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Budget Classification

Budget Classification »

Source: Budget Classification

Volume: 2009

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Dominique Bouley , Davina Jacobs , and Jean-Luc Hélis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2009

ISBN: 9781462343478

Keywords: Governance, budget, budget classification, chart of accounts, government finance statistics, poverty-reducing expenditure, program budgeting, public financial management, revenues, budget classification system

This technical note analyzes the importance of a budget classification system. It highlights that budget classification is one of the fundamental building blocks of a sound budget management system, as it determine...

Budget Classification

Budget Classification »

Volume: 09

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Dominique Bouley , Davina Jacobs , and Jean-Luc Hélis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462343478.005

ISBN: 9781462343478

Keywords: Governance, budget, budget classification, chart of accounts, government finance statistics, poverty-reducing expenditure, program budgeting, public financial management, revenues, budget classification system

This technical note analyzes the importance of a budget classification system. It highlights that budget classification is one of the fundamental building blocks of a sound budget management system, as it determine...

Educating Children in Poor Countries

Educating Children in Poor Countries »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062436.051

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, how...

Educating Children in Poor Countries

Educating Children in Poor Countries »

Source: Educating Children in Poor Countries

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents’ ability or willingness to pay. The reason is simple...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Educating Children in Poor Countries

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, how...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Educating Children in Poor Countries

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Eva Jenkner , and Arye Hillman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781589062436

Keywords: primary education, primary school, schooling, school enrollment, school attendance

In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, how...

Appendix: Demand for Money

Appendix: Demand for Money »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

This appendix summarizes the results of the estimation of models of the demand for a range of monetary aggregates originally reported in Burton and Ha (1990). The approach adopted i...

China
			: Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752024.084

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China encountered problems preserving economic stability while pursuing reforms aimed at increasing its economic flexibility and efficiency. This paper examines China's experience with market-oriented reforms since...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China encountered problems preserving economic stability while pursuing reforms aimed at increasing its economic flexibility and efficiency. This paper examines China's experience with market-oriented reforms since...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China encountered problems preserving economic stability while pursuing reforms aimed at increasing its economic flexibility and efficiency. This paper examines China's experience with market-oriented reforms since...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

China has undertaken a wide-ranging program of economic reforms since 1978. Recognizing that the rigidities inherent in central planning had seriously inhibited the efficient allocation of resources and had...

II Overview of Reforms

II Overview of Reforms »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

In late 1978 China announced a program to reshape its economy. Over the subsequent ten years, economic reform involved the relaxation of direct planning controls, the decentralization of economic decision ma...

III Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Transition

III Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Transition »

Source: China : Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Gyorgy Szapary , Steven Dunaway , David Burton , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752024

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, state enterprises, monetary fund, price level

Since market-oriented reforms were set in motion in 1978, the nature and role of macroeconomic policy instruments, particularly monetary and fiscal policy, have been transformed pari passu with the changes i...

Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934683.084

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

I Evolution of Social Expenditure in the Group of Seven Major Industrial Countries, 1980–2025

I Evolution of Social Expenditure in the Group of Seven Major Industrial Countries, 1980–2025 »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Introduction Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and imp...

II Methodology for Projections

II Methodology for Projections »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Pattern of Government Social Expenditure, 1980 An important problem faced in undertaking this study, particularly given its cross-country focus, was how to define the social expendit...

III Population Dynamics in the Seven Major Industrial Countries

III Population Dynamics in the Seven Major Industrial Countries »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

A significant change is projected in the demographic structure of the seven major industrial countries over the next several decades. Through the year 2000 much of this change can be predicted with reasonabl...

IV Pensions

IV Pensions »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

The largest single item of social expenditure in most of the seven major industrial countries is pensions; Canada and Japan are the only exceptions (Chart 3 and Table 15). Of the three major government socia...

V Medical Care

V Medical Care »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

In the past two and a half decades, the growth in government expenditure on health and medical care has been explosive, more than doubling as a ratio to GDP in the seven major industrial countries. An increa...

VI Education

VI Education »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

As much as for any other social program, the demand for education is influenced vitally by demographic factors. After a long period of expansion, the education system of most of the countries has entered or...

VII Unemployment Compensation, Family Benefits, and Other Social Programs: Projections and Policy Issues

VII Unemployment Compensation, Family Benefits, and Other Social Programs: Projections and Policy Issues »

Source: Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Unemployment Compensation Although the level of unemployment is clearly a major determinant of expenditure on unemployment compensation programs, the correspondence is less than perf...

Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750587.084

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of strains...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

During the 1970s, international lending by banks came to play a dominant role in the flow of international finance. In the early 1980s, banks have continued to play a major role, but the recent evidence of s...

II Recent Developments

II Recent Developments »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The year 1982 was one of turmoil in financial markets. Banking problems, as measured, say, by the tiering of interest rates, were not as severe as in 1974–75, but it is nonetheless likely that substantial ch...

III Financial Consequences of International Banking Problems

III Financial Consequences of International Banking Problems »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The immediate consequences of problems in international banking would be financial—the disruption of payments mechanisms and the breakdown of financial intermediation. If unchecked, these could quickly impin...

IV Possible Sources of Banking Problems

IV Possible Sources of Banking Problems »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

As in all financial intermediation, risk is an inherent feature of international banking. This section describes the risks involved and discusses some of the threats these risks pose to the continuity of int...

V Prudential Safeguards for Bank Solvency12

V Prudential Safeguards for Bank Solvency12 »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

The first line of defense for the stability of banking systems is that individual banks themselves act so as to reduce the risk of failure. Financial intermediation is inherently risky; therefore, banks must...

VI Prudential Safeguards for Bank Liquidity

VI Prudential Safeguards for Bank Liquidity »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

Since no system of prudential control can eliminate the possibility of bank failure, depositors can never be certain that banks will be able to repay their deposits; and if doubts arise about the solvency of...

VII International Aspects of Official Support for Banks

VII International Aspects of Official Support for Banks »

Source: Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Johnson , and Richard Abrams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1983

ISBN: 9781557750587

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, banking system, international banks, national bank

Viewed from an international perspective, deposit insurance plays a relatively minor role in bolstering the confidence of depositors. There are also a number of gaps in coverage by lenders of last resort, in...