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West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
			: Selected Issues

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/98

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475550009.002

ISBN: 9781475550009

Keywords: investment, public investment, public, infrastructure, per

This paper presents stylized facts on the quantitative and qualitative infrastructure gap in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), estimates the efficiency of public investment, and recommends how t...

A Hybrid Approach to Estimating the Efficiency of Public Spending on Education in Emerging and Developing Economies

A Hybrid Approach to Estimating the Efficiency of Public Spending on Education in Emerging and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2014/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484398241.001

ISBN: 9781484398241

Keywords: Education expenditure, efficiency, hybrid, developing economies, emerging economies, education spending, expenditure, educational outcomes, Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality

The measurement of the efficiency of public education expenditure using parametric and non-parametric methods has proven challenging. This paper seeks to overcome the difficulties of earlier studies by using a hybr...

Energy Subsidy Reform
			: Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558111.071

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book prov...

Aid, Exports, and Growth
			: A Time-Series Perspective on the Dutch Disease Hypothesis

Aid, Exports, and Growth : A Time-Series Perspective on the Dutch Disease Hypothesis »

Volume/Issue: 2013/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joong Kang , Alessandro Prati , and Alessandro Rebucci

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484320112.001

ISBN: 9781484320112

Keywords: Common factors, Panel VARs, Exchange rate overvaluation, exchange rate, real exchange rate, exchange rate policy, trade liberalization, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

We use a heterogeneous panel VAR model identified through factor analysis to study the dynamic response of exports, imports, and per capita GDP growth to a “global” aid shock. We find that a global ai...

Growth Slowdowns and the Middle-Income Trap

Growth Slowdowns and the Middle-Income Trap »

Volume/Issue: 2013/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , Romain Duval , Damien Puy , Yiqun Wu , and Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484330647.001

ISBN: 9781484330647

Keywords: growth, slowdown, middle income trap, Bayesian Model Averaging, per capita income, export diversification, gdp per capita, trade openness, growth rates, Bayesian Analysis

The “middle-income trap” is the phenomenon of hitherto rapidly growing economies stagnating at middle-income levels and failing to graduate into the ranks of high-income countries. In this study we ex...

Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity

Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity »

Volume/Issue: 2012/297

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alberto Behar , and Benjamin D. Nelson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475574081.001

ISBN: 9781475574081

Keywords: Gravity models, multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity, trade costs, trade flows, changes in trade, bilateral trade, exporter, and Firm Heterogeneity, firm heterogeneity.

We present a gravity model that accounts for multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity and country-selection into trade, while accommodating asymmetries in trade flows. A new equation for the proportion of export...

Country Stress Events
			: Does Governance Matter?

Country Stress Events : Does Governance Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/116

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anna Kochanova , and Carlos Caceres

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503456.001

ISBN: 9781475503456

Keywords: fiscal stress, probability, statistics, probabilities, descriptive statistics, Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation, Law and Economics: General (including Data Sources and Description), Business Environment, Fiscal Crises

This paper analyzes the linkages between governance quality and country stress events. It focuses on two types of events: fiscal and political stress events, for which two innovative stress indicators are introduce...

Institutional Transformations, Polity and Economic Outcomes
			: Testing the North-Wallis-Weingast Doorsteps Framework

Institutional Transformations, Polity and Economic Outcomes : Testing the North-Wallis-Weingast Doorsteps Framework »

Volume/Issue: 2012/87

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and Sophia Gollwitzer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502510.001

ISBN: 9781475502510

Keywords: institutions, economic performance, political performance, transition, income inequality, political system, political control, political variables, political institutions, General Aggregative Models: Other

This paper tests the theoretical framework developed by North, Wallis and Weingast (2009) on the transition from closed to open access societies. They posit that societies need to go through three doorsteps: (i) th...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative:  Preliminary Document

Côte d'Ivoire : Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative: Preliminary Document »

Volume/Issue: 2009/33

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451807912.002

ISBN: 9781451807912

Keywords: debt relief, debt service, external debt, traditional debt relief

This paper discusses Côte d'Ivoire's preliminary assessment of eligibility for assistance under the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. The March 2007 Ouagadougou Political Accord provides a roadma...

The Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Trade Balance in Developing Countries

The Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Trade Balance in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2008/14

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yi Wu , and Li Zeng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868760.001

ISBN: 9781451868760

Keywords: trade balance, impact of trade, impact of trade liberalization, terms of trade,

Using two recently constructed measures of trade liberalization dates, this research studies the impact of trade liberalization on imports, exports, and overall trade balance for a large sample of developing countr...

Health and Development

Health and Development »

Series: EXR Pamphlets

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063419.052

ISBN: 9781589063419

Keywords: hiv, aids, hiv/aids, health care, public health

The past century has been marked by rapid advances in human welfare. People in most parts of the world are healthier and are living longer. While this trend is likely to continue, hopes are fading in some regions w...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2002/11

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969856.003

ISBN: 9781451969856

Keywords: Poverty, Fund-supported adjustment programs, IMF Programs, Social Impact, poverty reduction, impact analysis, social impact analysis, civil service, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, General Welfare,

This paper aims to inform on the status of Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) in IMF-supported programs, detailing the results presented in the recent review of PRGF-supported programs. The review showed tha...

Keynes, Cocoa, and Copper
			: In Search of Commodity Currencies

Keynes, Cocoa, and Copper : In Search of Commodity Currencies »

Volume/Issue: 2002/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Luis Céspedes , and Paul Cashin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875300.001

ISBN: 9781451875300

Keywords: Exchange rate, developing country, real exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rates, reer, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper examines whether the real exchange rates of commodity-exporting countries and the real prices of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world prices of 44 commodities and...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Aid and Fiscal Management

Aid and Fiscal Management »

Volume/Issue: 2002/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Timothy Lane , and Ales Bulir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853612.001

ISBN: 9781451853612

Keywords: Foreign aid, exchange rate, fiscal policy, tax revenues, exchange rates

This paper focuses on the macroeconomic aspects of fiscal management in aid-receiving countries. Despite the declining share of aid in budgets of donor countries, aid continues to play an important role in many dev...

Domestic Petroleum Price Smoothing in Developing and Transition Countries

Domestic Petroleum Price Smoothing in Developing and Transition Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2001/75

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Benedict Bingham , James Daniel , and Giulio Federico

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849738.001

ISBN: 9781451849738

Keywords: petroleum prices, petroleum products, spot price, petroleum pricing, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, Energy: Government Policy,

This paper examines the case for government-led smoothing of domestic petroleum prices in the face of volatile international prices. Governments in most developing and transition countries engage in petroleum price...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2000
			: Making the Global Economy Work for All

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2000 : Making the Global Economy Work for All »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758439.011

ISBN: 9781557758439

Keywords: central bank, financial sector, financial statements, debt relief, balance of payments

The Annual Report 2000 to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities, policies, and financial position during the financial year (May 1, 1999 through April 30, 2000), as well as developments in the world e...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451958621.041

ISBN: 9781451958621

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, deposit money, deposit money banks, debt securities, financial derivatives, equity securities, portfolio investment, loans

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

The IMF and Human Development
			: A Dialogue with Civil Society

The IMF and Human Development : A Dialogue with Civil Society »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): Michel Camdessus

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758903.038

ISBN: 9781557758903

Keywords: debt, civil society, debt relief, ngos, expenditures

During his tenure as Managing Director of the IMF, and in his interactions with civil society, Michel Camdessus was asked many questions related to the IMF's role in development. This pamphlet collects questions fr...

IMF Survey
			: Volume 29, Issue 15

IMF Survey : Volume 29, Issue 15 »

Volume/Issue: 29/15

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451929744.023

ISBN: 9781451929744

Keywords: international financial, financial institutions, international financial institutions, globalization, financial system

The leaders of the Group of Seven and Group of Eight countries held summit meetings in Okinawa, Japan, on July 21–23. Two statements were issued at the meetings: the first, on July 21, by the leaders of the...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

IMF and the Environment

IMF and the Environment »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): Ved Gandhi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757371.038

ISBN: 9781557757371

Keywords: environment, environmental issues, environmental degradation, environmental problems, environmental policies

In recent years, observers have called on the IMF to pay closer attention to certain issues that do not fall directly within its mandate, such as the environment. This booklet reviews IMF's approach to environmenta...

Lessons From Systemic Bank Restructing

Lessons From Systemic Bank Restructing »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757395.051

ISBN: 9781557757395

Keywords: banking, bank restructuring, systemic bank restructuring, banking system, banking crisis

Systemic bank restructing aims to improve bank performance - that is, restore solvency and profitability, improve the banking system's capacity to provide financial intermediation between savers and borrowers, and...

Employment and Wages in the Public Sector
			: A Cross-Country Study

Employment and Wages in the Public Sector : A Cross-Country Study »

Volume/Issue: 1995/70

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849110.001

ISBN: 9781451849110

Keywords: employment, wages, wage, government employment

We study the determinants of employment and wages in the public sector, using a new set of panel data for 34 LDCs and 21 OECD countries from 1972–992, by estimating equations suggested by an efficiency wage...

IMF Staff papers
			: Volume 41 No. 2

IMF Staff papers : Volume 41 No. 2 »

Volume: 41

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451947168.024

ISBN: 9781451947168

Keywords: commodity prices, commodity, commodity price, industrial countries, primary commodity

Primary commodities still account for the bulk of exports in many developing countries. However, real commodity prices have been declining almost continuously since the early 1980s. The appropriate policy response...

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries
			: Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries : Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): F. Rozwadowski , Siddharth Tiwari , David Robinson , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753366.084

ISBN: 9781557753366

Keywords: current account, export prices, export volume, external debt, terms of trade

This paper evaluates progress made under ESAF-supported programs in attaining external viability, restoring economic growth, and implementing structural reforms. Performance is evaluated for 19 countries that enter...

Helping the Poor
			: the IMF's New Facilities for Structural Adjustment

Helping the Poor : the IMF's New Facilities for Structural Adjustment »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): Joslin Landell-Mills

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750211.038

ISBN: 9781557750211

Keywords: balance of payments, domestic savings, current account deficit, debt service payments, agricultural exports

This paper discusses the IMF's New Facilities for Structural Adjustment (SAF) for helping the poor. The first arrangement supported by the SAF was approved by the IMF's Executive Board in August 1986. By the end of...

Military Expenditure
			: International Comparison of Trends

Military Expenditure : International Comparison of Trends »

Volume/Issue: 1991/54

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847420.001

ISBN: 9781451847420

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, expenditure, military expenditure

This paper analyzes trends in world military expenditure by examining the shares of different country groups and the ratio to GDP of individual nations. The coverage is military expenditures in 125 countries from 1...

The Stabilizing Role of the Compensatory Financing Facility
			: Empirical Evidence and Welfare Implications

The Stabilizing Role of the Compensatory Financing Facility : Empirical Evidence and Welfare Implications »

Volume/Issue: 1988/108

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 December 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946284.001

ISBN: 9781451946284

Keywords: export earnings, exporters, export shortfalls, fuel exporters

Purchases under the compensatory financing facility, the IMF’s largest special facility, accounted for more than one quarter of total credit extended by the IMF over the period 1976 to 1985. Given the size o...

Finance & Development, December 1979

Finance & Development, December 1979 »

Volume/Issue: 16/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1979

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353391.022

ISBN: 9781616353391

Keywords: monetary fund, banking, development banking, bank loans, offshore banking

This paper highlights that the fight against worldwide inflation was the main theme of the Finance Ministers and central bank Governors from 138 member countries that participated in the 1979 Annual Meeting of the...