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A Hybrid Approach to Estimating the Efficiency of Public Spending on Education in Emerging and Developing Economies

A Hybrid Approach to Estimating the Efficiency of Public Spending on Education in Emerging and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2014/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484398241.001

ISBN: 9781484398241

Keywords: Education expenditure, efficiency, hybrid, developing economies, emerging economies, education spending, expenditure, educational outcomes, Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality

The measurement of the efficiency of public education expenditure using parametric and non-parametric methods has proven challenging. This paper seeks to overcome the difficulties of earlier studies by using a hybr...

Debt Reduction, Fiscal Adjustment, and Growth in Credit-Constrained Economies

Debt Reduction, Fiscal Adjustment, and Growth in Credit-Constrained Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/238

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emanuele Baldacci , Sanjeev Gupta , and Carlos Mulas-Granados

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 November 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475516500.001

ISBN: 9781475516500

Keywords: fiscal adjustments, fiscal adjustment, spending cuts, General,

This paper assesses the effects of fiscal consolidations associated with public debt reduction on medium-term output growth during periods of private debt deleveraging. The analysis covers 107 countries and 79 epis...

Monitoring Systemic Risk Basedon Dynamic Thresholds

Monitoring Systemic Risk Basedon Dynamic Thresholds »

Volume/Issue: 2012/159

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kasper Lund-Jensen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504576.001

ISBN: 9781475504576

Keywords: Systemic Risk, banking, systemic banking crisis, banking crises

Successful implementation of macroprudential policy is contingent on the ability to identify and estimate systemic risk in real time. In this paper, systemic risk is defined as the conditional probability of a syst...

Statuts du Fonds Monétaire International

Statuts du Fonds Monétaire International »

Series: Articles of Agreement

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 April 2012

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352578.013

ISBN: 9781616352578

Keywords: voting, general resources account, voting power, election, balance of payments, gold, voting rights, exchange arrangements, repurchases, reserve assets

Last issued in 1992, this new release of the IMF's Articles of Agreement for 2011 includes changes to the Articles resulting from the adoption of the Fourth Amendment on August 10, 2009, as well as the Fifth and Si...

Surges

Surges »

Volume/Issue: 2012/22

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahvash Qureshi , Atish Ghosh , Juan Zalduendo , and Jun Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931841.001

ISBN: 9781463931841

Keywords: surges, emerging market economies, net capital flows, net capital, exchange rate, capital flow,

This paper examines why surges in capital flows to emerging market economies (EMEs) occur, and what determines the allocation of capital across countries during such surge episodes. We use two different methodologi...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350048.043

ISBN: 9781616350048

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Sovereign Credit Ratings and Spreads in Emerging Markets
			: Does Investment Grade Matter?

Sovereign Credit Ratings and Spreads in Emerging Markets : Does Investment Grade Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/44

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laura Jaramillo , and Michelle Tejada

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455218981.001

ISBN: 9781455218981

Keywords: Rating Agencies, public debt, external public debt, standard deviation, external debt, standard errors, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, International Finance: General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

Sovereign investment grade status is often associated with lower spreads in international markets. Using a panel framework for 35 emerging markets between 1997 and 2010, thispaper finds that investment grade status...

Internationaler Währungsfonds
			: Jahresbericht 2010 Eine Ausgewogene Globale Erholung Fördern

Internationaler Währungsfonds : Jahresbericht 2010 Eine Ausgewogene Globale Erholung Fördern »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 October 2010

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350192.011

ISBN: 9781616350192

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Rapport Annuel 2010
			: Pour Une Reprise Mondiale Équilibrée

Rapport Annuel 2010 : Pour Une Reprise Mondiale Équilibrée »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350185.011

ISBN: 9781616350185

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Crisis and Recovery
			: Role of the Exchange Rate Regime in Emerging Market Countries

Crisis and Recovery : Role of the Exchange Rate Regime in Emerging Market Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2010/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209422.001

ISBN: 9781455209422

Keywords: Global financial crisis, fixed exchange rate, growth, emerging market economies, exchange rate regime, exchange rate, current account balance, terms of trade

This paper examines the role of the exchange rate regime in explaining how emerging market economies fared in the recent global financial crisis, particularly in terms of output losses and growth resilience. After...

Is Social Spending Procyclical?

Is Social Spending Procyclical? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Hajdenberg , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209347.001

ISBN: 9781455209347

Keywords: social spending, expenditures, health expenditures, public expenditures, total expenditures,

This paper studies the cyclical behavior of public spending on health and education in 150 countries during 1987 - 2007. It finds that spending on education and health is procyclical in developing countries and acy...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068629.043

ISBN: 9781589068629

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2009
			: Fighting the Global Crisis

Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2009 : Fighting the Global Crisis »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2009

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068841.011

ISBN: 9781589068841

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, balance of payments, financial system, poverty reduction, financial markets, financial statements, monetary union, expenditures, commodity prices

The IMF's 2009 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2009, which covers the period from May 1, 2008, thr...

Fonds Monétaire International Rapport Annuel 2009
			: La Riposte à La Crise Mondiale

Fonds Monétaire International Rapport Annuel 2009 : La Riposte à La Crise Mondiale »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068834.011

ISBN: 9781589068834

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, balance of payments, financial system, poverty reduction, financial markets, financial statements, monetary union, expenditures, commodity prices

The IMF's 2009 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2009, which covers the period from May 1, 2008, thr...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

An Analysis of So-Called Export-led Growth

An Analysis of So-Called Export-led Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2008/220

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jie Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870787.001

ISBN: 9781451870787

Keywords: Export-led growth, real exchange rate, productivity improvement, export growth, exchange rate, exportable sector, export sector,

The stylized fact that strong economic growth is usually accompanied with strong export growth leads many people to conclude that the export sector is the main driving force behind those episodes. The model in this...

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 55, No. 3

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 55, No. 3 »

Volume: 55

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 August 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067240.024

ISBN: 9781589067240

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, monetary fund, foreign exchange, inflation

This special issue on exchange rates is drawn from the Eighth Jacques Polak Annual Research Conference held at the International Monetary Fund in Washington in November 2007. The Mundell-Fleming Lecture by Stanley...

Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures
			: Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies

Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures : Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2008/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Bikas Joshi , Manuela Goretti , Uma Ramakrishnan , Alun Thomas , Atish Ghosh , and Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451945997.003

ISBN: 9781451945997

Keywords: Economic policy, Balance of payments, Capital inflows, Capital flows, Developing countries, Policy Discussion Paper, policy responses, current account, exchange rate,

Although capital inflows are generally beneficial to recipient countries, they also pose a challenge for the conduct of economic policy. This paper proposes a conceptual taxonomy to guide the design of policy respo...

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2008/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , and Ummul Hasanath Ruthbah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868968.001

ISBN: 9781451868968

Keywords: Spending, Absorption, Growth, current account balance, reserve accumulation, current account, capital formation, central bank,

This paper examines the macroeconomic usage of aid using panel data for a broad sample of aid-recipients. By definition an increase in aid must go toward a reduction in the current account balance (absorbed aid), a...

Fiscal Implications of Multilateral Tariff Cuts

Fiscal Implications of Multilateral Tariff Cuts »

Volume/Issue: 2006/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Azim Sadikov , Hans Lankes , Dustin Smith , Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , and Jean-Jacques Hallaert

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864632.001

ISBN: 9781451864632

Keywords: Doha Round, trade policy, trade liberalization, tariff revenue, tariff cuts, tariff lines, Trade Policy. Doha Round,

The paper contributes to the discussion about the revenue implications of trade reform by assessing the approximate fiscal revenue impact of different liberalization formulae under consideration in multilateral tra...

Spending Seigniorage
			: Do Central Banks Have a Governance Problem?

Spending Seigniorage : Do Central Banks Have a Governance Problem? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alain Ize

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863185.001

ISBN: 9781451863185

Keywords: seigniorage, expenditures, central bank, reserve accumulation, currency composition, Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government,

This paper reviews how central banks allocate seigniorage, based on systematic crosscountry comparisons of their financial accounts. Central banks are classified as weak or strong, depending upon their structural p...

Does Economic Diversification Lead to Financial Development? Evidence From topography

Does Economic Diversification Lead to Financial Development? Evidence From topography »

Volume/Issue: 2006/35

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodney Ramcharan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862959.001

ISBN: 9781451862959

Keywords: Financial development, diversification, geography, land area, statistic, heteroscedasticity, standard deviation,

An influential theoretical literature has observed that economic diversification can reduce risk and increase financial development. But causality operates in both directions, as a well functioning financial system...

Fiscal Policy and Financial Markets

Fiscal Policy and Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2006/16

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bernardin Akitoby , and Thomas Stratmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862768.001

ISBN: 9781451862768

Keywords: spreads, bond, bonds, fiscal adjustment, fiscal adjustments, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Other,

This paper introduces fiscal policy in a model of sovereign risk spreads ("spreads"). Using panel data from emerging market countries, we find that reductions in public expenditure are a more powerful tool for redu...

Finance & Development, December 2005

Finance & Development, December 2005 »

Volume/Issue: 42/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451954050.022

ISBN: 9781451954050

Keywords: remittances, photography, facsimile, development impact of remittances, impact of remittances

This paper reviews the resurgence of Latin America. The paper highlights that much of the region has witnessed a swift and robust recovery from the successive financial crises of 2001-02. Within two years, the regi...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 18

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 18 »

Volume/Issue: 34/18

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938890.023

ISBN: 9781451938890

Keywords: central bank, international monetary fund, public sector, central bank governors

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Financial Integration, Growth, and Volatility

Financial Integration, Growth, and Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2005/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anne Epaulard , and Aude Pommeret

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860863.001

ISBN: 9781451860863

Keywords: Risk-sharing, Endogenous Growth, Stochastic Growth, global financial markets, financial markets, foreign assets, General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical, International Factor Movements and International Business: General, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Economic Growth of Open Economies

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the welfare gains from financial integration for developing and emerging market economies. To do so, we build a stochastic endogenous growth model for a small open economy that...

Does Compliance with Basel Core Principles Bring Any Measurable Benefits?

Does Compliance with Basel Core Principles Bring Any Measurable Benefits? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Richard Podpiera

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874532.001

ISBN: 9781451874532

Keywords: nonperforming loans, interest margin, net interest margin, banking sector, heteroscedasticity, banking supervision, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

We explore the relationship between banking sector performance and the quality of regulation and supervision as measured by compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCP). Using B...

The Cyclical and Long-Term Behavior of Government Expenditures in Developing Countries

The Cyclical and Long-Term Behavior of Government Expenditures in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2004/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste , Bernardin Akitoby , Benedict Clements , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874433.001

ISBN: 9781451874433

Keywords: Wagner&;amp;#x2019;s law, government spending, public spending, public finance, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General,

We examine the short- and long-term movements of government spending relative to output in 51 countries. We find that in the short term, the main components of government spending increase with output in about half...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063815.041

ISBN: 9781589063815

Keywords: oil exporting, industrial countries, oil exporting countries

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062696.043

ISBN: 9781589062696

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, social security, financial corporations, interest, benefits, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

What Are the Channels Through Which External Debt Affects Growth?

What Are the Channels Through Which External Debt Affects Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/15

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helene Poirson Ward , Luca Ricci , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843293.001

ISBN: 9781451843293

Keywords: Growth, growth accounting, tfp, total factor productivity, low debt, debt ratios, International Lending and Debt Problems, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Economic Development: General, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper investigates the channels through which debt affects growth, specifically whether debt affects growth through factor accumulation or total factor productivity growth. It also tests for the presence of no...

Predicting Sovereign Debt Crises

Predicting Sovereign Debt Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2003/221

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Axel Schimmelpfennig , Nouriel Roubini , and Paolo Manasse

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875256.001

ISBN: 9781451875256

Keywords: Early-warning system, sovereign debt crises, sovereign default, debt crisis, external debt, debt crises, short-term debt, currency crisis, General Outlook and Conditions, Forecasting and Other Model Applications

We develop an early-warning model of sovereign debt crises. A country is defined to be in a debt crisis if it is classified as being in default by Standard & Poor's, or if it has access to nonconcessional IMF finan...

On the Determinants of First-Time Sovereign Bond Issues

On the Determinants of First-Time Sovereign Bond Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2003/184

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Grigorian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859386.001

ISBN: 9781451859386

Keywords: sovereign bonds, first-time market access, bond, bonds, bond issues, international capital markets, sovereign bond, International Lending and Debt Problems,

In recent years, the number of countries which have borrowed in international capital markets by issuing sovereign bonds has increased substantially. For these countries, capital market access meant a de facto ackn...

Time-Varying Thresholds
			: An Application to Purchasing Power Parity

Time-Varying Thresholds : An Application to Purchasing Power Parity »

Volume/Issue: 2003/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gene Leon , and Serineh Najarian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859218.001

ISBN: 9781451859218

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, nonlinearity, real exchange rate, statistics, time-varying thresholds, asymmetry,

This paper introduces a time-varying threshold autoregressive model (TVTAR), which is used to examine the persistence of deviations from PPP. We find support for the stationary TVTAR against the unit root hypothesi...

Exits From Pegged Regimes
			: An Empirical Analysis

Exits From Pegged Regimes : An Empirical Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2003/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , and Rupa Duttagupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856750.001

ISBN: 9781451856750

Keywords: Pegged exchange rates, floating regimes, determinants of exits, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rate regimes, trade openness, flexible exchange rate,

Using countries' de facto exchange rate regimes during 1985-2002, this paper analyzes the determinants of exits from pegged regimes, where exits involve shifts to more or less flexible regimes, or adjustments withi...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 January 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061866.043

ISBN: 9781589061866

Keywords: expenditure, total expenditure, capital expenditure, social security, expenditure on goods, expenditures, social security funds, social insurance, unemployment, social insurance fund

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance
			: A Review of Country Experience

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance : A Review of Country Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Olivier Benon , Katherine Baer , and Juan Toro R.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061187.084

ISBN: 9781589061187

Keywords: Taxes, Taxation, tax administration, large taxpayers, tax collection, tax administrations, taxpayer compliance

One area that has not been reviewed in developing countries is the growing focus on different segments of the taxpayer population-including the large taxpayers-as a way to encourage greater stability in public reve...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2001

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2001 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060531.043

ISBN: 9781589060531

Keywords: expenditure, total expenditure, capital expenditure, social security, expenditure on goods, expenditures, social security funds, social insurance, unemployment, disability

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Import-Reducing Effect of Trade Barriers
			: A Cross-Country Investigation

Import-Reducing Effect of Trade Barriers : A Cross-Country Investigation »

Volume/Issue: 2001/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Qing Wang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451954692.001

ISBN: 9781451954692

Keywords: Trade-Barriers, Tariff, non-tariff trade barriers, trade barriers, trade protection, bilateral trade, trade flows, tariff rates, Econometric Modeling,

A comprehensive empirical investigation is carried out to ascertain the import-reducing effect of trade protection barriers. We first present a statistical summary of the status of global trade protection. Then, ba...

How Do Countries Choose their Exchange Rate Regime?

How Do Countries Choose their Exchange Rate Regime? »

Volume/Issue: 2001/46

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helene Poirson Ward

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846553.001

ISBN: 9781451846553

Keywords: optimal currency areas, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rate risk, exchange rate flexibility, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Economic Development: General,

This paper investigates the determinants of exchange rate regime choice in 93 countries during 1990-98. Cross-country analysis of variations in international reserves and nominal exchange rates shows that (i) truly...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451958621.041

ISBN: 9781451958621

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, deposit money, deposit money banks, debt securities, financial derivatives, equity securities, portfolio investment, loans

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Factor Reallocation and Growth in Developing Countries

Factor Reallocation and Growth in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2000/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helene Poirson Ward

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851717.001

ISBN: 9781451851717

Keywords: Factor reallocation, dualism, growth, labor reallocation, labor productivities, labor productivity, gdp growth

This paper examines the extent to which developing countries benefit from intersectoral factor transfers by specifying the impact and determinants of sectoral changes and of the degree of dualism (or allocation ine...

The Impact of Intersectoral Labor Reallocationon Economic Growth

The Impact of Intersectoral Labor Reallocationon Economic Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2000/104

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helene Poirson Ward

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852752.001

ISBN: 9781451852752

Keywords: Growth, labor reallocation, labor efficiency, labor productivity, labor force, labor share

This study seeks to explain economic growth differences in an aggregate production function framework, where labor reallocation from agriculture to modern sectors influences labor efficiency growth. The econometric...

Medium-Term Determinants of Current Accounts in Industrial and Developing Countries
			: An Empirical Exploration

Medium-Term Determinants of Current Accounts in Industrial and Developing Countries : An Empirical Exploration »

Volume/Issue: 2000/46

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Menzie Chinn , and Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846546.001

ISBN: 9781451846546

Keywords: Current account variation, structural and macroeconomic determinants, saving-investment balance, current accounts, current account balances, current account deficits, budget balance

This paper provides an empirical investigation of the medium-term determinants of current accounts for a large sample of industrial and developing countries. The analysis is based on a structural approach that high...

Does Deposit Insurance Increase Banking System Stability?

Does Deposit Insurance Increase Banking System Stability? »

Volume/Issue: 2000/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Asli Demirgüç-Kunt , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451841893.001

ISBN: 9781451841893

Keywords: G28, G21, E44, deposit insurance, banking, banking crisis, banking crises, bank stability

This study analyzes panel data for 61 countries during 1980–97 and concludes that explicit deposit insurance tends to be detrimental to bank stability, the more so where bank interest rates are deregulated a...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Financial Liberalization and Financial Fragility

Financial Liberalization and Financial Fragility »

Volume/Issue: 1998/83

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrica Detragiache , and Asli Demirgüç-Kunt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850512.001

ISBN: 9781451850512

Keywords: Financial liberalization, banking crises, financial development, banking, banking crisis, bank assets

A study of 53 countries during 1980-95 finds that financial liberalization increases the probability of a banking crisis, but less so where the institutional environment is strong. In particular, respect for the ru...

Corruption and the Rate of Temptation
			: Do Low Wages in the Civil Service Cause Corruption?

Corruption and the Rate of Temptation : Do Low Wages in the Civil Service Cause Corruption? »

Volume/Issue: 1997/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849424.001

ISBN: 9781451849424

Keywords: wage, wages, civil service, civil servants, civil service wages

This paper develops and tests two efficiency wage models of corruption in the civil service. Under fair wage models, civil service wages are an important determinant of corruption. Under shirking models, the level...

Deposit Protection Arrangements
			: A Survey

Deposit Protection Arrangements : A Survey »

Volume/Issue: 1995/134

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Kyei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855548.001

ISBN: 9781451855548

Keywords: deposit insurance, deposit protection, banking, deposit guarantee, banking system

This paper is a survey of deposit protection arrangements and it compares the key elements of deposit protection schemes around the world. There are more implicit arrangements that guarantee deposits than explicit...

Capital Account Convertibility
			: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies

Capital Account Convertibility : Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Owen Evens , and Peter Quirk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755247.084

ISBN: 9781557755247

Keywords: capital movements, capital account, capital account liberalization, capital inflows, capital controls

The paper summarizes the main issues arising from experiences of industrial and developing countries with capital account liberalization and it examines the IMF's treatment of capital controls in its surveillance,...

Statuts du
			: Fonds monétaire international

Statuts du : Fonds monétaire international »

Series: Articles of Agreement

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753731.013

ISBN: 9781557753731

Keywords: voting, voting power, exchange arrangements, election, exchange rates, voting rights, exchange restrictions, general resources account, exchange transactions, gold

Revised in 1993, this edition incorporates the Third Amendment of the Articles of Agreement. Reprinted in December 2004. Reprinted in January 2008 (200 copies)...

Government Expenditure and Economic Growth
			: An Empirical Investigation

Government Expenditure and Economic Growth : An Empirical Investigation »

Volume/Issue: 1989/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974157.001

ISBN: 9781451974157

Keywords: expenditure, economic growth, growth rate, expenditures, capital expenditure

This paper examines the empirical evidence on the contribution that government and, in particular, capital expenditure make to the growth performance of a sample of developing countries. Using the Denison growth ac...

The Stabilizing Role of the Compensatory Financing Facility
			: Empirical Evidence and Welfare Implications

The Stabilizing Role of the Compensatory Financing Facility : Empirical Evidence and Welfare Implications »

Volume/Issue: 1988/108

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 December 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946284.001

ISBN: 9781451946284

Keywords: export earnings, exporters, export shortfalls, fuel exporters

Purchases under the compensatory financing facility, the IMF’s largest special facility, accounted for more than one quarter of total credit extended by the IMF over the period 1976 to 1985. Given the size o...

Voluntary Debt Reduction
			: Incentives and Welfare

Voluntary Debt Reduction : Incentives and Welfare »

Volume/Issue: 1988/97

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 November 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451949353.001

ISBN: 9781451949353

Keywords: growth rate, external debt, domestic saving, gnp, economic growth

This paper provides empirical evidence on the determinants of long-term growth performance in a sample of 55 developing countries grouped by income levels. The evidence indicates that a model incorporating the savi...

Theoretical Aspects of Growth in Developing Countries
			: External Debt Dynamics and the Role of Human Capital

Theoretical Aspects of Growth in Developing Countries : External Debt Dynamics and the Role of Human Capital »

Volume/Issue: 1988/54

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969443.001

ISBN: 9781451969443

Keywords: external debt, capital intensity, capital ratio, domestic savings, cost of capital

This paper formulates a simple aggregate growth model that is capable of assessing the impact of macroeconomic policies on the long-term performance of a developing country. The model emphasizes expenditures on hum...

Fiscal Dimensions of Trade Policy

Fiscal Dimensions of Trade Policy »

Volume/Issue: 1988/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 May 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974935.001

ISBN: 9781451974935

Keywords: trade taxes, export taxes, import taxes, domestic taxes, tariff structure

This paper assembles findings on the use of trade taxes, examines the main contributing factors, and reviews the fiscal aspects of trade policy as they relate to both efficiency and macroeconomic stabilization. It...

Government Employment and Pay
			: Some International Comparisons

Government Employment and Pay : Some International Comparisons »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait , and Peter Heller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 1983

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750686.084

ISBN: 9781557750686

Keywords: employment, wage, wages, government employment, salaries

How many people are employed by the government? How many are employed by the central government compared with the state and local authorities? How many are employed in public enterprise? How much are they all paid?...

Finance & Development, September 1973

Finance & Development, September 1973 »

Volume/Issue: 10/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1973

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353131.022

ISBN: 9781616353131

Keywords: income distribution, per capita income, income groups, distribution of income

This paper focuses on the subject of development and income distribution, and suggests a method whereby economic development can be skewed in favor of the poor. The paper underscores that improvements in the distri...

Finance & Development, December 1964

Finance & Development, December 1964 »

Volume/Issue: 1/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1964

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352769.022

ISBN: 9781616352769

Keywords: monetary fund, international liquidity, international finance, international finance corporation

This paper presents highlights of the 1964 annual meetings of the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The paper underscores that the charters of these organizations provide that they...