

Can Markets Compute Equilibria?

Can Markets Compute Equilibria? »

Source: Can Markets Compute Equilibria?

Volume/Issue: 2009/24

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hunter Monroe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2009

ISBN: 9781451871715

Keywords: Nash equilibria, bounded rationality, computational complexity, problems, polynomial, arithmetic, computation,

Recent turmoil in financial and commodities markets has renewed questions regarding how well markets discover equilibrium prices, particularly when those markets are highly complex. A relatively new critique questi...

Can Markets Compute Equilibria?

Can Markets Compute Equilibria? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/24

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hunter Monroe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871715.001

ISBN: 9781451871715

Keywords: Nash equilibria, bounded rationality, computational complexity, problems, polynomial, arithmetic, computation,

Recent turmoil in financial and commodities markets has renewed questions regarding how well markets discover equilibrium prices, particularly when those markets are highly complex. A relatively new critique questi...

Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments
			: Evidence from Indian Tariff Reform

Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments : Evidence from Indian Tariff Reform »

Volume/Issue: 2007/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eric Edmonds , Nina Pavcnik , and Petia Topalova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866582.001

ISBN: 9781451866582

Keywords: Child Labor, Literacy, schooling, school attendance, primary schools, returns to education, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Labor Market Interactions,

Do the short and medium term adjustment costs associated with trade liberalization influence schooling and child labor decisions? We examine this question in the context of India's 1991 tariff reforms. Overall, in...

Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments

Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments »

Source: Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments : Evidence from Indian Tariff Reform

Volume/Issue: 2007/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eric Edmonds , Nina Pavcnik , and Petia Topalova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2007

ISBN: 9781451866582

Keywords: Child Labor, Literacy, schooling, school attendance, primary schools, returns to education, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Labor Market Interactions,

Do the short and medium term adjustment costs associated with trade liberalization influence schooling and child labor decisions? We examine this question in the context of India's 1991 tariff reforms. Overall, in...

Emigration and Wages in Source Countries

Emigration and Wages in Source Countries »

Source: Emigration and Wages in Source Countries : Evidence From Mexico

Volume/Issue: 2006/86

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Prachi Mishra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

ISBN: 9781451863468

Keywords: Emigration, wage inequality, schooling, wage, dropouts, wage structure, International Factor Movements and International Business: General,

This paper empirically examines the effect on wages in Mexico of Mexican emigration to the United States, using data from the Mexican and United States censuses from 1970-2000. The main result in the paper is that...

Emigration and Wages in Source Countries
			: Evidence From Mexico

Emigration and Wages in Source Countries : Evidence From Mexico »

Volume/Issue: 2006/86

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Prachi Mishra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863468.001

ISBN: 9781451863468

Keywords: Emigration, wage inequality, schooling, wage, dropouts, wage structure, International Factor Movements and International Business: General,

This paper empirically examines the effect on wages in Mexico of Mexican emigration to the United States, using data from the Mexican and United States censuses from 1970-2000. The main result in the paper is that...

Educating Children in Poor Countries

Educating Children in Poor Countries »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062436.051

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, how...

Educating Children in Poor Countries

Educating Children in Poor Countries »

Source: Educating Children in Poor Countries

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents’ ability or willingness to pay. The reason is simple...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Educating Children in Poor Countries

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, how...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Educating Children in Poor Countries

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, how...

The Distributional Bias of Public Education

The Distributional Bias of Public Education »

Source: The Distributional Bias of Public Education : Causes and Consequences

Volume/Issue: 2004/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mark Gradstein , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2004

ISBN: 9781451875027

Keywords: Public education, incidence bias, inequality, education spending, income inequality, private education, Publicly Provided Private Goods, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

While public education is often intended to be progressive in its effects on income distribution, in reality its incidence is often skewed toward the rich. This paper argues that the extent of this bias is directly...

The Distributional Bias of Public Education
			: Causes and Consequences

The Distributional Bias of Public Education : Causes and Consequences »

Volume/Issue: 2004/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mark Gradstein , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875027.001

ISBN: 9781451875027

Keywords: Public education, incidence bias, inequality, education spending, income inequality, private education, Publicly Provided Private Goods, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

While public education is often intended to be progressive in its effects on income distribution, in reality its incidence is often skewed toward the rich. This paper argues that the extent of this bias is directly...

L'éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres

L'éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 July 2004

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063426.051

ISBN: 9781589063426

Keywords: enseignement primaire, école primaire, scolarité, scolarisation, fréquentation scolaire, scolarisation primaire, éducation pour tous, demande en matière d'éducation, taux brut de scolarisation, taux d'achèvement

Dans un monde idéal, l'enseignement primaire serait universel et financé sur les deniers publics et les enfants seraient scolarisés, que leurs parents en aient ou non les moyens ou la volonté. Mais dans de nombreux...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: L'éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 July 2004

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589063426

Keywords: enseignement primaire, école primaire, scolarité, scolarisation, fréquentation scolaire, scolarisation primaire, éducation pour tous, demande en matière d'éducation, taux brut de scolarisation, taux d'achèvement

Dans un monde idéal, l'enseignement primaire serait universel et financé sur les deniers publics et les enfants seraient scolarisés, que leurs parents en aient ou non les moyens ou la volonté. Mais dans de nombreux...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: L'éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 July 2004

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589063426

Keywords: enseignement primaire, école primaire, scolarité, scolarisation, fréquentation scolaire, scolarisation primaire, éducation pour tous, demande en matière d'éducation, taux brut de scolarisation, taux d'achèvement

Dans un monde idéal, l'enseignement primaire serait universel et financé sur les deniers publics et les enfants seraient scolarisés, que leurs parents en aient ou non les moyens ou la volonté. Mais dans de nombreux...

L’éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres

L’éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres »

Source: L'éducation des enfants dans les pays pauvres

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 July 2004

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589063426

Keywords: enseignement primaire, école primaire, scolarité, scolarisation, fréquentation scolaire, scolarisation primaire, éducation pour tous, demande en matière d'éducation, taux brut de scolarisation, taux d'achèvement

Dans un monde idéal, l’enseignement primaire serait universel et financé sur les deniers publics et les enfants seraient scolarisés, que leurs parents en aient ou non les moyens ou la volonté. La raison en e...

Social Returns to Education
			: Evidence From Italian Local Labor Market Areas

Social Returns to Education : Evidence From Italian Local Labor Market Areas »

Volume/Issue: 2003/165

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): A. Dalmazzo , and Guido De Blasio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858075.001

ISBN: 9781451858075

Keywords: Education, schooling, returns to education, local labor, labor market, local labor market

The paper provides a quantitative assessment of social returns to education in Italy. It shows that, after controlling for individual characteristics, local average human capital is positively correlated with indiv...

Social Returns to Education

Social Returns to Education »

Source: Social Returns to Education : Evidence From Italian Local Labor Market Areas

Volume/Issue: 2003/165

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): A. Dalmazzo , and Guido De Blasio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2003

ISBN: 9781451858075

Keywords: Education, schooling, returns to education, local labor, labor market, local labor market

The paper provides a quantitative assessment of social returns to education in Italy. It shows that, after controlling for individual characteristics, local average human capital is positively correlated with indiv...

User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries

User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/182

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859270.001

ISBN: 9781451859270

Keywords: Government expenditure and education, primary education, schooling, school enrollment, primary schools, educational attainment, National Government Expenditures and Education,

Insufficient resources and inadequate public expenditure management often prevent governments in low-income countries from providing quality basic education free of charge. User payments by parents are an alternati...

User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries1

User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries1 »

Source: User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries

Volume/Issue: 2002/182

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2002

ISBN: 9781451859270

Keywords: Government expenditure and education, primary education, schooling, school enrollment, primary schools, educational attainment, National Government Expenditures and Education,

Insufficient resources and inadequate public expenditure management often prevent governments in low-income countries from providing quality basic education free of charge. User payments by parents are an alternati...

Migration and Human Capital Formation
			: Theory and Evidence From the U.S. High School Movement

Migration and Human Capital Formation : Theory and Evidence From the U.S. High School Movement »

Volume/Issue: 2002/123

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854626.001

ISBN: 9781451854626

Keywords: factor movements, human capital formation, schooling, high school, education gap, educational attainment, school graduates, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

In 1910, 12 percent of American 14-17 year olds were enrolled in high school; by 1930, enrollment had increased to 50 percent; enrollment in Britain was 12 percent in 1950. This paper argues that by increasing the...

Migration and Human Capital Formation

Migration and Human Capital Formation »

Source: Migration and Human Capital Formation : Theory and Evidence From the U.S. High School Movement

Volume/Issue: 2002/123

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

ISBN: 9781451854626

Keywords: factor movements, human capital formation, schooling, high school, education gap, educational attainment, school graduates, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

In 1910, 12 percent of American 14-17 year olds were enrolled in high school; by 1930, enrollment had increased to 50 percent; enrollment in Britain was 12 percent in 1950. This paper argues that by increasing the...

Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries

Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries »

Source: Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries

Volume/Issue: 2002/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Matovu , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

ISBN: 9781451850116

Keywords: growth, schooling, education spending, primary education, primary education spending, school enrollment, National Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs,

This paper addresses the potential effects on human capital accumulation and economic growth of the alternative compositions of public expenditures in the context of a computable dynamic general equilibrium model o...

Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries

Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Matovu , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850116.001

ISBN: 9781451850116

Keywords: growth, schooling, education spending, primary education, primary education spending, school enrollment, National Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs,

This paper addresses the potential effects on human capital accumulation and economic growth of the alternative compositions of public expenditures in the context of a computable dynamic general equilibrium model o...

Columbia or High School? Understanding the Roles of Education in Development

Columbia or High School? Understanding the Roles of Education in Development »

Source: Columbia or High School? Understanding the Roles of Education in Development

Volume/Issue: 2002/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

ISBN: 9781451845464

Keywords: growth, schooling, secondary schooling, educational investment, secondary education, educational attainment, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

No country has achieved sustained economic development without investment in education. Thus, education policy can play a vital role in facilitating development. But which types of schooling-secondary or tertiary-s...

Columbia or High School? Understanding the Roles of Education in Development

Columbia or High School? Understanding the Roles of Education in Development »

Volume/Issue: 2002/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845464.001

ISBN: 9781451845464

Keywords: growth, schooling, secondary schooling, educational investment, secondary education, educational attainment, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

No country has achieved sustained economic development without investment in education. Thus, education policy can play a vital role in facilitating development. But which types of schooling-secondary or tertiary-s...

The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia
			: A General Equilibrium Approach

The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia : A General Equilibrium Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2001/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erik Thorbecke , and Hong-Sang Jung

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852899.001

ISBN: 9781451852899

Keywords: Public expenditure, CGE, poverty, wage, education expenditure, schooling, educated workers, wage rate, Tanzania, United Republic of

The impact of public education expenditure on human capital, the supply of different labor skills, and its macroeconomic and distributional consequences is appraised within a multisector CGE model. The model is app...

The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia

The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia »

Source: The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia : A General Equilibrium Approach

Volume/Issue: 2001/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erik Thorbecke , and Hong-Sang Jung

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

ISBN: 9781451852899

Keywords: Public expenditure, CGE, poverty, wage, education expenditure, schooling, educated workers, wage rate, Tanzania, United Republic of

The impact of public education expenditure on human capital, the supply of different labor skills, and its macroeconomic and distributional consequences is appraised within a multisector CGE model. The model is app...

The Impact of Ethnic Heterogeneityon the Quantity and Quality of Public Spending

The Impact of Ethnic Heterogeneityon the Quantity and Quality of Public Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2000/49

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Louis Kuijs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846836.001

ISBN: 9781451846836

Keywords: Government expenditures, government spending, public goods, ethnic heterogeneity, schooling, public spending, public health, infant mortality, education spending

The paper investigates empirically the impact of ethnic heterogeneity on the amount of public spending on health and education and the quality, or 'technical efficiency' of spending. While it finds partial evidence...

The Impact of Ethnic Heterogeneityon the Quantity and Quality of Public Spending

The Impact of Ethnic Heterogeneityon the Quantity and Quality of Public Spending »

Source: The Impact of Ethnic Heterogeneityon the Quantity and Quality of Public Spending

Volume/Issue: 2000/49

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Louis Kuijs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

ISBN: 9781451846836

Keywords: Government expenditures, government spending, public goods, ethnic heterogeneity, schooling, public spending, public health, infant mortality, education spending

The paper investigates empirically the impact of ethnic heterogeneity on the amount of public spending on health and education and the quality, or 'technical efficiency' of spending. While it finds partial evidence...

Educational Choices and Educational Constraints

Educational Choices and Educational Constraints »

Source: Educational Choices and Educational Constraints : Evidence From Bolivia

Volume/Issue: 2000/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

ISBN: 9781451846201

Keywords: cash transfers, education spending, hazard model, probability, schooling, educational achievement, educational attainment, problems

Recent efforts at poverty alleviation emphasize increasing government spending on education. However, even if spending were perfectly targeted, it is not evident that spending by itself will lead to higher educatio...

Educational Choices and Educational Constraints
			: Evidence From Bolivia

Educational Choices and Educational Constraints : Evidence From Bolivia »

Volume/Issue: 2000/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846201.001

ISBN: 9781451846201

Keywords: cash transfers, education spending, hazard model, probability, schooling, educational achievement, educational attainment, problems

Recent efforts at poverty alleviation emphasize increasing government spending on education. However, even if spending were perfectly targeted, it is not evident that spending by itself will lead to higher educatio...

Risk, Resources, and Education-Public Versus Private Financing of Higher Education

Risk, Resources, and Education-Public Versus Private Financing of Higher Education »

Volume/Issue: 1999/174

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858679.001

ISBN: 9781451858679

Keywords: Education, Public education, tuition fees, choice under uncertainty, educational investments, higher education, education financing, educational investment

This paper develops a public education scheme that takes uncertainty aspects of private educational investments explicitly into account. In the author's framework, the social merits of public education schemes are...

Risk, Resources, and Education-Public Versus Private Financing of Higher Education

Risk, Resources, and Education-Public Versus Private Financing of Higher Education »

Source: Risk, Resources, and Education-Public Versus Private Financing of Higher Education

Volume/Issue: 1999/174

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1999

ISBN: 9781451858679

Keywords: Education, Public education, tuition fees, choice under uncertainty, educational investments, higher education, education financing, educational investment

This paper develops a public education scheme that takes uncertainty aspects of private educational investments explicitly into account. In the author's framework, the social merits of public education schemes are...

How Big is the Brain Drain?

How Big is the Brain Drain? »

Source: How Big is the Brain Drain?

Volume/Issue: 1998/102

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): William Carrington , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1998

ISBN: 9781451948424

Keywords: International labor migration, brain drain, human capital, schooling, educational attainment, migration rates, international migration, number of immigrants

The brain drain from developing countries has been lamented for many years, but knowledge of the empirical magnitude of the phenomenon is scant owing to the lack of systematic data sources. This paper presents esti...

How Big is the Brain Drain?

How Big is the Brain Drain? »

Volume/Issue: 1998/102

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): William Carrington , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451948424.001

ISBN: 9781451948424

Keywords: International labor migration, brain drain, human capital, schooling, educational attainment, migration rates, international migration, number of immigrants

The brain drain from developing countries has been lamented for many years, but knowledge of the empirical magnitude of the phenomenon is scant owing to the lack of systematic data sources. This paper presents esti...

Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth

Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth »

Volume/Issue: 1994/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852332.001

ISBN: 9781451852332

Keywords: subsidy, education sector, subsidies, educational attainment, educational subsidies

This paper examines a two-sector aggregative growth model with human capital and educated unemployment. In the model, a tuition subsidy may lead to a long-run decline in the educated fraction of the population, bec...

Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth

Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth »

Source: Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth

Volume/Issue: 1994/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1994

ISBN: 9781451852332

Keywords: subsidy, education sector, subsidies, educational attainment, educational subsidies

This paper examines a two-sector aggregative growth model with human capital and educated unemployment. In the model, a tuition subsidy may lead to a long-run decline in the educated fraction of the population, bec...

Market Discipline

Market Discipline »

Volume/Issue: 1992/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Timothy Lane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846157.001

ISBN: 9781451846157

Keywords: Debt, Borrowing, Capital markets, discipline, deposit insurance, financial markets, bonds, financial institutions

Under what circumstances can market forces prevent unsustainable borrowing? Effective market discipline requires that capital markets be open, that; information on the borrower's existing liabilities be readily ava...

Market Discipline

Market Discipline »

Source: Market Discipline

Volume/Issue: 1992/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Timothy Lane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1992

ISBN: 9781451846157

Keywords: Debt, Borrowing, Capital markets, discipline, deposit insurance, financial markets, bonds, financial institutions

Under what circumstances can market forces prevent unsustainable borrowing? Effective market discipline requires that capital markets be open, that; information on the borrower's existing liabilities be readily ava...

Appendix: Demand for Money

Appendix: Demand for Money »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

This appendix summarizes the results of the estimation of models of the demand for a range of monetary aggregates originally reported in Burton and Ha (1990). The approach adopted i...

China
			: Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752024.084

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China encountered problems preserving economic stability while pursuing reforms aimed at increasing its economic flexibility and efficiency. This paper examines China's experience with market-oriented reforms since...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China encountered problems preserving economic stability while pursuing reforms aimed at increasing its economic flexibility and efficiency. This paper examines China's experience with market-oriented reforms since...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China encountered problems preserving economic stability while pursuing reforms aimed at increasing its economic flexibility and efficiency. This paper examines China's experience with market-oriented reforms since...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China has undertaken a wide-ranging program of economic reforms since 1978. Recognizing that the rigidities inherent in central planning had seriously inhibited the efficient allocation of resources and had...

II Overview of Reforms

II Overview of Reforms »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

In late 1978 China announced a program to reshape its economy. Over the subsequent ten years, economic reform involved the relaxation of direct planning controls, the decentralization of economic decision ma...

III Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Transition

III Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Transition »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

Since market-oriented reforms were set in motion in 1978, the nature and role of macroeconomic policy instruments, particularly monetary and fiscal policy, have been transformed pari passu with the changes i...

Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934683.084

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

I Evolution of Social Expenditure in the Group of Seven Major Industrial Countries, 1980–2025

I Evolution of Social Expenditure in the Group of Seven Major Industrial Countries, 1980–2025 »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Introduction Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and imp...

II Methodology for Projections

II Methodology for Projections »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Pattern of Government Social Expenditure, 1980 An important problem faced in undertaking this study, particularly given its cross-country focus, was how to define the social expendit...

III Population Dynamics in the Seven Major Industrial Countries

III Population Dynamics in the Seven Major Industrial Countries »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

A significant change is projected in the demographic structure of the seven major industrial countries over the next several decades. Through the year 2000 much of this change can be predicted with reasonabl...

IV Pensions

IV Pensions »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

The largest single item of social expenditure in most of the seven major industrial countries is pensions; Canada and Japan are the only exceptions (Chart 3 and Table 15). Of the three major government socia...

V Medical Care

V Medical Care »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

In the past two and a half decades, the growth in government expenditure on health and medical care has been explosive, more than doubling as a ratio to GDP in the seven major industrial countries. An increa...

VI Education

VI Education »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

As much as for any other social program, the demand for education is influenced vitally by demographic factors. After a long period of expansion, the education system of most of the countries has entered or...

VII Unemployment Compensation, Family Benefits, and Other Social Programs: Projections and Policy Issues

VII Unemployment Compensation, Family Benefits, and Other Social Programs: Projections and Policy Issues »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Unemployment Compensation Although the level of unemployment is clearly a major determinant of expenditure on unemployment compensation programs, the correspondence is less than perf...

Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750587.084

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of s...

II Recent Developments

II Recent Developments »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The year 1982 was one of turmoil in financial markets. Banking problems, as measured, say, by the tiering of interest rates, were not as severe as in 1974–75, but it is nonetheless likely that substantial ch...

III Financial Consequences of International Banking Problems

III Financial Consequences of International Banking Problems »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The immediate consequences of problems in international banking would be financial—the disruption of payments mechanisms and the breakdown of financial intermediation. If unchecked, these could quickly impin...

IV Possible Sources of Banking Problems

IV Possible Sources of Banking Problems »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

As in all financial intermediation, risk is an inherent feature of international banking. This section describes the risks involved and discusses some of the threats these risks pose to the continuity of int...

V Prudential Safeguards for Bank Solvency12

V Prudential Safeguards for Bank Solvency12 »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The first line of defense for the stability of banking systems is that individual banks themselves act so as to reduce the risk of failure. Financial intermediation is inherently risky; therefore, banks must...

VI Prudential Safeguards for Bank Liquidity

VI Prudential Safeguards for Bank Liquidity »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

Since no system of prudential control can eliminate the possibility of bank failure, depositors can never be certain that banks will be able to repay their deposits; and if doubts arise about the solvency of...

VII International Aspects of Official Support for Banks

VII International Aspects of Official Support for Banks »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

Viewed from an international perspective, deposit insurance plays a relatively minor role in bolstering the confidence of depositors. There are also a number of gaps in coverage by lenders of last resort, in...

Book Notices

Book Notices »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Clearing the Way for Exports

Clearing the Way for Exports »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Computers in Less Developed Economies

Computers in Less Developed Economies »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Enclave Projects

Enclave Projects »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Finance & Development, March 1971

Finance & Development, March 1971 »

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353025.022

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Industrialization, Employment, and Urbanization

Industrialization, Employment, and Urbanization »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Korea’s Export Success, 1960-69

Korea’s Export Success, 1960-69 »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Peru Modernizes Its Ports

Peru Modernizes Its Ports »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Recent Activity – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, and International Finance Corporation

Recent Activity – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, and International Finance Corporation »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Recent Activity – International Monetary Fund

Recent Activity – International Monetary Fund »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Tax Structure in Developing Countries: An Introduction

Tax Structure in Developing Countries: An Introduction »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

Views and Comments

Views and Comments »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1971

Volume/Issue: 8/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1971

ISBN: 9781616353025

Keywords: problems, data processing, systems analysts, computer installation, software package

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports serv...

I the international payments problem

I the international payments problem »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

The unbalanced conditions which have characterized the world economic situation since the end of the war still prevail. In many countries there remains a striking discrepancy between demand and productive ca...

II exchange policy and par values

II exchange policy and par values »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

Exchange Policy The establishment of the Fund was an indication of the general acceptance of the principle that the exchange policy of one country affects the well-being of all other...

III exchange restrictions

III exchange restrictions »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

The twelve months under review in this Report have shown no general trend toward the relaxation of exchange restrictions. No member of the Fund which originally availed itself of the provisions of Article XI...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351618.011

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

This paper reviews key findings of the IMF's Annual Report for the fiscal year ended April 1949. The report highlights that the unbalanced conditions that have characterized the world economic situation since the e...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

This paper reviews key findings of the IMF's Annual Report for the fiscal year ended April 1949. The report highlights that the unbalanced conditions that have characterized the world economic situation since the e...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

This paper reviews key findings of the IMF's Annual Report for the fiscal year ended April 1949. The report highlights that the unbalanced conditions that have characterized the world economic situation since the e...

IV gold policy

IV gold policy »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

Sales at Premium Prices During the past year, the Fund reviewed and decided to maintain the policy concerning external transactions in gold at premium prices, communicated to its mem...

V monetary reserves and fund resources

V monetary reserves and fund resources »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

Movements of Monetary Reserves The payments difficulties of the postwar period have caused a continuous and serious depletion of the monetary reserves of many countries. For some of...

VI membership, organization, and administration

VI membership, organization, and administration »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1949

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1949

ISBN: 9781616351618

Keywords: gold, export prices, exchange rates, exchange restrictions, foreign exchange

Membership and Organization The admission of Austria on August 27, 1948, brought the total number of Fund members to forty-seven. 1 Austria’s quota...