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How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Paulo Medas , Veronique Salins , and Jeff Danforth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536065.061

ISBN: 9781475536065

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Canada, Chile, Commodity prices, Malaysia, Natural resources, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Hemisphere, Commodity boom

Resource-rich countries have to manage highly volatile commodity revenues. In periods of revenue booms there is a tendency for large spending scale-ups. When facing large and persistent reductions in commodity pric...

Rethinking Financial Deepening
			: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets

Rethinking Financial Deepening : Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Martin Cihak , Papa N'Diaye , Adolfo Barajas , Diana Ayala Pena , Ran Bi , Yuan Gao , Annette Kyobe , Lam Nguyen , Christian Saborowski , Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Reza Yousefi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312615.006

ISBN: 9781498312615

Keywords: Economic growth, Emerging markets, Financial stability, financial development, financial deepening, financial inclusion, finance, General, Government Policy and Regulation, Estabilidad financiera; Crecimiento económico; Desarrollo del mercado de capitales; Acceso a los mercados de capitales; Mercados emergentes

The global financial crisis experience shone a spotlight on the dangers of financial systems that have grown too big too fast. This note reexamines financial deepening, focusing on what emerging markets can learn f...

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America »

Volume/Issue: 2011/7

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Martin Kaufman , Steven Phillips , Rodrigo Valdes , and Nicolas Eyzaguirre

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926557.006

ISBN: 9781463926557

Keywords: Capital inflows, Latin America, capital controls, prudential tools, current account, capital account restrictions, current account deficits, capital account,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Revenue Administration
			: Developing a Taxpayer Compliance Program

Revenue Administration : Developing a Taxpayer Compliance Program »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Barrie Russell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462314218.005

ISBN: 9781462314218

Keywords: Risk management, Taxpayer segmentation, compliance program, taxpayers, tax system, taxpayer compliance, compliance strategies, Compliance Model, Effectiveness Measures, Risk Prioritization

This technical note describes the importance of a taxpayer compliance program. Improving tax compliance requires long-term reform efforts, beginning with strengthening the organization and management of the revenue...

Government Cash Management
			: Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies

Government Cash Management : Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462318254.005

ISBN: 9781462318254

Keywords: government cash management, cash management, debt management, financial policies, central bank, debt, cash flow

This technical note describes the interaction of government cash management with other financial policies. The note offers guidance on policy, institutional, and practical issues for governments looking to develop...

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies
			: Targeting Emerging Economies

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067967.084

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Christian Beddies , Marie-Helene Le Manchec , and Bergljot Barkbu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 September 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068117.084

ISBN: 9781589068117

Keywords: debt sustainability, public debt, debt service, debt relief, domestic debt, debt-service, current account, debt burden, debt dynamics, debt ratio

Low-income countries continue to face significant challenges in meeting their vast development needs while maintaining a sustainable debt position, even after many of these countries have benefited from substantial...

Country Insurance
			: The Role of Domestic Policies

Country Insurance : The Role of Domestic Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Torbjorn Becker , Jonathan Ostry , Romain Ranciere , and Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066076.084

ISBN: 9781589066076

Keywords: Insurance supervision, Insurance legislation, Insurance regulations, bonds, international reserves, domestic currency, currency crises, international financial

...

Investissement public et partenariats public-privé

Investissement public et partenariats public-privé »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Gerd Schwartz , Richard Hemming , and Bernardin Akitoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2007

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065444.051

ISBN: 9781589065444

Keywords: public debt, fiscal targets, public finance, fiscal risk

Over the past three decades, public spending on infrastructure, as a share of GDP, has been on the decline worldwide. Although the link between infrastructure investment and economic growth is not yet fully underst...

Transición hacia un tipo de cambio flexible ¿Cómo, cuándo y a qué ritmo?
			:

Transición hacia un tipo de cambio flexible ¿Cómo, cuándo y a qué ritmo? : »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Rupa Duttagupta , Cem Karacadag , and Gilda Fernandez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 October 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065406.051

ISBN: 9781589065406

Un número creciente de países están adoptando regímenes de tipo de cambio flexible porque la flexibilidad ofrece mayor protección frente a shocks externos y una mayor independencia monetaria. Otros países han atrav...

Adopter un taux de change flexible Comment, quand et dans quels délais?
			: How, When, and How Fast?

Adopter un taux de change flexible Comment, quand et dans quels délais? : How, When, and How Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Cem Karacadag , Gilda Fernandez , and Rupa Duttagupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2006

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065390.051

ISBN: 9781589065390

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, foreign currency, foreign exchange market, monetary policy, exchange rate flexibility, exchange rate risk, exchange rate regime, flexible exchange rate

A growing number of countries are adopting flexible exchange rate regimes because flexibility offers more protection against external shocks and greater monetary independence. Other countries have made the transiti...

Moving to a Flexible Exchange Rate
			: How, When, and How Fast?

Moving to a Flexible Exchange Rate : How, When, and How Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Rupa Duttagupta , Cem Karacadag , and Gilda Fernandez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064768.051

ISBN: 9781589064768

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, foreign currency, foreign exchange market

A growing number of countries are adopting flexible exchange rate regimes because flexibility offers more protection against external shocks and greater monetary independence. Other countries have made the transiti...

Reforma financiera
			:  ¿Qué factores la afectan y qué otros le dan forma?

Reforma financiera : ¿Qué factores la afectan y qué otros le dan forma? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Ashoka Mody , and Abdul Abiad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 October 2005

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064836.051

ISBN: 9781589064836

La liberalización del sector financiero ocupó un lugar destacado en la agenda de trabajo de las autoridades de política económica durante el último cuarto del siglo XX. Pero ha habido diferencias significativas en...

Reestructuración del sector empresarial
			:  La función del gobierno en épocas de crisis

Reestructuración del sector empresarial : La función del gobierno en épocas de crisis »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 July 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061989.051

ISBN: 9781589061989

Examina las etapas del proceso de reestructuración del sector empresarial. La reestructuración a gran escala del sector empresarial que resulta necesaria como consecuencia de una crisis financiera es uno de los des...

Le casse-tête des retraites
			: Impératifs et choix des régimes de retraite

Le casse-tête des retraites : Impératifs et choix des régimes de retraite »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): N. Barr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2003

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061460.051

ISBN: 9781589061460

Keywords: pension, pensions, pension systems, funded schemes, pensioners, retirement, private pensions, pension scheme, state pension, pension system

Looks at the policy choices involved in creating pension schemes, particularly whether it is advisable to move away from government pay-as-you-go pensions toward private or publicly funded plans. Examines the reaso...

El sistema jubilatorio:  Un rompecabezas
			:  Prerrequisitos y opciones de políticas en el diseño de jubilaciones y pensiones

El sistema jubilatorio: Un rompecabezas : Prerrequisitos y opciones de políticas en el diseño de jubilaciones y pensiones »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): N. Barr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061477.051

ISBN: 9781589061477

Examina las opciones de política a la hora de diseñar un sistema de pensiones, y en especial analiza si es aconsejable reemplazar un régimen estatal basado en el sistema de reparto por planes privados o públicos ba...

Corporate Sector Restructuring
			: The Role of Government in Times of Crisis

Corporate Sector Restructuring : The Role of Government in Times of Crisis »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 August 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060951.051

ISBN: 9781589060951

Keywords: restructuring, debt restructuring, debt, asset management, loans

Examines the steps involved in restructuring the corporate sector. Large-scale corporate restructuring made necessary by a financial crisis is one of the most daunting challenges faced by economic policymakers. The...

The Pension Puzzle
			: Prerequisites and Policy Choices in Pension Design

The Pension Puzzle : Prerequisites and Policy Choices in Pension Design »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): N. Barr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061118.051

ISBN: 9781589061118

Keywords: pension, pensions, pension systems, funded schemes, pensioners

Looks at the policy choices involved in creating pension schemes, particularly whether it is advisable to move away from government pay-as-you-go pensions toward private or publicly funded plans. Examines the reaso...

Adopting Inflation Targeting
			: Practical Issues for Emerging Market Countries

Adopting Inflation Targeting : Practical Issues for Emerging Market Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mark Zelmer , and Andrea Schaechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759917.084

ISBN: 9781557759917

Keywords: Emerging markets, Inflation targeting, inflation, monetary policy, central bank, inflation targeting framework

...

Capital Controls
			: Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization

Capital Controls : Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Akira Ariyoshi , Andrei Kirilenko , Inci Ötker , Bernard Laurens , Jorge Canales Kriljenko , and Karl Habermeier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 May 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758743.084

ISBN: 9781557758743

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, capital controls, capital flows, foreign exchange

This paper examines country experiences with the use and liberalization of capital controls to develop a deeper understanding of the role of capital controls in coping with volatile capital flows, as well as the is...

Fonds de couverture
			: Que savons-nous vraiment d'eux?

Fonds de couverture : Que savons-nous vraiment d'eux? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Donald Mathieson , and Barry Eichengreen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758507.051

ISBN: 9781557758507

Keywords: hedge funds, hedge, hedge fund, financial markets, derivative, financial institutions, bonds, financial market, futures markets, hedge? funds

Each episode of volatility in financial markets heightens the attention of government officials and others to the role played by the hedge fund industry in financial market dynamics. Hedge funds were implicated in...

Exit Strategies
			: Policy Options for Countries Seeking Exchange Rate Flexibility

Exit Strategies : Policy Options for Countries Seeking Exchange Rate Flexibility »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Barry Eichengreen , Inci Ötker , A. Hamann , Esteban Jadresic , R. Johnston , Hugh Bredenkamp , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757340.084

ISBN: 9781557757340

Keywords: exchange rate, inflation, exchange rate regime, monetary policy, monetary fund

In a world of increasing capital mobility and broadening and more diversified trade, many (but not all) developing and transition economies are likely to find it desirable to move from relatively fixed exchange rat...

Lessons From Systemic Bank Restructing

Lessons From Systemic Bank Restructing »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757395.051

ISBN: 9781557757395

Keywords: banking, bank restructuring, systemic bank restructuring, banking system, banking crisis

Systemic bank restructing aims to improve bank performance - that is, restore solvency and profitability, improve the banking system's capacity to provide financial intermediation between savers and borrowers, and...

Pension Regimes and Saving

Pension Regimes and Saving »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , George Mackenzie , and Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756404.084

ISBN: 9781557756404

Keywords: pension, retirement, benefits, pensions, pension plans

Public pension systems around the world have been criticized in recent years for some serious flaws, including the excessive burden they impose on the public finances and their depressing impact on saving rates. Th...

The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth
			: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies

The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth : Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , Philip Gerson , and David Orsmond

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756299.084

ISBN: 9781557756299

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, fiscal policy, capital expenditure, expenditure management

This study examines the composition of fiscal adjustment - tax and expenditure policies and administrative procedures, and some aspects of public enterprise reform - in a sample of eight countries (Bangladesh, Chil...

Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries
			: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies

Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries : Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kalpana Kochhar , Erik Offerdal , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Mauro Mecagni , Jianping Zhou , Balázs Horváth , David Goldsbrough , and Sharmini Coorey

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 August 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755599.084

ISBN: 9781557755599

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, private investment, external financing, wages

This study examines the links between adjustment policies and growth in a small group of developing countries- Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, and Thailand - during 1970 -93. It provides...

Capital Account Convertibility
			: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies

Capital Account Convertibility : Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Owen Evens , and Peter Quirk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755247.084

ISBN: 9781557755247

Keywords: capital movements, capital account, capital account liberalization, capital inflows, capital controls

The paper summarizes the main issues arising from experiences of industrial and developing countries with capital account liberalization and it examines the IMF's treatment of capital controls in its surveillance,...

The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Tomás Baliño , Charles Enoch , and William Alexander

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754899.084

ISBN: 9781557754899

Keywords: central bank, monetary policy, banking, monetary control, banking system

This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary po...

Recent Experiences with Surges in Capital Inflows

Recent Experiences with Surges in Capital Inflows »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Robert Kahn , Adam Bennett , María Carkovic S. , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753502.084

ISBN: 9781557753502

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, foreign exchange, capital outflows, current account

This paper explores the experience of six countries (Chile, Colombia, Egypt, Mexico, Spain and Thailand) with capital inflows. It illustrates that although capital inflows are usually beneficial, too great an inflo...

The Capital Inflows Problem
			: Concepts and Issues

The Capital Inflows Problem : Concepts and Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1993/10

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Carmen Reinhart , Leonardo Leiderman , and Guillermo Calvo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969931.003

ISBN: 9781451969931

Keywords: Inflation, capital inflows, exchange rate, real exchange rate, capital inflow, exchange rate appreciation

Since 1990 capital has started to move from industrial countries to developing regions like Latin America, the Middle East and parts of Asia. Reentry into international capital markets is a welcome turn of events f...

Managing Financial Risks in indebted Developing Countries
			: Occa Paper No.65

Managing Financial Risks in indebted Developing Countries : Occa Paper No.65 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557751164.084

ISBN: 9781557751164

Keywords: hedging, futures contracts, hedge, futures contract, futures markets

This paper examines the types of market-related hedging instruments that could potentially be useful to indebted developing countries as they seek to manage the financial risks created by variability of the prices...