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Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems?

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Csaba Feher , Jack Ree , Ikuo Saito , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560336.001

ISBN: 9781475560336

Keywords: Pensions, Pension reforms, Japan, Korea, Republic of, China, People's Republic of, China, Asia and Pacific, Asia, Retirement, Pension System Reform

Automatic adjustment mechanisms (AAMs)-rules ensuring that certain characteristics of a pension system respond to demographic, macroeconomic and financial developments, in a predetermined fashion and without the ne...

Asia
			: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Asia : A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts »

Volume/Issue: 2016/150

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lekha Chakraborty

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475519914.001

ISBN: 9781475519914

Keywords: India, Fiscal policy, Cross country analysis, Budgeting, Asia, Asia and Pacific, Australia, Philippines, Korea, Republic of, Gender

This paper reviews gender budgeting efforts in Asia. The countries in the region have achieved mixed success in improving gender equality. Gender budgeting is ideally a fiscal innovation that translates gender-rela...

Should Korea Worry about a Permanently Weak Yen?

Should Korea Worry about a Permanently Weak Yen? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/158

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jack Ree , Gee Hee Hong , and Seoeun Choi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510835.001

ISBN: 9781513510835

Keywords: Abenomics, Qualitative and quatitative easing, currency war, spillover, price pass-through, exchange, exchange rate, profit, exporters, market

Three years have passed since the Bank of Japan's asset purchase program was introduced in 2011, causing a sharp decline in the value of the Japanese Yen. What would be the implications for Japan and Korea's export...

The Leap of the Tiger
			: How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap

The Leap of the Tiger : How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap »

Volume/Issue: 2015/131

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reda Cherif , and Fuad Hasanov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513556017.001

ISBN: 9781513556017

Keywords: growth, middle-income trap, innovation, technology, electronics, it, at, technologies, Government Policy, General

Only a few European economies and Korea and Taiwan Province of China reached high-income status during 1970-2010. Malaysia's real income per capita increased to 26 percent of the U.S. level in 2010 from 20 percent...

Issuance of Central Bank Securities
			: International Experiences and Guidelines

Issuance of Central Bank Securities : International Experiences and Guidelines »

Volume/Issue: 2015/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Simon Gray , and Runchana Pongsaparn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513593371.001

ISBN: 9781513593371

Keywords: central bank securities, securities market development, securities, central bank, issuance, central banks, securities issuance, General,

The paper discusses the reasons for central bank (CB) issuance of securities, and reasons for choosing different approaches e.g. in maturities and target market. It provides evidence on the range of different appro...

Does Basel Compliance Matter for Bank Performance?

Does Basel Compliance Matter for Bank Performance? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rym Ayadi , Sami Ben Naceur , Barbara Casu , and Barry Quinn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475580389.001

ISBN: 9781475580389

Keywords: BCP, Efficiency, Regulatory Compliance, bank, bank performance, interest, banking, Truncated and Censored Models, Government Policy and Regulation,

The global financial crisis underscored the importance of regulation and supervision to a well-functioning banking system that efficiently channels financial resources into investment. In this paper, we contribute...

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2015/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Wolfgang Bergthaler , Kenneth Kang , Yan Liu , and Dermot Monaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498384834.006

ISBN: 9781498384834

Keywords: Corporate sector, Debt restructuring, Business enterprises, Bankruptcy, Europe, Economic recovery, Insolvency, Non-performing loans, SME, debt distress

The global financial crisis has left a large private sector debt overhang and high levels of non- performing loans (NPLs) in several European countries. Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) represent a signific...

What Can Boost Female Labor Force Participation in Asia?

What Can Boost Female Labor Force Participation in Asia? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/56

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Kinoshita , and Fang Guo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498329750.001

ISBN: 9781498329750

Keywords: female labor force participation, fertility, labor market duality, employment, labor, labor force, female labor, regular employment, Labor Economics Policies, Economics of Gender

Both Japan and Korea are trying to boost female labor force participation (FLFP) as they face the challenges of a rapidly aging population. Though FLFP has generally been on a rising trend, the female labor force...

Financial Decisions and Investment Outcomes in Developing Countries
			: The Role of Institutions

Financial Decisions and Investment Outcomes in Developing Countries : The Role of Institutions »

Volume/Issue: 2015/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rima Turk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498359054.001

ISBN: 9781498359054

Keywords: Corporate Decisions, Legal Origin, Investor Protection, investment, investor, exchange,

This paper analyzes how differences in legal origin, judicial efficiency, and investor protection affect firm leverage and earnings volatility across developing countries. Using a large number of developing countri...

Central Counterparties
			: Addressing their Too Important to Fail Nature

Central Counterparties : Addressing their Too Important to Fail Nature »

Volume/Issue: 2015/21

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Froukelien Wendt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475572933.001

ISBN: 9781475572933

Keywords: central counterparties, interdependencies, too important to fail, recovery and resolution, risk waterfall, markets, market, default, liquidity, Government Policy and Regulation

Central counterparties (CCPs) can offer significant benefits to a market. However, CCPs are also highly interconnected with financial institutions and markets and therefore too important to fail. The increased volu...

Impact of Demographic Changes on Inflation and the Macroeconomy

Impact of Demographic Changes on Inflation and the Macroeconomy »

Volume/Issue: 2014/210

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jong-Won Yoon , Jinill Kim , and Jungjin Lee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498396783.001

ISBN: 9781498396783

Keywords: Demographic Changes, Population Aging, Macroeconomic Impact, Savings and Investment, population, life expectancy, population dynamics, Demographic Trends and Forecasts, Fiscal Policy.,

The ongoing demographic changes will bring about a substantial shift in the size and the age composition of the population, which will have significant impact on the global economy. Despite potentially grave conse...

Mauritius The Drivers of Growth-Can the Past be Extended?

Mauritius The Drivers of Growth-Can the Past be Extended? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/134

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Martin Petri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498392372.001

ISBN: 9781498392372

Keywords: Growth, growth accounting, tfp, growth rates, labor market, General,

Mauritius's economic performance has been called 'the Mauritian miracle' and the 'success of Africa' (Romer, 1992; Frankel, 2010; Stiglitz, 2011), despite difficult initial conditions that led a Nobel Prize Winner...

United Arab Emirates
			: Selected Issues

United Arab Emirates : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/188

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498393713.002

ISBN: 9781498393713

Keywords: real estate, real estate market, national bank, banking, banking system

This Selected Issues paper focuses on the real estate market and Expo 2020 in the United Arab Emirates. It discusses the measures that could mitigate risks associated with the real estate cycle and the internationa...

The Net Stable Funding Ratio
			: Impact and Issues for Consideration

The Net Stable Funding Ratio : Impact and Issues for Consideration »

Volume/Issue: 2014/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jeanne Gobat , Mamoru Yanase , and Joseph Maloney

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498346498.001

ISBN: 9781498346498

Keywords: Bank Regulation, Financing, Firm Size, Policy, off balance sheet, banking supervision, bank for international settlements, banking system, Government Policy and Regulation, Firm Performance: Size

As part of Basel III reforms, the NSFR is a new prudential liquidity rule aimed at limiting excess maturity transformation risk in the banking sector and promoting funding stability. The revised package has been is...

Russian Federation
			: Fiscal Transparency Evaluation

Russian Federation : Fiscal Transparency Evaluation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/134

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498348058.002

ISBN: 9781498348058

Keywords: fiscal reports, fiscal statistics, fiscal reporting

This paper discusses key findings of the pilot Fiscal Transparency Evaluation for the Russian Federation. Most aspects of Russia's fiscal reporting and budgeting practices are in line with good or advanced practice...

Equitable and Sustainable Pensions
			: Challenges and Experience

Equitable and Sustainable Pensions : Challenges and Experience »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Frank Eich , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616359508.071

ISBN: 9781616359508

Keywords: pension, pensions, benefits, pension system, retirement age

Pension reform is high on the agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies, for many reasons. First, public pensions often constitute a large share of government expenditure. Second, population aging means...

Why Was Asia Resilient? Lessons from the Past and for the Future

Why Was Asia Resilient? Lessons from the Past and for the Future »

Volume/Issue: 2014/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Phakawa Jeasakul , Cheng Lim , and Erik Lundback

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475540284.001

ISBN: 9781475540284

Keywords: Global financial crisis, resilience, financial and external vulnerabilities, banking, banking crisis, banking system, bank capital, loan classification, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Asia including Middle East,

Asia proved to be remarkably resilient in the face of the global financial crisis, but why was its output performance stronger than that of other regions? The paper shows that better initial conditions-in the form...

Information Rigidities
			: Comparing Average and Individual Forecasts for a Large International Panel

Information Rigidities : Comparing Average and Individual Forecasts for a Large International Panel »

Volume/Issue: 2014/31

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonas Dovern , Ulrich Fritsche , Prakash Loungani , and Natalia Tamirisa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484305201.001

ISBN: 9781484305201

Keywords: Rational inattention, aggregation bias, growth forecasts, information rigidity, forecast behaviour, emerging economies, econometrics, parameters, Forecasting and Simulation,

We study forecasts for real GDP growth using a large panel of individual forecasts from 36 advanced and emerging economies during 1989-2010. We show that the degree of information rigidity in average forecasts is s...

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort »

Volume/Issue: 2013/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ricardo Fenochietto , and Carola Pessino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484301272.001

ISBN: 9781484301272

Keywords: tax effort, tax frontier, tax capacity, stochastic tax frontier, inefficiency, tax revenues, tax analysis, determinants of tax revenue, tax system, Models with Panel Data

This paper presents a model to determine the tax effort and tax capacity of 113 countries and the main variables on which they depend. The results and the model allow a clear determination of which countries are ne...

Russian Federation
			: Selected Issues

Russian Federation : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/311

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484343470.002

ISBN: 9781484343470

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, exchange rate regimes, Exchange rate regimes],

This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of the adoption of inflation targeting (IT) on exchange rate volatility in Russian Federation. Russia has seen an increase in exchange rate volatility during the past...

Addressing Interconnectedness
			: Concepts and Prudential Tools

Addressing Interconnectedness : Concepts and Prudential Tools »

Volume/Issue: 2013/199

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nicolas Arregui , Mohamed Norat , Antonio Pancorbo , Jodi Scarlata , Eija Holttinen , Fabiana Melo , Jay Surti , Christopher Wilson , Rodolfo Wehrhahn , and Mamoru Yanase

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475531855.001

ISBN: 9781475531855

Keywords: network analysis, prudential tools, policymakers, systemic risk, banking, banking system, banking sector, bank reporting, interbank market, General

This paper reviews tools used to identify and measure interconnectedness and raises the awareness of policymakers as to potential cross-sectional implications of prudential tools aimed at controlling interconnected...

Procyclical Behavior of Institutional Investors During the Recent Financial Crisis
			: Causes, Impacts, and Challenges

Procyclical Behavior of Institutional Investors During the Recent Financial Crisis : Causes, Impacts, and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2013/193

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Papaioannou , Joonkyu Park , Jukka Pihlman , and Han Hoorn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336083.001

ISBN: 9781484336083

Keywords: long-term investments, institutional investors, procyclicality, financial stability, financial system, financial markets, bonds, bond, Portfolio Choice,

This paper (i) provides evidence on the procyclical investment behavior of major institutional investors during the global financial crisis; (ii) identifies the main factors that could account for such behavior; (i...

Benchmarking Structural Transformation Across the World

Benchmarking Structural Transformation Across the World »

Volume/Issue: 2013/176

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Alun Thomas , Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu , and Yingyuan Chen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484359662.001

ISBN: 9781484359662

Keywords: Structural Transformation, Quantile Regression, Panel Data, globalization, gdp per capita, real gdp, economic globalization, economic growth, General,

This paper documents stylized facts on the process of structural transformation around the world and empirically analyzes its determinants using data on real value added by sector of economic activity (agriculture,...

Systemic Risk Monitoring ("SysMo") Toolkit-A User Guide

Systemic Risk Monitoring ("SysMo") Toolkit-A User Guide »

Volume/Issue: 2013/168

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nicolas Blancher , Srobona Mitra , Hanan Morsy , Akira Otani , Tiago Severo , and Laura Valderrama

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 July 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484383438.001

ISBN: 9781484383438

Keywords: Sytemic Risk, Risk Indicators, Risk Monitoring, banking, banking sector, banking system, sovereign risk, banking crisis, Other, Model Construction and Estimation,

There has recently been a proliferation of new quantitative tools as part of various initiatives to improve the monitoring of systemic risk. The "SysMo" project takes stock of the current toolkit used at the IMF fo...

The Growth Comeback in Developing Economies
			: A New Hope or Back to the Future?

The Growth Comeback in Developing Economies : A New Hope or Back to the Future? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Bluedorn , Rupa Duttagupta , Jaime Guajardo , and Nkunde Mwase

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484321980.001

ISBN: 9781484321980

Keywords: growth, takeoff, low-income countries, convergence, export growth, balance of payments, trade openness, regulatory barriers, economic cooperation, General

Growth takeoffs in developing economies have rebounded in the past two decades. Although recent takeoffs have lasted longer than takeoffs before the 1990s, a key question is whether they could unravel like some did...

Another Look at Governments' Balance Sheets
			: The Role of Nonfinancial Assets

Another Look at Governments' Balance Sheets : The Role of Nonfinancial Assets »

Volume/Issue: 2013/95

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elva Bova , Robert Dippelsman , Kara Rideout , and Andrea Schaechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484315453.001

ISBN: 9781484315453

Keywords: government statistics, government finance, government finance statistics, national accounts, public finances, Structure and Scope of Government, Infrastructures,

When discussing debt reduction strategies, little attention has been given to the role of governments’ nonfinancial assets. This is in part because data are scarce. Drawing on various data sources, this pape...

The Behavior of Currencies during Risk-off Episodes

The Behavior of Currencies during Risk-off Episodes »

Volume/Issue: 2013/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reinout De Bock , and Irineu de Carvalho Filho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755308.001

ISBN: 9781557755308

Keywords: Risk-off episodes, safe haven currencies, exchange rate, currency markets, capital flows, global financial crisis,

Episodes of increased global risk aversion, also known as risk-off episodes, have become more frequent and severe since 2007. During these episodes, currency markets exhibit recurrent patterns, as the Japanese yen,...

Spring Forward or Fall Back? The Post-Crisis Recovery of Firms

Spring Forward or Fall Back? The Post-Crisis Recovery of Firms »

Volume/Issue: 2012/292

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Leandro Medina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524734.001

ISBN: 9781475524734

Keywords: firm resilience, recovery, leverage, corporate performance, short-term debt, pre-crisis, competitiveness, recessions, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis, General

This paper studies corporate performance in the aftermath of the global crisis by examining 6,581 manufacturing firms in 48 developed and developing countries in 2010, identifying factors of resilience as well as v...

Determinants of Growth Spells
			: Is Africa Different?

Determinants of Growth Spells : Is Africa Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/227

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510225.001

ISBN: 9781475510225

Keywords: International Growth, survival analysis, robustness, Bayesian Model Averaging, terms of trade, inflation, trade growth, per capita income, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General

Do growth spells in Africa end because of bad realizations of the same factors that influence growth spells in the rest of the world, or because of different factors altogether? To answer this question, we examine...

The Exchange Rate Pass -Through to Import and Export Prices
			: The Role of Nominal Rigidities and Currency Choice

The Exchange Rate Pass -Through to Import and Export Prices : The Role of Nominal Rigidities and Currency Choice »

Volume/Issue: 2012/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ehsan Choudhri , and Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510232.001

ISBN: 9781475510232

Keywords: import and export prices, nominal rigidities, currency choice, exchange rate, export price, import price, exchange rate pass, export prices, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

Using both regression- and VAR-based estimates, the paper finds that the exchange rate pass-through to import prices for a large number of countries is incomplete and larger than the pass-through to export prices....

Donor Competition for Aid Impact, and Aid Fragmentation

Donor Competition for Aid Impact, and Aid Fragmentation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kurt Annen , and Luc Moers

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505542.001

ISBN: 9781475505542

Keywords: Aid Effectiveness, Aid Fragmentation, Donor Competition, Donor Coordination, humanitarian aid, aid coordination, foreign investment, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: General,

This paper shows that donors that maximize relative aid impact spread their budgets across many recipient countries in a unique Nash equilibrium, explaining aid fragmentation. This equilibrium may be inefficient ev...

Quality of Government and Living Standards
			: Adjusting for the Efficiency of Public Spending

Quality of Government and Living Standards : Adjusting for the Efficiency of Public Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2012/182

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli , and Eduardo Ley

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505306.001

ISBN: 9781475505306

Keywords: System of National Accounts, Efficiency, Living Standards, national accounts, public spending, input-output, health care, Publicly Provided Goods: General, Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues: General, Social Security and Public Pensions

It is generally acknowledged that the government's output is difficult to define and its value is hard to measure. The practical solution, adopted by national accounts systems, is to equate output to input costs. H...

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Books

Author(s): David Coady , Benedict Clements , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352448.071

ISBN: 9781616352448

Keywords: health care, public health, health insurance, public health spending, health spending

Health care reform will be a key fiscal policy challenge in both advanced and emerging economies in coming years. In the advanced economies, the health sector has been one of the main drivers of government expendit...

On the Extrapolation with the Denton Proportional Benchmarking Method

On the Extrapolation with the Denton Proportional Benchmarking Method »

Volume/Issue: 2012/169

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Marini , and Tommaso Di Fonzo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505177.001

ISBN: 9781475505177

Keywords: extrapolation, growth rates, growth rate, rate of change, time series, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data, Benchmarking, Movement Preservation,

Statistical offices have often recourse to benchmarking methods for compiling quarterly national accounts (QNA). Benchmarking methods employ quarterly indicator series (i) to distribute annual, more reliable series...

Optimal Liquidity and Economic Stability

Optimal Liquidity and Economic Stability »

Volume/Issue: 2012/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Linghui Han , and Il Lee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503883.001

ISBN: 9781475503883

Keywords: financial assets, financial sector, monetary aggregate, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data, Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General, Dynamic Panel,

Monetary aggregates are now much less used as policy instruments as identifying the right measure has become difficult and interest rate transmission has worked well in an increasingly complex financial system. In...

Quantifying Structural Subsidy Values for Systemically Important Financial Institutions

Quantifying Structural Subsidy Values for Systemically Important Financial Institutions »

Volume/Issue: 2012/128

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kenichi Ueda , and Beatrice Weder di Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503654.001

ISBN: 9781475503654

Keywords: bank funding subsidy, bank bailout, probability, financial institutions, samples, financial stability, financial sector, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Structure, Scope

Claimants to SIFIs receive transfers when governments are forced into bailouts. Ex ante, the bailout expectation lowers daily funding costs. This funding cost differential reflects both the structural level of the...

Central Bank Credit to the Government
			: What Can We Learn From International Practices?

Central Bank Credit to the Government : What Can We Learn From International Practices? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/16

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marcela Matamoros-Indorf , Mrinalini Sharma , Simon Townsend , and Luis Jácome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931216.001

ISBN: 9781463931216

Keywords: lending to the government, international practices, central bank, inflation, government securities,

Using a central bank legislation database, this paper documents and analyzes worldwide institutional arrangements for central bank lending to the government and identifies international practices. Key findings are:...

Rapid Credit Growth
			: Boon or Boom-Bust?

Rapid Credit Growth : Boon or Boom-Bust? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/241

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Selim Elekdag , and Yiqun Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463922627.001

ISBN: 9781463922627

Keywords: boom-bust cycles, emerging Asia, capital inflows, credit boom, current account deficits, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, International Finance: General, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Episodes of rapid credit growth, especially credit booms, tend to end abruptly, typically in the form of financial crises. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive event study focusing on 99 credit booms...

Russian Federation
			: Selected Issues Paper

Russian Federation : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2011/295

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463904845.002

ISBN: 9781463904845

Keywords: inflation, inflation rates, monetary fund

This note focuses on Russia's monetary policy, which is moving toward low and stable inflation. This paper discusses two analytical measures to analyze the monetary policy-core inflation measure and a group of lead...

Russian Federation; Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation

Russian Federation; Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2011/294

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463904852.002

ISBN: 9781463904852

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, external debt, current account, central bank

The reports highlights that, even though the Russian economy has started reviving from the crisis, growth has been moderate and inflation high. Executive Directors have advised that the focus should be on reducing...

The Effectiveness of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies in Managing Large Inflows

The Effectiveness of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies in Managing Large Inflows »

Volume/Issue: 2011/14

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Karl Habermeier , Annamaria Kokenyne , and Chikako Baba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463902896.006

ISBN: 9781463902896

Keywords: Emerging markets, Exchange rate appreciation, Cross country analysis, Credit expansion, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Risk management, Macroprudential Policy, financial regulation, macroprudential policies

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Financing Infrastructure in India
			: Macroeconomic Lessons and Emerging Market Case Studies

Financing Infrastructure in India : Macroeconomic Lessons and Emerging Market Case Studies »

Volume/Issue: 2011/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): James Walsh , Jiangyan Yu , and Chanho Park

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462310296.001

ISBN: 9781462310296

Keywords: infrastructure financing, growth, capital market, bonds, investors, bond, bond market, stock market,

Driving infrastructure development, notably mobilizing financial resources for infrastructure projects, has been challenging in many countries. This study includes two parts: an empirical analysis of macroeconomic...

The Bright and the Dark Side of Cross-Border Banking Linkages

The Bright and the Dark Side of Cross-Border Banking Linkages »

Volume/Issue: 2011/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sònia Muñoz , Ryan Scuzzarella , and Martin Cihak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462309269.001

ISBN: 9781462309269

Keywords: banking stability, network analysis, banking, banking crisis, banking sector, banking system, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration,

When a country's banking system becomes more linked to the global banking network, does that system get more or less prone to a banking crisis? Using model simulations and econometric estimates based on a world-wid...

Unforeseen Events Wait Lurking
			: Estimating Policy Spillovers From U.S. to Foreign Asset Prices

Unforeseen Events Wait Lurking : Estimating Policy Spillovers From U.S. to Foreign Asset Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2011/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , and Trung Bui

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462309290.001

ISBN: 9781462309290

Keywords: Event studies, policy announcements, interntational asset price transmission, bond yields, bond, foreign bond, equity prices, commodity prices, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation,

Event studies are used to analyze the impact of U.S. financial, fiscal, and monetary policies from US to foreign asset prices across a range of G20 countries and Switzerland. The initial announcement that the Admin...

Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard
			: Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis

Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard : Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2011/177

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Concha Verdugo Yepes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462312306.001

ISBN: 9781462312306

Keywords: Terrorist Financing, Compliance, AML/CFT International Standard, international cooperation, terrorist, terrorism, Economics of Regulation, International Law, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper assesses countries' compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) international standard during the period 2004 to 2011. We find that overall compliance is...

The Development of Local Debt Markets in Asia

The Development of Local Debt Markets in Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2011/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mangal Goswami , and Sunil Sharma

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455259373.001

ISBN: 9781455259373

Keywords: local currency debt markets, investor base, bank lending, regulatory framework, bond markets, securities, capital market, bond market, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

The paper makes an assessment of the progress made in developing local debt markets in emerging Asia. Market development has been limited by hurdles confronting borrowers and lenders, current and potential liquidit...

Sovereign Spreads and Contagion Risks in Asia

Sovereign Spreads and Contagion Risks in Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2011/134

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Filiz Unsal , and Carlos Caceres

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455259397.001

ISBN: 9781455259397

Keywords: Sovereign spreads, contagion, market price of risk, exchange rate, exchange rate risk, euro, international monetary fund, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, General Financial Markets: General (includes Measurement and Data), General Financial Markets,

This paper explores how much of the movements in the sovereign spreads of Asian economies over the course of the global financial crisis has reflected shifts in (i) global risk aversion; (ii) country-specific risks...

Policy Responses to Capital Flows in Emerging Markets

Policy Responses to Capital Flows in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2011/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mahmood Pradhan , Ravi Balakrishnan , Reza Baqir , Geoffrey Heenan , Sylwia Nowak , Ceyda Oner , and Sanjaya Panth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463935122.006

ISBN: 9781463935122

Keywords: Emerging markets, Capital flows, Macroeconomic policies, Macroprudential policies, capital inflows, bond, bond yields, bonds,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Determinants of Bank Credit in Emerging Market Economies

Determinants of Bank Credit in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2011/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vahram Stepanyan , and Kai Guo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455218035.001

ISBN: 9781455218035

Keywords: pre-crisis, banking, banking sector, post-crisis period, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

We examine changes in bank credit across a wide range of emerging market economies during the last decade. The rich time-series and cross-section information allows us to draw broader lessons compared to many exist...

Economics of Sovereign Wealth Funds

Economics of Sovereign Wealth Funds »

Series: Books

Author(s): Udaibir Das , Adnan Mazarei , and Han Hoorn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069275.071

ISBN: 9781589069275

Keywords: investors, bonds, investment strategies, principals, financial markets

The book covers a wide range of topics of relevance to policymakers in countries that have sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) and those that receive SWF investments. Renowned experts in the field have contributed chapte...

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2010/18

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Athanasios Vamvakidis , Francis Vitek , Mwanza Nkusu , Reginald Darius , Alun Thomas , and Edouard Vidon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462357604.004

ISBN: 9781462357604

Keywords: Economic recession, Employment, External shocks, Financial crisis, Cross country analysis, Labor market policy, Labor markets, Korea, Republic of, Mexico, New Zealand

The human cost of the recent global crisis is reflected in its impact on the labor market. Explaining why economies with similar downturns had very different employment trends can help design policies to reduce suc...

Growth and Crisis, Unavoidable Connection?

Growth and Crisis, Unavoidable Connection? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/267

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roberto Piazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210749.001

ISBN: 9781455210749

Keywords: growth rate, capital inflows, gdp growth, capital stock, economic growth, International Lending and Debt Problems, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, Growth

In emerging economies periods of rapid growth and large capital inflows can be followed by sudden stops and financial crises. I show that, in the presence of financial markets imperfections, a simple modification o...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210497.042

ISBN: 9781455210497

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, free trade, world trade, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows

The Direction of Trade Statistics Online service provides data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners. The database includes: total bilateral and multilate...

Reaching the MDGs
			: An Action Plan for Trade

Reaching the MDGs : An Action Plan for Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2010/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Brad McDonald , Rob Gregory , and Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265343.004

ISBN: 9781455265343

Keywords: Exports, Export competitiveness, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Low-income developing countries, International trade, Millennium Development Goals, Trade integration, Tax reforms, Trade policy

The actions proposed here focus on trade integration, substantially increasing exports of the poorest countries and helping them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As the foundation for these ambitions, we e...

Investment
			: Specific Technology Shocks and International Business Cycles:  An Empirical Assessment

Investment : Specific Technology Shocks and International Business Cycles: An Empirical Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2010/207

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205387.001

ISBN: 9781455205387

Keywords: International Business Cycles, Cointegration, Investment-Specific Technology Shocks, tfp, statistics, statistic,

In this paper, we first introduce investment-specific technology (IST) shocks to an otherwise standard international real business cycle model and show that a thoughtful calibration of them along the lines of Raffo...

Macrofinancial Linkages
			: Trends, Crises, and Policies

Macrofinancial Linkages : Trends, Crises, and Policies »

Series: Books

Author(s): Christopher Crowe , Simon Johnson , Jonathan Ostry , and Jeronimo Zettelmeyer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069398.071

ISBN: 9781589069398

Keywords: financial integration, financial liberalization, corporate governance, financial globalization, banking crises

Macrofinancial linkages have long been at the core of the IMF's mandate to oversee the stability of the global financial system. With the advent of the economic crisis, the Fund has drawn on this research in order...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455214624.042

ISBN: 9781455214624

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Foreign Participation in Emerging Markets' Local Currency Bond Markets

Foreign Participation in Emerging Markets' Local Currency Bond Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2010/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shanaka Peiris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982602.001

ISBN: 9781451982602

Keywords: Emerging Market Economies, bond, bond yields, government bond, government bond yields,

This paper estimates the impact of foreign participation in determining long-term local currency government bond yields and volatility in a group of emerging markets from 2000-2009. The results of a panel data anal...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930092.042

ISBN: 9781451930092

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, partner country, trading partners, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows, world trade

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Cross-country Consumption Risk Sharing, a Long-run Perspective

Cross-country Consumption Risk Sharing, a Long-run Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2010/64

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zhaogang Qiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982084.001

ISBN: 9781451982084

Keywords: Consumption risk sharing, Intertemporal smoothing, Nonstationary panel analysis, Cointegration, risk sharing, equation, time series, statistic, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, International Economics: General,

This paper estimates an empirical nonstationary panel regression model that tests long-run consumption risk sharing across a sample of OECD and emerging market (EM) countries. This is in contrast to the existing li...

The Real Exchange Rate and Growth Revisited
			: The Washington Consensus Strikes Back?

The Real Exchange Rate and Growth Revisited : The Washington Consensus Strikes Back? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Berg , and Yanliang Miao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963755.001

ISBN: 9781451963755

Keywords: Real Exchange Rate, Growth, Washington Consensus, exchange rate, equation, equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rates, Intertemporal Choice and Growth: General,

There is good reason and much evidence to suggest that the real exchange rate matters for economic growth, but why? The "Washington Consensus" (WC) view holds that real exchange rate misalignment implies macroecono...

Inflation Targeting and the Crisis
			: An Empirical Assessment

Inflation Targeting and the Crisis : An Empirical Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2010/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Irineu de Carvalho Filho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963045.001

ISBN: 9781451963045

Keywords: economic crisis, inflation, terms of trade, real interest rates, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, Business Fluctuations, And Cycles, money And Interest Rates,

This paper appraises how countries with inflation targeting fared during the current crisis, with the goal of establishing the stylized facts that will guide and motivate future research. We find that since August...

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2010/02

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Thomas Laryea

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384846.004

ISBN: 9781462384846

Keywords: Corporate sector, Corporate governance, Debt strategy, Debt restructuring, Debt restructuring, Bankruptcy, Banking sector, Bank restructuring, Asset management, Financial crisis

This paper starts from a discussion of the economic case for moderated government intervention in debt restructuring in the nonfinancial corporate sector. It then draws on lessons from past crises to explain three...

Sovereign Default Risk and Private Sector Access to Capital in Emerging Markets

Sovereign Default Risk and Private Sector Access to Capital in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2010/10

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Udaibir Das , Michael Papaioannou , and Christoph Trebesch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451961942.001

ISBN: 9781451961942

Keywords: Sovereign default, Private sector access, capital markets, external borrowing, sovereign defaults,

Top down spillovers of sovereign default risk can have serious consequences for the private sector in emerging markets. This paper analyzes the effects of these spillovers using firm-level data from 31 emerging mar...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960044.042

ISBN: 9781451960044

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

What's the Damage? Medium-term Output Dynamics After Banking Crises

What's the Damage? Medium-term Output Dynamics After Banking Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2009/245

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abdul Abiad , Petya Koeva Brooks , Irina Tytell , Daniel Leigh , and Ravi Balakrishnan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873924.001

ISBN: 9781451873924

Keywords: macroeconomic policy, banking crises, banking, banking crisis, currency crises, Economic History: General, Macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, And General Outlook,

This paper investigates the medium-term behavior of output following banking crises, and its association with pre- and post-crisis conditions and policies. We find that output tends to be depressed substantially fo...

Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2009
			: Fighting the Global Crisis

Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2009 : Fighting the Global Crisis »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2009

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068841.011

ISBN: 9781589068841

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, balance of payments, financial system, poverty reduction, financial markets, financial statements, monetary union, expenditures, commodity prices

The IMF's 2009 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2009, which covers the period from May 1, 2008, thr...

Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers »

Volume/Issue: 2009/23

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Steven Symansky , and Thomas Baunsgaard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455290567.004

ISBN: 9781455290567

Keywords: Fiscal stability, macroeconomic stabilization, personal income tax, income tax, taxes, fiscal policy, tax rates

This paper discusses how to enhance automatic stabilizers without increasing the size of government. We distinguish between permanent changes in the parameters of the tax and expenditure system (e.g., changes in ta...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960006.042

ISBN: 9781451960006

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Evidence on Recovery from Recessions

International Evidence on Recovery from Recessions »

Volume/Issue: 2009/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Valerie Cerra , Sweta Saxena , and Ugo Panizza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873306.001

ISBN: 9781451873306

Keywords: Growth, Recession, Rebound, Output loss, exchange rate, recessions, exchange rate regime,

Although negative shocks have persistent effects on output on average, this paper shows that macroeconomic policies and the structure of the economy can influence the speed of recovery and mitigate the persistence...

Setting Up a Sovereign Wealth Fund
			: Some Policy and Operational Considerations

Setting Up a Sovereign Wealth Fund : Some Policy and Operational Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2009/179

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Mulder , Amadou Sy , Yinqiu Lu , and Udaibir Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873269.001

ISBN: 9781451873269

Keywords: Sovereign wealth fund, SWF&;amp;#x2019;s policy objective, central bank, monetary fund, balance of payments, currency composition, external debt, Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General

This paper offers a policy and operational "roadmap" to policymakers considering setting up an SWF. It should also be of interest to policymakers in countries where SWFs are already in place, to review their existi...

The State of Public Finances
			: A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor

The State of Public Finances : A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor »

Volume/Issue: 2009/21

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Mark Horton , and Manmohan Kumar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455257270.004

ISBN: 9781455257270

Keywords: Emerging markets, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, fiscal sustainability, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest

...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959987.042

ISBN: 9781451959987

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

The Systemic Regulation of Credit Rating Agencies and Rated Markets

The Systemic Regulation of Credit Rating Agencies and Rated Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2009/129

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872767.001

ISBN: 9781451872767

Keywords: Rating agencies, structured credit products, macro-prudential, micro-prudential, regulation, procylicality, credit ratings, financial stability, money market,

Credit ratings have contributed to the current financial crisis. Proposals to regulate credit rating agencies focus on micro-prudential issues and aim at reducing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency a...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility:  Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Côte d'Ivoire

Côte d'Ivoire : Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility: Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Côte d'Ivoire »

Volume/Issue: 2009/133

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451807929.002

ISBN: 9781451807929

Keywords: debt, budget, budget execution, interest

Côte d'Ivoire's request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility is discussed. Côte d'Ivoire is making progress toward reunification, peace, and elections. Côte d'Ivoire's econom...

Coping with the Crisis
			: Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries

Coping with the Crisis : Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2009/08

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Christopher Crowe , Jonathan Ostry , Jun Kim , Marcos Chamon , and Atish Ghosh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462323296.004

ISBN: 9781462323296

Keywords: Emerging markets, exchange rate, fiscal policy, foreign exchange, interest rates, foreign currency

...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959901.042

ISBN: 9781451959901

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Boletín del FMI Vol.37, No.10 octubre 2008

Boletín del FMI Vol.37, No.10 octubre 2008 »

Volume/Issue: 37/10

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 March 2009

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451943832.023

ISBN: 9781451943832

Reuniones Anuales, Comunicado del CMFI, Fondos soberanos de inversión, Crisis financiera mundial, Metodologías contables, Impacto del estrés financiero, Crisis hipotecaria, El futuro de Fannie y Freddie, Análisis d...

IMF Survey, Volume 37, Issue 13

IMF Survey, Volume 37, Issue 13 »

Volume/Issue: 37/10

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968026.023

ISBN: 9781451968026

Keywords: financial system, financial institutions, financial markets, financial crisis, interest rates

Annual Meetings, IMFC Communiqué, Global Financial Stability Report, Sovereign Wealth Fund Principles, Global Financial Crisis, Fair Value Accounting, Financial Stress and Downturns, Subprime Crisis, What Next for...

Financial Crises and Emerging Market Trade

Financial Crises and Emerging Market Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2009/04

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455280476.004

ISBN: 9781455280476

Keywords: Economic models, Emerging markets, Financial crisis, Export credits, Exports, Capital flows, Imports, International trade, Trade models, private capital

...

Boletín del FMI Vol.37, No.11 noviembre 2008

Boletín del FMI Vol.37, No.11 noviembre 2008 »

Volume/Issue: 37/11

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2008

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451943931.023

ISBN: 9781451943931

Actualización de Perspectivas de la economía mundial; Debate sobre la función del FMI; Los países pobres frente a la crisis; Europa oriental: los riesgos del cambio; Entrevista a Hamad Al Suwaidi; Oriente Medio y A...

IMF Survey, Volume 37, Issue 11

IMF Survey, Volume 37, Issue 11 »

Volume/Issue: 37/11

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968064.023

ISBN: 9781451968064

Keywords: financial markets, financial system, international monetary fund, member countries, regulatory framework

World Economic Outlook Update, IMF's Future role Debated, Poor Countries Face Crisis Impact, Eastern Europe's Currency Risk, Interview with Hamad Al Suwaidi, Mideast-Central Asia Outlook, Pacific Islands Face Press...

A New Database of Financial Reforms

A New Database of Financial Reforms »

Volume/Issue: 2008/266

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrica Detragiache , Abdul Abiad , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871241.001

ISBN: 9781451871241

Keywords: Financial liberalization, financial reforms, banking, financial reform, banking supervisory agency,

This paper introduces a new database of financial reforms, covering 91 economies over 1973–2005. It describes the content of the database, the information sources utilized, and the coding rules used to creat...

Regional Economic Outlook, November 2008, Asia and Pacific

Regional Economic Outlook, November 2008, Asia and Pacific »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067615.086

ISBN: 9781589067615

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, pension, pension funds, pension fund

The November 2008 Asia and Pacific REO focuses on the difficult economic environment facing policymakers in the region. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the outlook for the region. With growth slowing, and the glo...

Is it (Still) Mostly Fiscal? Determinants of Sovereign Spreads in Emerging Markets

Is it (Still) Mostly Fiscal? Determinants of Sovereign Spreads in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2008/259

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Amine Mati , and Emanuele Baldacci

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871173.001

ISBN: 9781451871173

Keywords: Sovereign spreads, political risk, bond, fiscal variables, bond spreads, fiscal balance,

Using a panel of 30 emerging market economies from 1997 to 2007, this paper investigates the determinants of country risk premiums as measured by sovereign bond spreads. Unlike previous studies, the results indicat...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930283.042

ISBN: 9781451930283

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

An Analysis of So-Called Export-led Growth

An Analysis of So-Called Export-led Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2008/220

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jie Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870787.001

ISBN: 9781451870787

Keywords: Export-led growth, real exchange rate, productivity improvement, export growth, exchange rate, exportable sector, export sector,

The stylized fact that strong economic growth is usually accompanied with strong export growth leads many people to conclude that the export sector is the main driving force behind those episodes. The model in this...

Banks and Labor as Stakeholders
			: Impact on Economic Performance

Banks and Labor as Stakeholders : Impact on Economic Performance »

Volume/Issue: 2008/229

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kenichi Ueda , and Stijn Claessens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870879.001

ISBN: 9781451870879

Keywords: stakeholders, shareholders&;amp;#x2019; maximization, financial liberalization, employment protection, employment, shareholders,

Traditionally, the impacts of the rights of financial institutions and workers on corporate performance have been analyzed independently. Yet, theory clearly indicates that the combination of relative powers of dif...

Mauritius
			: A Competitiveness Assessment

Mauritius : A Competitiveness Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2008/212

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Camelia Minoiu , and Patrick Imam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870701.001

ISBN: 9781451870701

Keywords: equilibrium real exchange rate, structural competitiveness, exchange rate, real exchange rate, equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rates, structural competitveness,

We assess the competitiveness of Mauritius in recent years using two approaches. First, we estimate the difference between the equilibrium and the actual real exchange rate using four methods: the macroeconomic bal...

Mauritius
			: Selected Issues

Mauritius : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2008/237

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451827859.002

ISBN: 9781451827859

Keywords: exchange rate, competitiveness, real exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange

This Selected Issues paper assesses the external competitiveness of Mauritius over the period 1980-2007, with particular attention to the most recent years. The paper estimates the equilibrium real exchange rate us...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930252.042

ISBN: 9781451930252

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Request for Emergency Post -Conflict Assistance:  Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Côte d'Ivoire

Côte d'Ivoire : Request for Emergency Post -Conflict Assistance: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Côte d'Ivoire »

Volume/Issue: 2008/142

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451807905.002

ISBN: 9781451807905

Keywords: debt, budget, interest, budget execution, debt service

The economic recovery in Côte d'Ivoire is crucial to growth throughout the subregion. The fiscal results and mobilized domestic financing enabled the authorities to make payments to the World Bank and AfDB and redu...

Trade Creation and Diversion Revisited
			: Accounting for Model Uncertainty and Natural Trading Partner Effects

Trade Creation and Diversion Revisited : Accounting for Model Uncertainty and Natural Trading Partner Effects »

Volume/Issue: 2008/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chris Papageorgiou , Christian Henn , and Theo Eicher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869286.001

ISBN: 9781451869286

Keywords: Trade Creation and Trade Diversion, Preferential Trade Agreements, Bayesian Model Averaging, Country-Pair Fixed Effects, trade creation, trade flows, trade diversion, bilateral trade, trade agreements,

Trade theories covering Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) are as diverse as the literature in search of their empirical support. To account for the model uncertainty that surrounds the validity of the competing...

Boletín del FMI Vol.37, No.1 enero 2008

Boletín del FMI Vol.37, No.1 enero 2008 »

Volume/Issue: 37/1

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 2008

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451943382.023

ISBN: 9781451943382

El programa de trabajo; La formación de mercados locales de bonos; Lipsky: Menor crecimiento; El cambio climático; El gasto fiscal en el G-7; La economía coreana hoy; Préstamo del FMI para Guinea; Asistencia técnic...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960143.042

ISBN: 9781451960143

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, merchandise exports, exporting countries, total exports, exporting country, internet, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Boletin del FMI Vol.36, No.13 noviembre 2007

Boletin del FMI Vol.36, No.13 noviembre 2007 »

Volume/Issue: 36/13

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973631.023

ISBN: 9781451973631

Keywords: voting, financial system, financial stability, basic votes, voting share, international financial system, financial systems, voting shares, financial innovation

Solicitud de fortalecimiento del FMI, Perspectivas de crecimiento mundial, Strauss-Kahn asume como nuevo Director Gerente del FMI, Comunicado del CMFI, Globalización, Ciclo económico mundial, flujos de capital, Sem...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960105.042

ISBN: 9781451960105

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Ethnic Diversity, Democracy, and Corruption

Ethnic Diversity, Democracy, and Corruption »

Volume/Issue: 2007/218

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867824.001

ISBN: 9781451867824

Keywords: Ethnic Fractionalization, Democracy, voters, ethnic group, voter, ethnic groups,

I study the link between ethnic diversity, democracy, and corruption. In a static model, I show that contrary to conventional wisdom, corruption might emerge as a negative externality of democracy. This occurs thro...

Finance & Development, June 2007

Finance & Development, June 2007 »

Volume/Issue: 44/2

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451953824.022

ISBN: 9781451953824

Keywords: international monetary fund, gender, girls, gender equality, gender disparities

The June 2007 issue of F&D spotlights gender equality. The lead article discusses progress toward fulfilling the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on redressing gender discrimination and empowering women and relate...