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Multi-Country Report
			: Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/145

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484302996.002

ISBN: 9781484302996

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Bahrain, Djibouti, Europe, Indonesia, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Middle East, Nigeria

This paper presents country experiences with reforms to strengthen regulatory oversight of the Islamic banking sector. Based on the selected country experiences, a number of important lessons and policy options can...

IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics Annual Report 2015

IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics Annual Report 2015 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498386128.044

ISBN: 9781498386128

Keywords: balance of payments, currency, investment, currencies, assets

The 2015 Annual Report of the IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics (Committee) provides an overview of recent trends in global balance of payments and international investment position (IIP) statistics,...

Non-Linear Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Emerging Markets

Non-Linear Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesca Caselli , and Agustin Roitman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513578262.001

ISBN: 9781513578262

Keywords: Non-Linearities, exchange rate, depreciation, inflation targeting, exchange rate movements, Models with Panel Data, General, All Countries,, Exchange rate pass-through, Foreign exchange

This paper estimates exchange rate pass-through to consumer prices in emerging markets focusing on non-linearities and asymmetries. We document non-linearities and asymmetries in the transmission of exchange rate f...

Contingent Liabilities from Banks
			: How to Track Them?

Contingent Liabilities from Banks : How to Track Them? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/255

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serkan Arslanalp , and Yin Liao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513568560.001

ISBN: 9781513568560

Keywords: bank, banks, banking, risk, Government Policy and Regulation, All Countries,

In this paper, we develop a methodology to assess potential losses to the government that could arise from bank failures. The approach is intended to be simple, parsimonious, and used in real time. It generates an...

Financial Crises and the Composition of Cross-Border Lending

Financial Crises and the Composition of Cross-Border Lending »

Volume/Issue: 2014/185

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , Galina Hale , and Camelia Minoiu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484361443.001

ISBN: 9781484361443

Keywords: syndicated loans, global financial crisis, BIS international banking statistics, Dealogic Loan Analytics, banking, bank assets, financial crisis, bank capital, General, Globalization: Finance,

We examine the composition and drivers of cross-border bank lending between 1995 and 2012, distinguishing between syndicated and non-syndicated loans. We show that on-balance sheet syndicated loan exposures account...

Emerging Market Volatility
			: Lessons from The Taper Tantrum

Emerging Market Volatility : Lessons from The Taper Tantrum »

Volume/Issue: 2014/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Vivek Arora , Athanasios Arvanitis , Hamid Faruqee , Papa N'Diaye , and Tommaso Mancini Griffoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498318204.006

ISBN: 9781498318204

Keywords: Monetary policy, Emerging markets, United States, Capital flows, Financial markets, Capital market volatility, Macroprudential Policy, Developed countries, Tapering, unconventional monetary policy

Accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies have spurred increased capital inflows into emerging markets since the global financial crisis. Starting in May 2013, when the Federal Reserve publicly discusse...

Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage

Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage »

Volume/Issue: 2014/129

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anton Korinek , and Alp Simsek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498370943.001

ISBN: 9781498370943

Keywords: Leverage, liquidity trap, zero lower bound, aggregate demand externality, efficiency, aggregate demand, inflation, real interest rate, contractionary monetary policy, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

We investigate the role of macroprudential policies in mitigating liquidity traps driven by deleveraging, using a simple Keynesian model. When constrained agents engage in deleveraging, the interest rate needs to f...

Russian Federation
			: Fiscal Transparency Evaluation

Russian Federation : Fiscal Transparency Evaluation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/134

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498348058.002

ISBN: 9781498348058

Keywords: fiscal reports, fiscal statistics, fiscal reporting

This paper discusses key findings of the pilot Fiscal Transparency Evaluation for the Russian Federation. Most aspects of Russia's fiscal reporting and budgeting practices are in line with good or advanced practice...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484366806.012

ISBN: 9781484366806

Keywords: Exchange rate adjustments, Exchange rate appreciation, Exchange rate assessments, Exchange rate developments, Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate depreciation, Exchange rate guarantees, Exchange rate indicators, Exchange rate indexes, Exchange rate management

This is the 64th issue of the AREAER. It provides a description of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It also provides information on th...

Russian Federation
			: Selected Issues

Russian Federation : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/311

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484343470.002

ISBN: 9781484343470

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, exchange rate regimes, Exchange rate regimes],

This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of the adoption of inflation targeting (IT) on exchange rate volatility in Russian Federation. Russia has seen an increase in exchange rate volatility during the past...

Energy Subsidy Reform
			: Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558111.071

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book prov...

Public Debt Dynamics
			: The Effects of Austerity, Inflation, and Growth Shocks

Public Debt Dynamics : The Effects of Austerity, Inflation, and Growth Shocks »

Volume/Issue: 2012/230

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fuad Hasanov , and Reda Cherif

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510553.001

ISBN: 9781475510553

Keywords: VAR, impulse responses, debt ratio, debt dynamics, primary deficit, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Time-Series Models,

We study how macroeconomic shocks affect U.S. public debt dynamics using a VAR with debt feedback. Following a fiscal austerity shock, the debt ratio initially declines and then returns to its pre-shock path. Yet,...

Two Targets, Two Instruments
			: Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies

Two Targets, Two Instruments : Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2012/1

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , and Marcos Chamon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503623.006

ISBN: 9781475503623

Keywords: Emerging markets, Exchange rate policy, Central banks, Inflation targeting, Foreign exchange intervention, Monetary policy, exchange rate, inflation, central bank, foreign exchange

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Operational Risk Management and Business Continuity Planning for Modern State Treasuries

Operational Risk Management and Business Continuity Planning for Modern State Treasuries »

Volume: 11

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504705.005

ISBN: 9781475504705

Keywords: business continuity, disaster recovery, business continuity and disaster recovery plan, operational risk, operational risk management, treasury operations, business, information, commercial banks

This technical note and manual addresses the following main issues: 1. What is operational risk management and how this should be applied to treasury operations. 2. What is business continuity and disaster reco...

The Behavior of Conventional and Islamic Bank Deposit Returns in Malaysia and Turkey

The Behavior of Conventional and Islamic Bank Deposit Returns in Malaysia and Turkey »

Volume/Issue: 2011/156

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joshua Charap , and Serhan Cevik

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455293704.001

ISBN: 9781455293704

Keywords: Interest rates, Islamic banks, causality, time-varying volatility correlation, bank deposit, interest, balance sheet, debt

This paper examines the empirical behavior of conventional bank deposit rates and the rate of return on retail Islamic profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) investment accounts in Malaysia and Turkey, using monthly data fr...

Policy Responses to Capital Flows in Emerging Markets

Policy Responses to Capital Flows in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2011/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mahmood Pradhan , Ravi Balakrishnan , Reza Baqir , Geoffrey Heenan , Sylwia Nowak , Ceyda Oner , and Sanjaya Panth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463935122.006

ISBN: 9781463935122

Keywords: Emerging markets, Capital flows, Macroeconomic policies, Macroprudential policies, capital inflows, bond, bond yields, bonds,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

External Finance, Sudden Stops, and Financial Crisis
			: What is Different This Time?

External Finance, Sudden Stops, and Financial Crisis : What is Different This Time? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/158

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): F. Gulcin Ozkan , and Filiz Unsal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455201419.001

ISBN: 9781455201419

Keywords: entrepreneurs, domestic economy, entrepreneur, open economy, domestic goods, And The Supply Of Money And Credit, international Finance, macroeconomic Aspects Of International Trade And Finance,

This paper develops a two-country DSGE model to investigate the transmission of a global financial crisis to a small open economy. We find that economies hit by a sudden stop arising from financial distress in the...

Important Elements for Inflation Targeting for Emerging Economies

Important Elements for Inflation Targeting for Emerging Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2010/113

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , and Charles Freedman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455200726.001

ISBN: 9781455200726

Keywords: inflation, central bank, rate of inflation, Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: General (includes Measurement and Data),

This is the fifth chapter of a forthcoming monograph entitled "On Implementing Full-Fledged Inflation-Targeting Regimes: Saying What You Do and Doing What You Say." It examines whether certain conditions have to be...

Foreign Participation in Emerging Markets' Local Currency Bond Markets

Foreign Participation in Emerging Markets' Local Currency Bond Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2010/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shanaka Peiris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982602.001

ISBN: 9781451982602

Keywords: Emerging Market Economies, bond, bond yields, government bond, government bond yields,

This paper estimates the impact of foreign participation in determining long-term local currency government bond yields and volatility in a group of emerging markets from 2000-2009. The results of a panel data anal...

Optimal Monetary Policy with Overlapping Generations of Policymakers

Optimal Monetary Policy with Overlapping Generations of Policymakers »

Volume/Issue: 2010/32

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Maral Shamloo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451962642.001

ISBN: 9781451962642

Keywords: Monetary Policy Committee, Commitment, Discretion, Optimal Monetary Policy, inflation, monetary authority, monetary economics,

In this paper I study the effect of imperfect central bank commitment on inflationary outcomes. I present a model in which the monetary authority is a committee that consists of members who serve overlapping, finit...

International Evidence on Recovery from Recessions

International Evidence on Recovery from Recessions »

Volume/Issue: 2009/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Valerie Cerra , Sweta Saxena , and Ugo Panizza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873306.001

ISBN: 9781451873306

Keywords: Growth, Recession, Rebound, Output loss, exchange rate, recessions, exchange rate regime,

Although negative shocks have persistent effects on output on average, this paper shows that macroeconomic policies and the structure of the economy can influence the speed of recovery and mitigate the persistence...

The Persistence of Capital Account Crises

The Persistence of Capital Account Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2009/103

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mauro Mecagni , Ruben Atoyan , and David Hofman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872507.001

ISBN: 9781451872507

Keywords: capital account crises, persistence, capital flows, private capital flows,

This study contributes to the literature on capital account crises in two ways. First, our analysis of crisis episodes between 1994 and 2002 establishes a clear relationship between the persistence of crises, their...

IMF Survey, Volume 37, Issue 13

IMF Survey, Volume 37, Issue 13 »

Volume/Issue: 37/10

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968026.023

ISBN: 9781451968026

Keywords: financial system, financial institutions, financial markets, financial crisis, interest rates

Annual Meetings, IMFC Communiqué, Global Financial Stability Report, Sovereign Wealth Fund Principles, Global Financial Crisis, Fair Value Accounting, Financial Stress and Downturns, Subprime Crisis, What Next for...

The Use of Blanket Guarantees in Banking Crises

The Use of Blanket Guarantees in Banking Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2008/250

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luc Laeven , and Fabian Valencia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871081.001

ISBN: 9781451871081

Keywords: banking, liquidity support, banking system, deposit insurance, bank restructuring

In episodes of significant banking distress or perceived systemic risk to the financial system, policymakers have often opted for issuing blanket guarantees on bank liabilities to stop or avoid widespread bank runs...

Fiscal Coverage in the Countries of the Middle East and Central Asia
			: Current Situation and a Way Forward

Fiscal Coverage in the Countries of the Middle East and Central Asia : Current Situation and a Way Forward »

Volume/Issue: 2008/111

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daria Zakharova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869712.001

ISBN: 9781451869712

Keywords: Fiscal coverage, public enterprises, fiscal risks, fiscal statistics, fiscal policy, fiscal accounts, Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government,

This paper reviews some broad principles of fiscal coverage, building on cross-country experience. It discusses the level of coverage that would be appropriate to conduct good quality fiscal analysis, while strikin...

A Risk-Based Debt Sustainability Framework
			: Incorporating Balance Sheets and Uncertainty

A Risk-Based Debt Sustainability Framework : Incorporating Balance Sheets and Uncertainty »

Volume/Issue: 2008/40

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dale Gray , Elena Loukoianova , Samuel Malone , and Cheng Lim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869026.001

ISBN: 9781451869026

Keywords: Contingent Claims, currency debt, foreign currency, foreign currency debt, risk premium,

This paper proposes a new framework for the analysis of public sector debt sustainability. The framework uses concepts and methods from modern practice of contingent claims to develop a quantitative risk-based mode...

IMF Survey, Volume 36 Issue 13

IMF Survey, Volume 36 Issue 13 »

Volume/Issue: 36/13

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938609.023

ISBN: 9781451938609

Keywords: low-income countries, global economy, emerging economies, capital flows, emerging markets

Calls for stronger IMF, World Growth Outlook, Strauss-Kahn Takes Over as New IMF Head, IMFC Communique, Globalization, Global Business Cycle, Capital Flows, Annual Meetings Seminars, Asian Economic Outlook, African...

Consistent Quantitative Operational Risk Measurement and Regulation
			: Challenges of Model Specification, Data Collection and Loss Reporting

Consistent Quantitative Operational Risk Measurement and Regulation : Challenges of Model Specification, Data Collection and Loss Reporting »

Volume/Issue: 2007/254

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Jobst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868173.001

ISBN: 9781451868173

Keywords: financial regulation, bank regulation, Basel Committee, Basel II, New Basel Capital Accord, fat tail behavior, extreme tail behavior, extreme value theory, g-and-h distribution, AMA

Amid increased size and complexity of the banking industry, operational risk has a greater potential to transpire in more harmful ways than many other sources of risk. This paper provides a succinct overview of the...

The Duration of Capital Account Crises-An Empirical Analysis

The Duration of Capital Account Crises-An Empirical Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2007/258

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Hofman , Ruben Atoyan , Dimitri Tzanninis , and Mauro Mecagni

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868210.001

ISBN: 9781451868210

Keywords: Capital account crises, duration, crises identification, capital outflows, capital flows, current account,

This paper examines the duration of capital account crises. We develop a new index to identify both the start and the end of these crises. Applying the index to a sample of 18 crisis episodes, we derive stylized fa...

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066038.054

ISBN: 9781589066038

Este folleto (que actualiza las Directrices de 1995 para el ajuste fiscal) presenta el enfoque del FMI con respecto al ajuste fiscal, y se centra en la importancia de la solidez de las finanzas públicas para promov...

Testing Real Interest Parity in Emerging Markets

Testing Real Interest Parity in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2006/249

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abhisek Banerjee , and Manmohan Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865097.001

ISBN: 9781451865097

Keywords: real interest parity, short-term local emerging market debt, Pesaran&;amp;#x2019;s CADF test, real interest rate, inflation, investors,

The paper finds significant deviations between short-term emerging market real interest rates and world real interest rates primarily due to the inflationary expectations of the local investor base. We test for lon...

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065130.054

ISBN: 9781589065130

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, fiscal adjustment, expenditure, public expenditure, aggregate demand

The pamphlet (which updates the 1995 Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustment) presents the IMF's approach to fiscal adjustment, and focuses on the role that sound government finances play in promoting macroeconomic stabil...

The Level and Composition of Public Sector Debt in Emerging Market Crises

The Level and Composition of Public Sector Debt in Emerging Market Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2006/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bjoern Rother , Ivetta Hakobyan , and Monica de Bolle

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864465.001

ISBN: 9781451864465

Keywords: debt distress, domestic debt, pre-crisis, public sector debt, International Finance: General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

The paper examines the evolution of public sector debt levels and structures in 12 emerging market countries around the time of financial crises. In particular, it focuses on whether the debt situation of sovereign...

IMF Survey, Volume 35, Issue 12

IMF Survey, Volume 35, Issue 12 »

Volume/Issue: 35/12

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968347.023

ISBN: 9781451968347

Keywords: international monetary fund, united nations, representative government, financial sector, Democracy, Economic Development. Political Aspects, Health Status Indicators, Inequality, International Comparisons, International Economics

IMF work program; de Rato in Australia, New Zealand; Improving the IEO; Swaziland, Philippines briefs; Inequality in Panama; Namibia: poverty and inequality; Gabon: post-oil era; Growth in Indian states; HIV/AIDS e...

IMF Survey, Volume 35, Issue 10

IMF Survey, Volume 35, Issue 10 »

Volume/Issue: 35/10

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968187.023

ISBN: 9781451968187

Keywords: international monetary fund, exchange rate, international trade, low inflation, Foreign investments, Consensus (social Sciences), Doha Round (2001-), Economic Development. Government Policy, Economic Shocks, Export Taxation

De Rato on global imbalances; Committee to study IMF finances; IMF management change; Country briefs: Maldives, Israel; Emerging soverign debt markets; Euro area imbalances; Preference erosion; Import protection; E...

The Design of IMF-Supported Programs

The Design of IMF-Supported Programs »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Christofides , Atish Ghosh , Uma Ramakrishnan , Alun Thomas , Laura Papi , Juan Zalduendo , and Jun Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061934.084

ISBN: 9781589061934

Keywords: current account, current account balance, inflation, capital account, balance of payments

This collection of papers examines IMF-supported programs over the period 1995-2000 in both middle-income and low-income countries. In order to seek insights from a comparison across different types of programs, th...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 05

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 05 »

Volume/Issue: 34/5

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938371.023

ISBN: 9781451938371

Keywords: development bank, macroeconomic policy, economic outlook, international monetary fund

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

How Big Are the Benefits of Economic Diversification? Evidence from Earthquakes

How Big Are the Benefits of Economic Diversification? Evidence from Earthquakes »

Volume/Issue: 2005/48

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860672.001

ISBN: 9781451860672

Keywords: Risk, diversification, earthquakes, earthquake, disasters, epidemiology of disasters, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment

Economic activity is risky. Returns across economic sectors can be highly variable, potentially causing costly adjustments to consumption. However, when returns are imperfectly correlated across sectors and insuran...

The Real Effect of Banking Crises

The Real Effect of Banking Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2005/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Raghuram Rajan , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860825.001

ISBN: 9781451860825

Keywords: bank lending channel, banking, banking crisis, currency crisis, bank lending, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

Banking crises are usually followed by a decline in credit and growth. Is this because crises tend to take place during economic downturns, or do banking sector problems have independent negative effects on the eco...

Balance Sheets, Exchange Rate Policy, and Welfare

Balance Sheets, Exchange Rate Policy, and Welfare »

Volume/Issue: 2004/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Selim Elekdag , and Ivan Tchakarov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848458.001

ISBN: 9781451848458

Keywords: financial accelerator, debt-to-GDP threshold, second-order approximation, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rate regime, flexible exchange rate, fixed exchange rate, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

The debate about the appropriate choice of exchange rate regime is fundamental in international economics. This paper develops a small open-economy model with balance sheet effects and compares the performance of f...

Managing Systemic Banking Crises

Managing Systemic Banking Crises »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and David Hoelscher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062245.084

ISBN: 9781589062245

Keywords: Banking, banking crises, recapitalization, debt restructuring, deposit insurance

Recent financial sector crises and their resolution have raised new issues and provided additional experiences to draw on in the future. Banking sector problems in Russia, Turkey, and a few Latin American countries...

Fiscal Deficits and Inflation

Fiscal Deficits and Inflation »

Volume/Issue: 2003/65

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luis Catão , and Marco Terrones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848700.001

ISBN: 9781451848700

Keywords: Macroeconomic Stabilization, price inflation, monetary policy, inflation tax, low inflation, Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General,

Macroeconomic theory postulates that fiscal deficits cause inflation. Yet empirical research has had limited success in uncovering this relationship. This paper reexamines the issue in light of broader data and a n...

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061613.054

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

The Role of Corporate, Legal and Macroeconomic Balance Sheet Indicators in Crisis Detection and Prevention

The Role of Corporate, Legal and Macroeconomic Balance Sheet Indicators in Crisis Detection and Prevention »

Volume/Issue: 2002/59

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Manuel De la Rocha , Roberto Perrelli , and Christian Mulder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847956.001

ISBN: 9781451847956

Keywords: External Vulnerability, Balance Sheet Effects, Corporate Sector, short-term debt, pre-crisis, currency crisis, International Lending and Debt Problems, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation, Corporate Indicators

This study tests the recent balance sheet explanations of external crises in emerging market countries and the role of standards in these crises. Using several unique data sets, it finds that corporate sector balan...

Emerging Market Bond Spreads and Sovereign Credit Ratings
			: Reconciling Market Views with Economic Fundamentals

Emerging Market Bond Spreads and Sovereign Credit Ratings : Reconciling Market Views with Economic Fundamentals »

Volume/Issue: 2001/165

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858051.001

ISBN: 9781451858051

Keywords: Bond spreads, monitoring, risk appetite, bond, bonds, emerging market bond, market bond, Financial Institutions and Services: General,

This paper uses a panel data estimation of a simple univariate model of sovereign spreads on ratings to analyze statistically significant deviations from the estimated relationship. We find evidence of an asymmetri...

IMF Survey, Volume 30, Issue 09

IMF Survey, Volume 30, Issue 09 »

Volume/Issue: 30/9

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451932478.023

ISBN: 9781451932478

Keywords: monetary policy, financial markets, member countries, international monetary fund, financial system

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

IMF Survey, Volume 30, Issue 17

IMF Survey, Volume 30, Issue 17 »

Volume/Issue: 30/17

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451928518.023

ISBN: 9781451928518

Keywords: capital markets, international capital, international capital markets, capital flows, capital account

Stanley Fischer, IMF First Deputy Managing Director for the past seven years, stepped down from his position at the end of August. Fischer was appointed in 1994 to an initial five-year term and to a second term in...

IMF Survey Supplement 2001

IMF Survey Supplement 2001 »

Volume/Issue: 30/1

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451951103.023

ISBN: 9781451951103

Keywords: capital markets, international capital, member countries, international capital markets, balance of payments

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Costly Collateral and the Public Supply of Liquidity

Costly Collateral and the Public Supply of Liquidity »

Volume/Issue: 2000/125

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Schellekens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854817.001

ISBN: 9781451854817

Keywords: Debt Finance, Collateral, Credit Constraints, Asset Price Volatility, entrepreneur, entrepreneurs

This paper addresses two complications arising from the use of collateral requirements in debt contracts between wealth-constrained entrepreneurs and banks. First, costly asset liquidation is found to enhance the s...

Bank Failures and Fiscal Austerity
			: Policy Presecriptions for a Developing Country

Bank Failures and Fiscal Austerity : Policy Presecriptions for a Developing Country »

Volume/Issue: 2000/90

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Feltenstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851380.001

ISBN: 9781451851380

Keywords: bank failures, general equilibrium, banking system, monetary policy, bank behavior, bank assets

This work employs a dynamic general equilibrium model to evaluate the causes and implications of bank insolvencies. The model is applied to stylized data from several South Asian countries. It derives conclusions a...

Currency Crises
			: In Search of Common Elements

Currency Crises : In Search of Common Elements »

Volume/Issue: 2000/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ranil Salgado , Jahangir Aziz , and Francesco Caramazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848892.001

ISBN: 9781451848892

Keywords: Currency Crises, outliers, banking crises, standard deviations, standard deviation

The paper seeks to identify common characteristics among a variety of macroeconomic and financial variables for a large sample of currency crises in industrial countries and emerging market economies. It covers cri...

The Choice of Exchange Rate Regime and Monetary Target in Highly Dollarized Economies

The Choice of Exchange Rate Regime and Monetary Target in Highly Dollarized Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2000/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844795.001

ISBN: 9781451844795

Keywords: exchange rates, financial programming, money demand, exchange rate, inflation, monetary aggregates

We examine the implications of high degrees of dollarization for the choice of exchange rate regime and the information content of various monetary aggregates in developing countries. We conclude that a high degree...

Bank Rating Changes and Bank Stock Returns-Puzzling Evidence from the Emerging Markets

Bank Rating Changes and Bank Stock Returns-Puzzling Evidence from the Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 1999/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anthony Richards , and David Deddouche

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857016.001

ISBN: 9781451857016

Keywords: Event Study, Rating Changes, Bank Stock Prices, bond, stock prices, stock market, bank stocks, stock returns

This paper examines the performance of emerging market bank stocks around the time of rating changes by major international agencies. The data suggest that downgrades on average have followed periods of negative cu...

Developing Countries and the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle

Developing Countries and the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle »

Volume/Issue: 1998/2

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Romain Wacziarg , and Athanasios Vamvakidis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451841732.001

ISBN: 9781451841732

Keywords: Financial integration, emerging markets, correlation, capital mobility, foreign capital, capital inflows, capital markets

The previous literature points to a high correlation between domestic rates of investment and savings among OECD countries. Some take this as evidence of limited financial integration in the industrialized world. T...

Liquid Asset Ratios and Financial Sector Reform

Liquid Asset Ratios and Financial Sector Reform »

Volume/Issue: 1997/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anne Gulde

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856408.001

ISBN: 9781451856408

Keywords: Banks, Banking Regulation, Central Bank Policy, liquid asset, banking, reserve requirement, financial sector, bonds

As a monetary, selective credit, and government debt-management instrument, a liquid asset ratio is generally inefficient and may introduce serious distortions. However, it may play a limited role as a prudential i...

The Mexican Financial Crisis
			: A Test of the Resilience of the Markets for Developing Country Securities

The Mexican Financial Crisis : A Test of the Resilience of the Markets for Developing Country Securities »

Volume/Issue: 1995/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shogo Ishii , and David Andrew

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855326.001

ISBN: 9781451855326

Keywords: bond issues, bond, bonds, international bond issues, international bond

This paper reviews developments in private capital flows to developing countries since the Mexican financial crisis in December 1994. The paper points out that a strong recovery in these flows masks some significan...

The Fiscal Abuse of Central Banks

The Fiscal Abuse of Central Banks »

Volume/Issue: 1993/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Maxwell Fry

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451966565.001

ISBN: 9781451966565

Keywords: central bank, inflation, monetary fund, monetary policy

This paper reviews the fiscal activities that governments in a sample of 26 developing countries have obliged their central banks to undertake. In the main, these activities fall under five categories: (1) collecti...

Interest Rate Policies, Stabilization, and Bank Supervision in Developing Countries
			: Strategies for Financial Reforms

Interest Rate Policies, Stabilization, and Bank Supervision in Developing Countries : Strategies for Financial Reforms »

Volume/Issue: 1990/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451927603.001

ISBN: 9781451927603

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance, moral hazard, bank supervision, financial liberalization

This paper identifies macroeconomic stability, effective bank supervision, and an appropriate sequencing of stabilization, banking regulations, and interest rate policies as common characteristics of the relatively...

Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs
			: Proceedings of a Symposium held in Washington, D.C., February 25-27, 1987

Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs : Proceedings of a Symposium held in Washington, D.C., February 25-27, 1987 »

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970005.071

ISBN: 9781451970005

Keywords: debt, interest, payments, balance of payments, external debt

This volume presents the proceedings of a symposium that was orgainzed jointly by the IMF and the World Bank and held in Washington, D.C. The symposium was organized by Vittorio Corbo, Morris Goldstein, and Mohsin...

Public Enterprise in Mixed Economies
			: Some Macroeconomic Aspects

Public Enterprise in Mixed Economies : Some Macroeconomic Aspects »

Series: Books

Author(s): Clive Gray , R. Short , and Robert Floyd

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934300.071

ISBN: 9780939934300

Keywords: public enterprise, public enterprises, public enterprise sector, enterprise sector, financial institutions

This volume, written by Robert H. Floyd, Clive S. Gray, and R.P. Short, contains three papers dealing with various aspects of the public enterprise sector and the impact that these may have on macroeconomic analysi...

External Indebtedness of Developing Countries

External Indebtedness of Developing Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ulrich Baumgartner , G. Johnson , K. Dillon , R. Williams , Peter Keller , Maria Tyler , Bahram Nowzad , G. Kincaid , and Tomás Reichmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1981

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451935875.084

ISBN: 9781451935875

Keywords: debt, external debt, payments, debt service, interest

The external indebtedness of non-oil developing countries has been of growing concern in recent years. Several factors have brought the debt issue to the forefront of the problems facing a number of countries, incl...