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Multi-Country Report
			: Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/145

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484302996.002

ISBN: 9781484302996

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Bahrain, Djibouti, Europe, Indonesia, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Middle East, Nigeria

This paper presents country experiences with reforms to strengthen regulatory oversight of the Islamic banking sector. Based on the selected country experiences, a number of important lessons and policy options can...

Malaysia
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Authorities of Malaysia

Malaysia : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Authorities of Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2017/101

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475596656.002

ISBN: 9781475596656

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Malaysia

This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights the Malaysian economy's good performance over the past few years in a challenging global economic environment. Despite the impact of global commodity price and financial...

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold?

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sohrab Rafiq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552607.001

ISBN: 9781475552607

Keywords: Cambodia, Cambodia, China, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Emerging markets, Economic integration, Economic growth, Philippines, Indonesia

This paper looks at the effects of a China slowdown on Emerging Market Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Frontier Developing Economies (Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., and Vietnam) in ASEAN. The main finding...

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Paulo Medas , Veronique Salins , and Jeff Danforth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536065.061

ISBN: 9781475536065

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Canada, Chile, Commodity prices, Malaysia, Natural resources, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Hemisphere, Commodity boom

Resource-rich countries have to manage highly volatile commodity revenues. In periods of revenue booms there is a tendency for large spending scale-ups. When facing large and persistent reductions in commodity pric...

Spillovers from China's Growth Slowdown and Rebalancing to the ASEAN-5 Economies

Spillovers from China's Growth Slowdown and Rebalancing to the ASEAN-5 Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2016/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Dizioli , Jaime Guajardo , Vladimir Klyuev , Rui Mano , and Mehdi Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524260.001

ISBN: 9781475524260

Keywords: China’;s slowdown and rebalancing, international business cycle, spillovers, Global VAR, Flexible System of Global Models (FSGM), ASEAN-5.

After many years of rapid expansion, China's growth is slowing to more sustainable levels and is rebalancing, with consumption becoming the main growth driver. This transition is likely to have negative effects on...

Evolution of Exchange Rate Behavior in the ASEAN-5 Countries

Evolution of Exchange Rate Behavior in the ASEAN-5 Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2016/165

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vladimir Klyuev , and To-Nhu Dao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523867.001

ISBN: 9781475523867

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes; exchange rate volatility; fear of floating; currency blocks; ASEAN

This paper examines exchange rate behavior in the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand). It finds that for the last 10 years there is no evidence that their central banks...

Asean-5 Cluster Report
			: Evolution of Monetary Policy Frameworks

Asean-5 Cluster Report : Evolution of Monetary Policy Frameworks »

Volume/Issue: 2016/176

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498308748.002

ISBN: 9781498308748

Keywords: Monetary policy, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Central banks, Business cycles, Capital outflows, Cross country analysis, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand

This paper examines the evolution of monetary policy frameworks of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)-5 economies, with particular focus on changes since the Asian financial crisis and the more rece...

Malaysia
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia

Malaysia : 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2016/110

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484343067.002

ISBN: 9781484343067

Keywords: exchange, debt, monetary fund, capital outflows

This paper discusses the extent to which the Malaysian economy has been hit by a number of external and domestic shocks since late 2014, including sharply lower energy prices, spillovers from China, capital outflow...

Islamic Finance and Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT)

Islamic Finance and Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) »

Volume/Issue: 2016/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nadim Kyriakos-Saad , Manuel Vasquez , Chady El Khoury , and Arz El Murr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513516158.001

ISBN: 9781513516158

Keywords: Risk, AML/CFT, finance, financial institutions, transactions, islamic financial institutions, Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law, All Countries,, Islamic finance

The money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF) risks associated with conventional finance are generally well identified and understood by the relevant national authorities. There is, however, no common unde...

Resolution Frameworks for Islamic Banks

Resolution Frameworks for Islamic Banks »

Volume/Issue: 2015/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elsie Addo Awadzi , Carine Chartouni , and Mario Tamez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513503219.001

ISBN: 9781513503219

Keywords: Islamic banks, Islamic bank resolution, bank resolution, banks, bank, banking, islamic banking, islamic bank, Government Policy and Regulation, All Countries

Islamic banking is growing rapidly and its potential impact on global financial stability cannot be underestimated. International standards for resolving banks have evolved after the global financial crisis, culmin...

Malaysia
			: Technical Assistance Report-Strengthening Outcome Based Budgeting

Malaysia : Technical Assistance Report-Strengthening Outcome Based Budgeting »

Volume/Issue: 2015/266

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513535890.002

ISBN: 9781513535890

Keywords: budget, national budget, expenditures, programs, performance management

This Technical Assistance report reviews the reforms undertaken by the Government of Malaysia for strengthening outcome-based budgeting (OBB). OBB builds on the previous output-based modified budgeting system, whic...

The Leap of the Tiger
			: How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap

The Leap of the Tiger : How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap »

Volume/Issue: 2015/131

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reda Cherif , and Fuad Hasanov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513556017.001

ISBN: 9781513556017

Keywords: growth, middle-income trap, innovation, technology, electronics, it, at, technologies, Government Policy, General

Only a few European economies and Korea and Taiwan Province of China reached high-income status during 1970-2010. Malaysia's real income per capita increased to 26 percent of the U.S. level in 2010 from 20 percent...

An Overview of Islamic Finance

An Overview of Islamic Finance »

Volume/Issue: 2015/120

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mumtaz Hussain , Asghar Shahmoradi , and Rima Turk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513590745.001

ISBN: 9781513590745

Keywords: Sukuk, finance, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), Government Policy and Regulation,

Islamic finance has started to grow in international finance across the globe, with some concentration in few countries. Nearly 20 percent annual growth of Islamic finance in recent years seems to point to its resi...

Rethinking Financial Deepening
			: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets

Rethinking Financial Deepening : Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Martin Cihak , Papa N'Diaye , Adolfo Barajas , Diana Ayala Pena , Ran Bi , Yuan Gao , Annette Kyobe , Lam Nguyen , Christian Saborowski , Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Reza Yousefi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312615.006

ISBN: 9781498312615

Keywords: Economic growth, Emerging markets, Financial stability, financial development, financial deepening, financial inclusion, finance, General, Government Policy and Regulation, Estabilidad financiera; Crecimiento económico; Desarrollo del mercado de capitales; Acceso a los mercados de capitales; Mercados emergentes

The global financial crisis experience shone a spotlight on the dangers of financial systems that have grown too big too fast. This note reexamines financial deepening, focusing on what emerging markets can learn f...

Islamic Finance
			: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options

Islamic Finance : Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options »

Volume/Issue: 2015/5

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Alfred Kammer , Mohamed Norat , Marco Pinon , Ananthakrishnan Prasad , Christopher Towe , and Zeine Zeidane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498325035.006

ISBN: 9781498325035

Keywords: Islamic finance, Islamic banking, participation finance, financial regulations, Sukuk markets, infrastructure finance, financial inclusion, monetary policy, macroprudential policy, tax policy

The SDN discusses the main policy issues and challenges in building an inclusive and safe Islamic finance industry, with emphasis on Islamic banking and Sukuk markets. To this end, it discuses why Islamic finance m...

Malaysia
			: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

Malaysia : Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/58

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498392815.002

ISBN: 9781498392815

Keywords: debt, inflation, monetary fund, oil prices

This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Malaysia's well-diversified economy continued to perform well in 2014. Growth accelerated to 5.9 percent, aided by robust domestic private demand and a recovery in...

Malaysia
			: Selected Issues

Malaysia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2015/59

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345767.002

ISBN: 9781498345767

Keywords: oil, energy, prices, gas

This Selected Issues paper examines the implications of lower crude oil prices on Malaysia's economy. Although Malaysia's net oil exports are now very small as a share of GDP, its gas exports are sizeable. The pape...

ASEAN Financial Integration

ASEAN Financial Integration »

Volume/Issue: 2015/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Geert Almekinders , Alex Mourmouras , Jianping Zhou , Satoshi Fukuda , and Yong Sarah Zhou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484386491.001

ISBN: 9781484386491

Keywords: Economic growth, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Capital flows, Capital account liberalization, Economic integration, Financial integration, Indonesia

The establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) at end-2015 has brought into sharp focus the issue of financial and economic integration in the region. This paper takes stock of ASEAN's financial integratio...

Islamic Banking Regulation and Supervision
			: Survey Results and Challenges

Islamic Banking Regulation and Supervision : Survey Results and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2014/220

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): In Song , and Carel Oosthuizen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498380928.001

ISBN: 9781498380928

Keywords: Islamic banks, regulatory framework, banking, bank, banks, risk, Government Policy and Regulation, Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems,

The growing presence of Islamic banking needs to be accompanied by the development of effective regulation and supervision. This paper examines the results of the survey conducted by the International Monetary Fund...

Regulation and Supervision of Islamic Banks

Regulation and Supervision of Islamic Banks »

Volume/Issue: 2014/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Aledjandro Lopez Mejia , Suliman Aljabrin , Rachid Awad , Mohamed Norat , and In Song

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498361590.001

ISBN: 9781498361590

Keywords: Islamic banks, conventional banks, regulatory framework, banks, risk, bank, banking, deposits, Government Policy and Regulation, Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems,

This paper aims at developing a better understanding of Islamic banking (IB) and providing policy recommendations to enhance the supervision of Islamic banks (IBs). It points out and discusses similarities and diff...

Soaring of the Gulf Falcons
			: Diversification in the GCC Oil Exporters in Seven Propositions

Soaring of the Gulf Falcons : Diversification in the GCC Oil Exporters in Seven Propositions »

Volume/Issue: 2014/177

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reda Cherif , and Fuad Hasanov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498310642.001

ISBN: 9781498310642

Keywords: oil countries, growth, oil, exporters, oil exporters, oil exports, Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development,

A key priority for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is to create a dynamic non-oil tradable sector to support sustainable growth. Since export diversification takes a long time, it has to start now. We...

Do the Type of Sukuk and Choice of Shari'a Scholar Matter?

Do the Type of Sukuk and Choice of Shari'a Scholar Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christophe Godlewski , Rima Turk Ariss , and Laurent Weill

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498398794.001

ISBN: 9781498398794

Keywords: Financial Istruments, Shari&;amp;#x2019;a Scholars, ijara, sukuk, stock market, murabaha, Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems,

Sukuk, the shari'a-compliant alternative mode of financing to conventional bonds, have expanded considerably over the last decade. We analyze the stock market reaction to two key features of this financial instrume...

Islamic Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Status and Prospects

Islamic Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Status and Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 2014/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrique Gelbard , Mumtaz Hussain , Rodolfo Maino , Yibin Mu , and Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498348669.001

ISBN: 9781498348669

Keywords: sukuk, islamic banks, banking, General,

Islamic finance is a fast growing activity in world markets. This paper provides a survey on Islamic Finance in SSA. Ongoing activities include Islamic banking, sukuk issuances (to finance infrastructure projects),...

Malaysia
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program Banking System Spillovers-Technical Note

Malaysia : Financial Sector Assessment Program Banking System Spillovers-Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2014/95

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484352106.002

ISBN: 9781484352106

Keywords: bank claims, banking, banking system, bank share, bank negara malaysia

This Technical Note focuses on banking system spillovers of Malaysia. The note examines the presence of foreign banks and the potential for problems in other jurisdictions to spillover to Malaysia and the overseas...

Malaysia
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program Financial Sector Performance, Vulnerabilities and Derivatives-Technical Note

Malaysia : Financial Sector Assessment Program Financial Sector Performance, Vulnerabilities and Derivatives-Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2014/98

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484352601.002

ISBN: 9781484352601

Keywords: banking, banking system, banking institutions, tier 1 capital

This Technical Note focuses on financial sector performance, vulnerabilities, and derivatives in Malaysia. The note highlights that banking sector has undergone consolidation while competition has increased followi...

Malaysia
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program Monetary Liquidity Frameworks-Technical Note

Malaysia : Financial Sector Assessment Program Monetary Liquidity Frameworks-Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2014/96

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484352243.002

ISBN: 9781484352243

Keywords: capital inflows, excess liquidity, government securities, private capital flows

This technical note on Monetary Liquidity Frameworks on Malaysia's inflation analyzes that it has returned to a more stable path, after some wider fluctuations before and during the global financial crisis. On the...

Malaysia
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program Housing Market-Technical Note

Malaysia : Financial Sector Assessment Program Housing Market-Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2014/99

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475526196.002

ISBN: 9781475526196

Keywords: financial sector, growth rate, growth rates, moral hazard

This Technical Note on the housing market in Malaysia focuses on price developments in the Malaysian housing market and of its sustainability. Malaysia maintains a one-fourth time series for the housing prices inde...

Malaysia
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program Stress Testing the Malaysian and Labuan IBFC Banking Sectors-Technical Note

Malaysia : Financial Sector Assessment Program Stress Testing the Malaysian and Labuan IBFC Banking Sectors-Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2014/97

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484352373.002

ISBN: 9781484352373

Keywords: banking, banking system, bank solvency, investment bank, banks ’; balance sheets

...

Malaysia
			: Selected Issues

Malaysia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/82

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475529852.002

ISBN: 9781475529852

Keywords: fiscal consolidation, fiscal savings, tax rates

This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3...

Malaysia
			: Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation

Malaysia : Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/80

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 March 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475557404.002

ISBN: 9781475557404

Keywords: current account, external debt, current account balance, current account surplus, debt sustainability

The IMF staff report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation focuses on Malaysia's economic developments and policies. The IMF report discusses that continued growth in domestic demand, especially investment, and a pi...

The Growth and Stabilization Properties of Fiscal Policy in Malaysia

The Growth and Stabilization Properties of Fiscal Policy in Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2013/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sohrab Rafiq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484337912.001

ISBN: 9781484337912

Keywords: Stabilization, Multipliers, Time-variation, government spending, fiscal multipliers, fiscal stimulus, government spending shocks, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)

This paper examines the size of the fiscal multiplier values generated in Malaysia. The results show that a government spending shock leads to broad positive economic effects. Although, the effectiveness of fiscal...

Export Quality in Developing Countries

Export Quality in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2013/108

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Henn , Chris Papageorgiou , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351635.001

ISBN: 9781484351635

Keywords: Product Quality, Upgrading, export quality, exporter, exporters, commodity exporters, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Information and Product Quality,

This paper develops new, far more extensive estimates of export quality, covering 178 countries and hundreds of products over 1962–2010. Quality upgrading is particularly rapid during the early stages of dev...

Malaysia
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

Malaysia : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2013/56

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475514773.002

ISBN: 9781475514773

Keywords: banking, banking institutions, banking supervision, deposit insurance, banking sector

The Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) employs a well-developed risk-focused regulatory and supervisory regime. Despite this, a clear gap exists in the application of the supervision and regulation regime to financial hold...

Malaysia
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Implementation of IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

Malaysia : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Implementation of IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/59

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475519891.002

ISBN: 9781475519891

Keywords: regulation, rules, regulatory system, legislation

The article is an account of the assessment of implementation of IOSCO principles of securities and regulations in Malaysia. This assessment was conducted by the International Monetary fund (IMF) and the World Bank...

Malaysia
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Observance of Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems

Malaysia : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Observance of Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems »

Volume/Issue: 2013/60

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475585353.002

ISBN: 9781475585353

Keywords: deposit insurance, insurance system, insurance coverage, insurance systems, moral hazard

This paper evaluates and addresses Malaysia's compliance with the Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems (Core Principles), and reviews relevant laws, regulations and regulatory and supervisory pra...

Malaysia
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Observance of Insurance Core Principles

Malaysia : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Observance of Insurance Core Principles »

Volume/Issue: 2013/57

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475513806.002

ISBN: 9781475513806

Keywords: risk management, reinsurance, insurance industry, insurance supervision, applications

This report is an analysis of the insurance core principles of Malaysia. This assessment gives a clear understanding of the regulatory and supervisory framework of the insurance sector of Malaysia. Bank Negara Mala...

Malaysia
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Observance of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures

Malaysia : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Detailed Assessment of Observance of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures »

Volume/Issue: 2013/58

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475570991.002

ISBN: 9781475570991

Keywords: credit, payment systems, collateral, csd, pvp

This report is an assessment of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures (PFMI) in Malaysia. The central bank is in charge of the payment and settlement systems and the Securities Commission (...

Malaysia
			: 2012 Article IV Consultation

Malaysia : 2012 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/51

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475546590.002

ISBN: 9781475546590

Keywords: fiscal consolidation, fiscal risks, fiscal sustainability, government spending, fiscal policy

This report discusses Malaysia's economic accomplishment and other economic reforms. Malaysia has attained a strong growth in 2012, and a robust growth is expected in the next term. The financial position of Malays...

Malaysia
			: Financial Sector Stability Assessment

Malaysia : Financial Sector Stability Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2013/52

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475588026.002

ISBN: 9781475588026

Keywords: banking, banking system, banking sector, foreign exchange, banking institutions

This assessment is a review of the financial environment of Malaysia. Like many other Asian countries, Malaysia experienced financial distress in the late 1990s, but the country's policy reforms have moved it to a...

Malaysia
			: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

Malaysia : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes »

Volume/Issue: 2013/53

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753892.002

ISBN: 9781557753892

Keywords: regulation, legislation, regulatory requirements, regulations, regulatory framework

This report is an assessment of the state of compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) in Malaysia. Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) employs a well-developed risk-focused regulatory and supervisory system, consist...

Explaining ASEAN-3's Investment Puzzle A Tale of Two Sectors

Explaining ASEAN-3's Investment Puzzle A Tale of Two Sectors »

Volume/Issue: 2013/13

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yong Sarah Zhou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475533736.001

ISBN: 9781475533736

Keywords: Tobin&;amp;#x2019;s Q, asian crisis, capital markets, pre-crisis, financial crisis

The prolonged investment decline in post-Asian crisis emerging Asia, in contrast to the swift recovery of economic growth, has remained a puzzle. This paper shows that the post-crisis investment recession has been...

Economic Diversification in LICs
			: Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications

Economic Diversification in LICs : Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2012/13

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Chris Papageorgiou , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475532180.006

ISBN: 9781475532180

Keywords: Trade and real-sector diversification, quality upgrading, volatility, growth, LICs, export diversification, external shocks, external trade, total exports, trading partners

Limited diversification is an underlying characteristic of many low-income countries (LICs). Concentration in sectors with limited scope for increases in productivity and quality may result in less broad-based and...

What's in it for Me? A Primeron Differences between Islamic and Conventional Finance in Malaysia

What's in it for Me? A Primeron Differences between Islamic and Conventional Finance in Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2012/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olga Krasicka , and Sylwia Nowak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504224.001

ISBN: 9781475504224

Keywords: Islamic banks, conventional banks, Sukuk, bond, bonds, islamic finance, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

What attracts conventional investors to Islamic financial instruments? We answer this question by comparing Malaysian Islamic and conventional security prices and their response to macrofinancial factors. Our analy...

Crises, Labor Market Policy, and Unemployment

Crises, Labor Market Policy, and Unemployment »

Volume/Issue: 2012/65

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Davide Furceri , Lorenzo E. Bernal-Verdugo , and Dominique Guillaume

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938420.001

ISBN: 9781463938420

Keywords: Labor market, flexibility, reforms, labor market institutions, labor market flexibility, labor market policies, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment and Investment: Other

Using a sample of 97 countries spanning the period 1980?2008, we estimate that financial crises have a large negative impact on unemployment in the short term, but that this effect rapidly disappears in the medium...

Operative Principles of Islamic Derivatives
			: Towards a Coherent Theory

Operative Principles of Islamic Derivatives : Towards a Coherent Theory »

Volume/Issue: 2012/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Sole , and Andreas Jobst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938406.001

ISBN: 9781463938406

Keywords: derivatives, Islamic risk management, shari&;amp;#x2019;ah compliance, sukuk, mudaraba, ijarah, murabaha, riba, istisna, gharar

Derivatives are few and far between in countries where the compatibility of financial transactions with Islamic law requires the development of shari'ah-compliant structures. Islamic finance is governed by the shar...

Malaysia
			: Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation

Malaysia : Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/43

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463939724.002

ISBN: 9781463939724

Keywords: government debt, current account, external debt, current account balance

This 2011 Article IV Consultation reports that Malaysia's economy is vulnerable to a prolonged downturn in advanced economies or a sharp escalation in global financial stress. Weaker exports and terms of trade woul...

The Behavior of Conventional and Islamic Bank Deposit Returns in Malaysia and Turkey

The Behavior of Conventional and Islamic Bank Deposit Returns in Malaysia and Turkey »

Volume/Issue: 2011/156

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joshua Charap , and Serhan Cevik

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455293704.001

ISBN: 9781455293704

Keywords: Interest rates, Islamic banks, causality, time-varying volatility correlation, bank deposit, interest, balance sheet, debt

This paper examines the empirical behavior of conventional bank deposit rates and the rate of return on retail Islamic profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) investment accounts in Malaysia and Turkey, using monthly data fr...

Asean Bond Market Development
			: Where Does it Stand? Where is it Going?

Asean Bond Market Development : Where Does it Stand? Where is it Going? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/137

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahmood Pradhan , Shanaka Peiris , Mangal Goswami , Dulani Seneviratne , Joshua Felman , Andreas Jobst , and Simon Gray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265428.001

ISBN: 9781455265428

Keywords: ASEAN, market development, bond market, capital inflows, securities, capital markets, General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: General, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Market Structure And Pricing

Since the Asian crisis, ASEAN5 countries have expended considerable effort in trying to develop their domestic bond markets. Yet today these markets are not much larger, relative to GDP, than they were a decade bef...

Developing Asean5 Bond Markets
			: What Still Needs to Be Done?

Developing Asean5 Bond Markets : What Still Needs to Be Done? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Simon Gray , Andreas Jobst , Joshua Felman , and Ana Carvajal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455259403.001

ISBN: 9781455259403

Keywords: Bond markets: Bond markets, ASEAN, market development, securities, corporate bonds, futures, derivative markets, interest rate, General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: General, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

This paper examines a range of issues relating to bond markets in the ASEAN5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) - physical infrastructure including trading, clearing and settlement; regulati...

Determinants of Bank Credit in Emerging Market Economies

Determinants of Bank Credit in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2011/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vahram Stepanyan , and Kai Guo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455218035.001

ISBN: 9781455218035

Keywords: pre-crisis, banking, banking sector, post-crisis period, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

We examine changes in bank credit across a wide range of emerging market economies during the last decade. The rich time-series and cross-section information allows us to draw broader lessons compared to many exist...

Imperfect Information and Saving in a Small Open Economy

Imperfect Information and Saving in a Small Open Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2011/60

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Agustin Roitman , and Christian Daude

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455221042.001

ISBN: 9781455221042

Keywords: saving, uncertainty, Bayesian learning, Markov switching, autocorrelation, stochastic process, correlation, probabilities, statistics, Asymmetric and Private Information,

Emerging markets are more volatile and face different types of shocks, in size and nature, compared to their developed counterparts. Accurate identification of the stochastic properties of shocks is difficult. We s...

Growth and Crisis, Unavoidable Connection?

Growth and Crisis, Unavoidable Connection? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/267

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roberto Piazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210749.001

ISBN: 9781455210749

Keywords: growth rate, capital inflows, gdp growth, capital stock, economic growth, International Lending and Debt Problems, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, Growth

In emerging economies periods of rapid growth and large capital inflows can be followed by sudden stops and financial crises. I show that, in the presence of financial markets imperfections, a simple modification o...

Post-Crisis Fiscal Policy Priorities for the ASEAN-5

Post-Crisis Fiscal Policy Priorities for the ASEAN-5 »

Volume/Issue: 2010/252

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209521.001

ISBN: 9781455209521

Keywords: fiscal space, expenditure, public spending, public debt, Economywide Country Studies: Asia including Middle East, And Finance,

This paper focuses on post-crisis fiscal priorities in the ASEAN-5 economies - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Sound economic fundamentals and timely and forceful policy responses to the c...

Malaysia
			: 2010 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia

Malaysia : 2010 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2010/265

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455206889.002

ISBN: 9781455206889

Keywords: debt, budget, financial sector, article, external debt

Strong fundamentals and countercyclical policies have helped Malaysia during the global financial crisis. Executive Directors welcomed the authorities' challenge to make progress toward economic growth and structur...

Islamic Banking
			: How Has it Diffused?

Islamic Banking : How Has it Diffused? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/195

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam , and Kangni Kpodar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205257.001

ISBN: 9781455205257

Keywords: Poisson regression, Tobit model, banking, islamic banks, banking system, islamic bank, Financial Economics: General, Economic Development: General,

This paper investigates the determinants of the pattern of Islamic bank diffusion around the world using country-level data for 1992 - 2006. The analysis illustrates that income per capita, share of Muslims in the...

Sudden Stops, Output Drops, and Credit Collapses

Sudden Stops, Output Drops, and Credit Collapses »

Volume/Issue: 2010/176

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jihad Dagher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455201877.001

ISBN: 9781455201877

Keywords: Financial liberalization, welfare gain, financial deepening, small firms, debt, investment, dividends, interest, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper proposes a tractable Sudden Stop model to explain the main patterns in firm level data in a sample of Southeast Asian firms during the Asian crisis. The model, which features trend shocks and financial f...

A Fistful of Dollars
			: Lobbying and the Financial Crisis

A Fistful of Dollars : Lobbying and the Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2009/287

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Deniz Igan , Thierry Tressel , and Prachi Mishra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874327.001

ISBN: 9781451874327

Keywords: Lobbying, mortgage lending, mortgage, predatory lending, mortgages, consumer protection,

Using detailed information on lobbying and mortgage lending activities, we find that lenders lobbying more on issues related to mortgage lending (i) had higher loan-to-income ratios, (ii) securitized more intensive...

Malaysia
			: 2009 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia

Malaysia : 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2009/253

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 August 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451828337.002

ISBN: 9781451828337

Keywords: debt, interest, budget, external debt

This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Malaysia has been hit hard by the global downturn. The economy is set to contract for the first time in 10 years. Global turbulence has spilled into the domestic fi...

The Systemic Regulation of Credit Rating Agencies and Rated Markets

The Systemic Regulation of Credit Rating Agencies and Rated Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2009/129

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872767.001

ISBN: 9781451872767

Keywords: Rating agencies, structured credit products, macro-prudential, micro-prudential, regulation, procylicality, credit ratings, financial stability, money market,

Credit ratings have contributed to the current financial crisis. Proposals to regulate credit rating agencies focus on micro-prudential issues and aim at reducing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency a...

Coping with the Crisis
			: Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries

Coping with the Crisis : Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2009/08

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Christopher Crowe , Jonathan Ostry , Jun Kim , Marcos Chamon , and Atish Ghosh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462323296.004

ISBN: 9781462323296

Keywords: Emerging markets, exchange rate, fiscal policy, foreign exchange, interest rates, foreign currency

...

A New Database of Financial Reforms

A New Database of Financial Reforms »

Volume/Issue: 2008/266

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrica Detragiache , Abdul Abiad , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871241.001

ISBN: 9781451871241

Keywords: Financial liberalization, financial reforms, banking, financial reform, banking supervisory agency,

This paper introduces a new database of financial reforms, covering 91 economies over 1973–2005. It describes the content of the database, the information sources utilized, and the coding rules used to creat...

Islamic Bond Issuance
			: What Sovereign Debt Managers Need to Know

Islamic Bond Issuance : What Sovereign Debt Managers Need to Know »

Volume/Issue: 2008/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy , Peter Kunzel , Paul Mills , and Andreas Jobst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946024.003

ISBN: 9781451946024

Keywords: Capital markets, Debt management, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Securities markets, Sovereign debt, securitization, structured finance, Islamic bond, shari&;amp;#x2019;ah compliance

Recent years have witnessed a surge in the issuance of Islamic capital market securities (sukuk) by corporates and public sector entities amid growing demand for alternative investments. As the sukuk market continu...

Sukuk vs. Eurobonds
			: Is There a Difference in Value-at-Risk?

Sukuk vs. Eurobonds : Is There a Difference in Value-at-Risk? »

Volume/Issue: 2007/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Faezeh Raei , and Selim Cakir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868012.001

ISBN: 9781451868012

Keywords: Sukuk, Sharia-Compliance, Eurobonds, Value-at-Risk, Diversification, bond, conventional bonds, islamic bonds, bond portfolios,

This paper assesses the impact of bonds issued according to Islamic principles (Sukuk), on the cost and risk structure of investment portfolios by using the Value-at-Risk (VaR) framework. The market for Sukuk has g...

Introducing Islamic Banks into Conventional Banking Systems

Introducing Islamic Banks into Conventional Banking Systems »

Volume/Issue: 2007/175

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Sole

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867398.001

ISBN: 9781451867398

Keywords: Islamic Banking and Finance, Supervision, banking, islamic banks, islamic banking, islamic finance, takaful,

Over the last decade, Islamic banking has experienced global growth rates of 10-15 percent per annum, and has been moving into an increasing number of conventional financial systems at such a rapid pace that Islami...

Finance & Development, June 2007

Finance & Development, June 2007 »

Volume/Issue: 44/2

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451953824.022

ISBN: 9781451953824

Keywords: international monetary fund, gender, girls, gender equality, gender disparities

The June 2007 issue of F&D spotlights gender equality. The lead article discusses progress toward fulfilling the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on redressing gender discrimination and empowering women and relate...

The Economics of Islamic Finance and Securitization

The Economics of Islamic Finance and Securitization »

Volume/Issue: 2007/117

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Jobst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866810.001

ISBN: 9781451866810

Keywords: securitization, ABS, MBS, structured finance, Islamic securitization, sovereign securitization, shariah compliance, sukuk, mudharaba, ijara

Islamic lending transactions are governed by the precepts of the shariah, which bans interest and stipulates that income must be derived as return from entrepreneurial investment. Since Islamic finance is predicate...

The Lending Channel in Emerging Economies
			: Are Foreign Banks Different?

The Lending Channel in Emerging Economies : Are Foreign Banks Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2007/48

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francisco Vazquez , Carmen Reinhart , and Marco Arena

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866124.001

ISBN: 9781451866124

Keywords: Lending channel, monetary transmission, reserve requirements, reserve requirement, money market, monetary conditions, central bank,

This paper exploits a panel dataset comprising 1,565 banks in 20 emerging countries during 1989- 2001 and compares the response of the volume of loans and the rates on loans and deposits to various measures of mone...

Collateral Damage
			: Exchange Controls and International Trade

Collateral Damage : Exchange Controls and International Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2007/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zhiwei Zhang , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865721.001

ISBN: 9781451865721

Keywords: non-tariff barriers, exchange controls, foreign exchange, tariff barriers, International Factor Movements And International Business,

While new conventional wisdom warns that developing countries should be aware of the risks of premature capital account liberalization, the costs of not removing exchange controls have received much less attention....

Financial Soundness Indicators
			: Compilation Guide

Financial Soundness Indicators : Compilation Guide »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063853.069

ISBN: 9781589063853

Keywords: deposit takers, financial corporations, retained earnings, financial assets, financial system

Financial Soundness Indicators (FSIs) are measures that indicate the current financial health and soundness of a country's financial institutions, and their corporate and household counterparts. FSIs include both a...

Market-Based Estimation of Default Probabilities and its Application to Financial Market Surveillance

Market-Based Estimation of Default Probabilities and its Application to Financial Market Surveillance »

Volume/Issue: 2006/104

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jorge Chan-Lau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863642.001

ISBN: 9781451863642

Keywords: Default probability, security prices, financial surveillance, probabilities, probability, bond, equation, credit derivatives,

This paper reviews a number of different techniques for estimating default probabilities from the prices of publicly traded securities. These techniques are useful for assessing credit exposure, systemic risk, and...

Sovereign Borrowing Cost and the IMF's Data Standards Initiatives

Sovereign Borrowing Cost and the IMF's Data Standards Initiatives »

Volume/Issue: 2006/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Cady , and Anthony Pellechio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863383.001

ISBN: 9781451863383

Keywords: yield spreads, SDDS, GDDS, bonds, bond, international capital markets, credit rating, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Lending and Debt Problems,

The effects of the IMF's data standards initiatives on sovereign borrowing costs in private capital markets are investigated for 26 emerging market and developing countries. Stable and significant panel econometric...

Does Import Protection Discourage Exports?

Does Import Protection Discourage Exports? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/20

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stephen Tokarick

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862805.001

ISBN: 9781451862805

Keywords: export tax, restrictiveness, tariff barriers, tariff reductions, export sector, Computable General Equilibrium Models,

This paper points out that while many developing countries seek to increase their export earnings, they have not embraced fully the notion that their own pattern of import protection hurts their export performance....

Fiscal Policy and Financial Markets

Fiscal Policy and Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2006/16

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bernardin Akitoby , and Thomas Stratmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862768.001

ISBN: 9781451862768

Keywords: spreads, bond, bonds, fiscal adjustment, fiscal adjustments, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Other,

This paper introduces fiscal policy in a model of sovereign risk spreads ("spreads"). Using panel data from emerging market countries, we find that reductions in public expenditure are a more powerful tool for redu...

The END
			: A New Indicator of Financial and Nonfinancial Corporate Sector Vulnerability

The END : A New Indicator of Financial and Nonfinancial Corporate Sector Vulnerability »

Volume/Issue: 2005/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jorge Chan-Lau , and Toni Gravelle

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862508.001

ISBN: 9781451862508

Keywords: Corporate Vulnerability, Default Probability, probability, probabilities, correlation, International Finance: General,

This paper describes a corporate sector vulnerability indicator, the expected number of defaults (END), based on the joint occurrence of defaults among a number of firms and/or institutions. The END indicator is ge...

Measuring and Analyzing Sovereign Risk with Contingent Claims

Measuring and Analyzing Sovereign Risk with Contingent Claims »

Volume/Issue: 2005/155

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Gapen , Dale Gray , Cheng Lim , and Yingbin Xiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861747.001

ISBN: 9781451861747

Keywords: contingent claims, probability, currency debt, foreign currency debt, domestic currency, correlation,

This paper develops a comprehensive new framework to measure and analyze sovereign risk. Since traditional macroeconomic vulnerability indicators and accounting-based measures do not address risk in a comprehensive...

An Anatomy of Corporate Bond Markets
			: Growing Pains and Knowledge Gains

An Anatomy of Corporate Bond Markets : Growing Pains and Knowledge Gains »

Volume/Issue: 2005/152

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pipat Luengnaruemitchai , and Li Ong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861716.001

ISBN: 9781451861716

Keywords: Benchmark, mature markets, regulation, bond, bonds, corporate bonds, corporate bond, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation,

The objective of this paper is to discuss the key issues relating to the development of local corporate bond markets. We examine the requirements for local corporate bond market development, and compare and contras...

Cross-Country Empirical Studies of Systemic Bank Distress
			: A Survey

Cross-Country Empirical Studies of Systemic Bank Distress : A Survey »

Volume/Issue: 2005/96

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Asli Demirgüç-Kunt , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861150.001

ISBN: 9781451861150

Keywords: financial fragility, banking, banking crisis, deposit insurance, bank fragility, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

A rapidly growing empirical literature is studying the causes and consequences of bank fragility in present-day economies. The paper reviews the two basic methodologies adopted in cross-country empirical studies-th...

Financial Integration, Growth, and Volatility

Financial Integration, Growth, and Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2005/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anne Epaulard , and Aude Pommeret

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860863.001

ISBN: 9781451860863

Keywords: Risk-sharing, Endogenous Growth, Stochastic Growth, global financial markets, financial markets, foreign assets, General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical, International Factor Movements and International Business: General, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Economic Growth of Open Economies

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the welfare gains from financial integration for developing and emerging market economies. To do so, we build a stochastic endogenous growth model for a small open economy that...

Malaysia
			: Statistical Appendix

Malaysia : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2005/102

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451828320.002

ISBN: 9781451828320

Keywords: expenditure, external debt, total expenditure, public sector debt, domestic debt

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

The Real Effect of Banking Crises

The Real Effect of Banking Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2005/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Raghuram Rajan , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860825.001

ISBN: 9781451860825

Keywords: bank lending channel, banking, banking crisis, currency crisis, bank lending, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

Banking crises are usually followed by a decline in credit and growth. Is this because crises tend to take place during economic downturns, or do banking sector problems have independent negative effects on the eco...

Labuan, Malaysia
			: Assessment of the Supervision and Regulation of the Financial Sector-Review of Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision

Labuan, Malaysia : Assessment of the Supervision and Regulation of the Financial Sector-Review of Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2004/391

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451828313.002

ISBN: 9781451828313

Keywords: money laundering, law enforcement, terrorism, financing of terrorism, offshore banks

This Review of Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision in Labuan, Malaysia, highlights the supervisory and antimoney laundering frameworks. Labuan, an offshore financial center located in Malaysia, has all the...

Russian Federation
			: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module

Russian Federation : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module »

Volume/Issue: 2004/288

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451833058.002

ISBN: 9781451833058

Keywords: budget law, budget code, budget execution, annual budget

This report on the Russian Federation's Observance of Standards and Codes reports on the fiscal transparency module. Russia has achieved considerable progress in fiscal transparency and financial management since 1...

Debt Maturity and the International Financial Architecture

Debt Maturity and the International Financial Architecture »

Volume/Issue: 2004/137

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855944.001

ISBN: 9781451855944

Keywords: debt contract, international financial architecture, debt contracts, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Lending and Debt Problems, Short-term Debt, Collective Action Clause, International Bankruptcy Court,

This paper presents a theory of the maturity of international sovereign debt and derives its implications for the reform of the international financial architecture. It presents a general equilibrium model in which...

Foreign Banks in Emerging Market Crises
			: Evidence From Malaysia

Foreign Banks in Emerging Market Crises : Evidence From Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2004/129

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrica Detragiache , and Poonam Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855142.001

ISBN: 9781451855142

Keywords: Emerging market banks, banking, domestic banks, foreign bank, banking system, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

Foreign banks have greatly increased their presence in emerging market countries in recent years. This paper compares the performance of domestic banks and a long-established group of foreign banks during the recen...

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies »

Volume/Issue: 2004/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stefan Ingves , Steven Seelig , and Dong He

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974225.003

ISBN: 9781451974225

Keywords: Asset management, Bank restructuring, Financial crisis, corporate restructuring, loan restructuring, restructuring, asset management companies, impaired assets, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper discusses the role of asset management companies (AMCs) in facilitating bank restructuring and specifies some policy lessons learned from international experience. The paper concludes that there is no si...

Malaysia
			: Statistical Appendix

Malaysia : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2004/88

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 March 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451828283.002

ISBN: 9781451828283

Keywords: expenditure, external debt, total expenditure, public sector debt, domestic debt

The report provides the IMF's projections and estimates on Malaysia's federal government revenue and grants, and fiscal operations, 1998-2003, economic classification of federal government, labor market development...

How Much Do Trading Partners Matter for Economic Growth?

How Much Do Trading Partners Matter for Economic Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vivek Arora , and Athanasios Vamvakidis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844412.001

ISBN: 9781451844412

Keywords: trading partners, trading partner, trade share, open economies, partner countries, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

This paper empirically examines the extent to which a country's economic growth is influenced by its trading partner economies. Panel estimation results based on four decades of data for over 100 countries show tha...

IMF Survey, Volume 32, Issue 09

IMF Survey, Volume 32, Issue 09 »

Volume/Issue: 32/9

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 May 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451932539.023

ISBN: 9781451932539

Keywords: capital flows, capital inflows, capital markets, financial globalization, capital account, IMF financial globalization study,

Over the past decade, gross cross-border capital flows have surged, not only among industrial countries but also between industrial and developing countries. What impact has this had on developing countries? A rece...

Early Warning Systems
			: A Survey and a Regime-Switching Approach

Early Warning Systems : A Survey and a Regime-Switching Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2003/32

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abdul Abiad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845136.001

ISBN: 9781451845136

Keywords: Currency crisis, early warning system, regime switching, Markov switching, probability, probabilities, currency crises, asian crisis, contagion, Forecasting and Other Model Applications

Previous early-warning systems (EWSs) for currency crises have relied on models that require a priori dating of crises. This paper proposes an alternative EWS, based on a Markov-switching model, which identifies an...

Measuring Liquidity in Financial Markets

Measuring Liquidity in Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2002/232

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tonny Lybek , and Abdourahmane Sarr

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875577.001

ISBN: 9781451875577

Keywords: foreign exchange, bond, foreign exchange markets, exchange markets, Measuring Liquidity, General Financial Markets,

This paper provides an overview of indicators that can be used to illustrate and analyze liquidity developments in financial markets. The measures include bid-ask spreads, turnover ratios, and price impact measures...

Moral Hazard and International Crisis Lending
			: A Test

Moral Hazard and International Crisis Lending : A Test »

Volume/Issue: 2002/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Jeronimo Zettelmeyer , and Isabel Schnabel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859201.001

ISBN: 9781451859201

Keywords: international lending, bond, crisis lending, bond spreads, bonds, International Lending and Debt Problems, Econometric Methods: - Single Equation Models,

We test for the existence of a moral hazard effect attributable to official crisis lending by analyzing the evolution of sovereign bond spreads in emerging markets before and after the Russian crisis. The nonbailou...

Corporate Performance and Governance in Malaysia

Corporate Performance and Governance in Malaysia »

Volume/Issue: 2002/152

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luc Leruth , Yougesh Khatri , and J. Piesse

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857108.001

ISBN: 9781451857108

Keywords: stochastic frontier, Southeast Asian crisis, corporate sector, functional form, financial crises, asian crisis, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Planning, Coordination, and Reform,

This paper measures corporate sector performance (efficiency) and empirically examines the role of corporate governance. A stochastic frontier with inefficiency effects is fitted to a panel dataset of 31 of the lar...

Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Performance
			: Survey and Synthesis

Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Performance : Survey and Synthesis »

Volume/Issue: 2002/120

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Torsten Sloek , Michael Klein , Luca Ricci , and Hali Edison

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854282.001

ISBN: 9781451854282

Keywords: and Financial Development, and Growth, capital account, capital accounts, capital account openness, General Outlook and Conditions, Growth,

This paper reviews and discusses issues involved in assessing the relationship between capital account liberalization and economic performance. First, it discusses the different measures of restrictions used in the...

When is Economic Growth Pro-Poor? Experiences in Malaysia and Pakistan

When is Economic Growth Pro-Poor? Experiences in Malaysia and Pakistan »

Volume/Issue: 2002/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahmood Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850765.001

ISBN: 9781451850765

Keywords: domestic savings, growth rate, rapid economic growth, export earnings, Development Planning And Policy, Economywide Country Studies,

This paper focuses on two central issues related to the contrasting experiences of Malaysia and Pakistan regarding poverty reduction. First, it examines the structure of economic growth and its proximate determinan...

Dread of Depreciation
			: Measuring Real Exchange Rate Interventions

Dread of Depreciation : Measuring Real Exchange Rate Interventions »

Volume/Issue: 2002/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jayasri Dutta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848434.001

ISBN: 9781451848434

Keywords: interventions, parity conditions, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, equation,

We specify an empirical framework to detect the effects of official intervention on real exchange rate dynamics. Using data for 27 advanced and emerging market economies, we find evidence that interventions are a n...

Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Markets
			: Income, Repatriations and Financial Vulnerabillities

Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Markets : Income, Repatriations and Financial Vulnerabillities »

Volume/Issue: 2002/47

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Lehmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846652.001

ISBN: 9781451846652

Keywords: Profitability of Foreign Direct Investment, Cashflows in Multinational Corporations, direct investment, fdi, foreign direct investment, investors, host country, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Payout Policy,

Based on U.S. data, the returns on foreign direct investment in emerging markets are shown to be substantially higher than would be suggested by official balance of payments statistics. This paper identifies the de...

Lending Booms, Real Estate Bubbles and the Asian Crisis

Lending Booms, Real Estate Bubbles and the Asian Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2002/20

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abdelhak Senhadji , and Charles Collyns

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843859.001

ISBN: 9781451843859

Keywords: Lending Booms, Real Estate Bubbles, Asia Crisis, real estate, stock market, real estate prices, moral hazard, Asian Crisis,

This paper examines the link between lending booms, asset price cycles, and financial crises across East Asian countries. Both theoretical arguments and empirical evidence support a strong relationship between bank...

The Output Decline in Asian Crisis Countries
			: Investment Aspects

The Output Decline in Asian Crisis Countries : Investment Aspects »

Volume/Issue: 2002/25

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joshua Greene

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844276.001

ISBN: 9781451844276

Keywords: output decline, asian crisis, balance sheet, private capital, private capital flows, private investment, capital flows, capital inflows, Macroeconomics: Production, Macroeconomics: Consumption

This paper examines whether capital outflows may have contributed to output declines during the Asian Crisis by reducing the financing available for domestic investment. Panel data regressions suggest a positive, s...

Currency Crises and Uncertainty About Fundamentals

Currency Crises and Uncertainty About Fundamentals »

Volume/Issue: 2002/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): M. Sbracia , and Alessandro Prati

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451841916.001

ISBN: 9781451841916

Keywords: Speculative attack, exchange rate crisis, public and private information, exchange rate, exchange rate pressures, probability, equation, predictions, Asymmetric and Private Information,

This paper studies how uncertainty about fundamentals contributed to currency crises from both a theoretical and an empirical perspective. We find evidenceCbased on a monthly dataset of Consensus forecasts for six...

Foreign Currency Credit Ratings for Emerging Market Economies

Foreign Currency Credit Ratings for Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2001/191

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roberto Perrelli , and Christian Mulder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859713.001

ISBN: 9781451859713

Keywords: foreign currency credit ratings, economic crises., statistics, autocorrelation, equation, short-term debt, covariance, International Lending and Debt Problems, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation, Economic Crises,

This paper examines how ratings for emerging market economies have been set. Given the high degree of autocorrelation in ratings, we use estimators that yield consistent parameters in the presence of such correlati...