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Credit Booms-Is China Different?

Credit Booms-Is China Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2018/2

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sally Chen , and Joong Shik Kang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 January 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336762.001

ISBN: 9781484336762

Keywords: Financial crises, Financial cycles, Banking crises, Asia and Pacific, credit gap, debt overhang, sustainable growth, General

Strong Chinese output growth after the Global Financial Crisis was supported by booming credit. This credit boom carries risks. International experience suggests that China's credit growth is on a dangerous traject...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles »

Volume/Issue: 2017/402

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335154.002

ISBN: 9781484335154

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The Chinese insurance sector is experiencing rapid growth, posing particular challenges to effective supervision. The sector has been growing by over 20 percent a year and there are ambitious government targets for...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2017/403

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335222.002

ISBN: 9781484335222

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) has maintained its momentum in regulation and supervision in the face of exceptional growth in scale and increasing complexity of the banking system. Equally, the CBRC...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Iosco Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Iosco Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2017/404

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335307.002

ISBN: 9781484335307

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The authorities' vision of ensuring that the capital markets support China's transformation towards a more market-oriented economy has driven capital markets development and-as the authorities recognize-the regulat...

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports »

Volume/Issue: 2017/288

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yibin Mu , Chu Wang , and Dong Frank Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335406.001

ISBN: 9781484335406

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Development, Exports, Growth, China Economy, SSA, General, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

The analysis of China's impacts on the 44 SSA countries reveals that: (i) after joining the WTO in 2001, China has started to impact significantly on SSA growth: one-percent increase in China's GDP per capita leads...

Credit and Fiscal Multipliers in China

Credit and Fiscal Multipliers in China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/273

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sophia Chen , Lev Ratnovski , and Pi-Han Tsai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484332160.001

ISBN: 9781484332160

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, Macroprudential Policy, Fiscal stimulus, Credit Growth, Multipliers, Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary or Stabilization Policy, General, Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity

We jointly estimate credit and fiscal multipliers in China. We use the tenure of the provincial party secretary, interacted with the type of stimulus used in other provinces, to obtain separate instruments for prov...

Reassessing the Perimeter of Government Accounts in China

Reassessing the Perimeter of Government Accounts in China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano , and Phil Stokoe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331651.001

ISBN: 9781484331651

Keywords: China, Asia and Pacific, Government Statistics, Fiscal Risks, Local Government Finance, General

China's official general government accounts do not include off-budget quasi-fiscal spending unlike the IMF's augmented government accounts. This paper argues that the broader concept of augmented government remain...

People's Republic of China
			: Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

People's Republic of China : Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes »

Volume/Issue: 2017/359

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331156.002

ISBN: 9781484331156

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/358

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331149.002

ISBN: 9781484331149

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Since the 2011 FSAP, China's impressive economic growth has continued, and it is now undertaking a necessary but prolonged economic transformation. China is transitioning from an economic model based on exports and...

Resolving China's Zombies: Tackling Debt and Raising Productivity

Resolving China's Zombies: Tackling Debt and Raising Productivity »

Volume/Issue: 2017/266

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Alfred Schipke , Yuyan Tan , and Zhibo Tan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484330722.001

ISBN: 9781484330722

Keywords: Corporate debt, Debt restructuring, Asia and Pacific, China, state-owned enterprises, and zombie firms, zombie firms, General, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis

Nonviable 'zombie' firms have become a key concern in China. Using novel firm-level industrial survey data, this paper illustrates the central role of zombies and their strong linkages with stateowned enterprises (...

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S.

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S. »

Volume/Issue: 2017/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Xu , and Kaiji Gong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484326008.001

ISBN: 9781484326008

Keywords: Western Hemisphere, Asia and Pacific, United States, Chinese Import Competition, R&D Expenditures, Reallocation, R&D Expenditures, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Labor Market Interactions

We analyze the impact of rising import competition from China on U.S. innovative activities. Using Compustat data, we find that import competition induces R&D expenditures to be reallocated towards more productive...

Assessing China's Residential Real Estate Market

Assessing China's Residential Real Estate Market »

Volume/Issue: 2017/248

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Xiaoyu Huang , Tao Jin , and W. Raphael Lam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484324813.001

ISBN: 9781484324813

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Macroprudential Policy, Central banks and their policies, China real estate market, housing bubbles, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), Housing Supply and Markets, Bayesian Analysis

China's real estate market rebounded sharply after a temporary slowdown in 2014-2015. This paper uses city-level data to estimate the range of house price overvaluation across city-tiers and assesses the main risks...

People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2017/248

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314722.002

ISBN: 9781484314722

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Selected Issues...

People's Republic of China
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/247

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314654.002

ISBN: 9781484314654

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Policy support, strengthening external demand, and supply-side reforms have helped maintain strong growth which, along with tighter enforcement of capital flow management measures, has also reduced exchange rate pr...

Does the Stock Market Boost Firm Innovation?
			: Evidence from Chinese Firms

Does the Stock Market Boost Firm Innovation? : Evidence from Chinese Firms »

Volume/Issue: 2017/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Hanya Li , and Jinfan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303726.001

ISBN: 9781484303726

Keywords: China, People's Republic of, Asia and Pacific, China, Corporate governance, IPO, Innovation, Financial Constraint, State Ownership, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis, Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

The paper analyses the effect of the stock market on firm innovation through the lens of initial public offering (IPO) using uniquely matched Chinese firm-level data. We find that IPOs lead to an increase in both t...

Trading with China
			: Productivity Gains, Job Losses

Trading with China : Productivity Gains, Job Losses »

Volume/Issue: 2017/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): JaeBin Ahn , and Romain Duval

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 May 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475595833.001

ISBN: 9781475595833

Keywords: China, People's Republic of, Imports, Productivity, Trade, Asia and Pacific, Exports, Growth, Jobs, China

We analyze the impact on productivity in advanced economies of fast-growing trade with China between the mid-1990s and late-2000s, separately identifying the export and import channels. We use country-sector-level...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 January 2017

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523256.069

ISBN: 9781475523256

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies in participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of t...

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth
			: Firm-level Evidence

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth : Firm-level Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2016/249

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Nan Li , and Jing Fang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475563139.001

ISBN: 9781475563139

Keywords: Business enterprises, Productivity, China, Asia and Pacific, Technological innovation, Public corporations, Innovation, Growth, Patent, R&;D

This paper examines whether the rapid growing firm patenting activity in China is associated with real economic outcome by building a unique dataset uniting detailed firm balance sheet information with firm patent...

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems?

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Csaba Feher , Jack Ree , Ikuo Saito , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560336.001

ISBN: 9781475560336

Keywords: Pensions, Pension reforms, Japan, Korea, Republic of, China, People's Republic of, China, Asia and Pacific, Asia, Retirement, Pension System Reform

Automatic adjustment mechanisms (AAMs)-rules ensuring that certain characteristics of a pension system respond to demographic, macroeconomic and financial developments, in a predetermined fashion and without the ne...

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity
			: Crossing the Tipping Point

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity : Crossing the Tipping Point »

Volume/Issue: 2016/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vitor Gaspar , Laura Jaramillo , and Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558142.001

ISBN: 9781475558142

Keywords: Nigeria, Political economy, Income taxes, Taxation, Tax evasion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tax administration, Spain, Western Hemisphere, China

An empirical finding by Gaspar, Jaramillo and Wingender (2016) shows that once countries cross a tax-to-GDP threshold of around 12¾ percent, real GDP per capita increases sharply and in a sustained manner over the...

Quantifying the Spillovers from China Rebalancing Using a Multi-Sector Ricardian Trade Model

Quantifying the Spillovers from China Rebalancing Using a Multi-Sector Ricardian Trade Model »

Volume/Issue: 2016/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475553741.001

ISBN: 9781475553741

Keywords: Consumption, China, Demand, International trade, Trade models, Spillovers, Spillovers, Transition economies, Economic sectors, China rebalancing

This paper assesses the spillovers from different facets of China rebalancing using a calibrated Ricardian trade model that includes 41 economies, each consisting of 34 sectors. We find that China's move up the val...

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold?

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sohrab Rafiq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552607.001

ISBN: 9781475552607

Keywords: Cambodia, Cambodia, China, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Emerging markets, Economic integration, Economic growth, Philippines, Indonesia

This paper looks at the effects of a China slowdown on Emerging Market Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Frontier Developing Economies (Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., and Vietnam) in ASEAN. The main finding...

Spillovers from the Maturing of China's Economy

Spillovers from the Maturing of China's Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2016/212

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Dizioli , Benjamin Hunt , and Wojciech Maliszewski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552225.001

ISBN: 9781475552225

Keywords: Spillovers, Asia and Pacific, China’;s slowdown and rebalancing, international business cycle, model based analysis, China&;amp;#x2019;s slowdown and rebalancing, Computable General Equilibrium Models, Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Business Cycles

China's transition to a new growth model continues and the impact has been felt across the globe. Several trends contribute to the ‘maturing' of China's economy: i) structural slowing on the convergence path; ii) o...

Resolving China's Corporate Debt Problem

Resolving China's Corporate Debt Problem »

Volume/Issue: 2016/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wojciech Maliszewski , Serkan Arslanalp , John Caparusso , José Garrido , Si Guo , Joong Shik Kang , W. Raphael Lam , Daniel Law , Wei Liao , Nadia Rendak , Philippe Wingender , Jiangyan Yu , and Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 October 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475545289.001

ISBN: 9781475545289

Keywords: Corporate Debt Overhang; Credit; Restructuring; Hardening Budget Constraints

Corporate credit growth in China has been excessive in recent years. This credit boom is related to the large increase in investment after the Global Financial Crisis. Investment efficiency has fallen and the finan...

Regulating Local Government Financing Vehicles and Public-Private Partnerships in China

Regulating Local Government Financing Vehicles and Public-Private Partnerships in China »

Volume/Issue: 2016/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui Jin , and Isabel Rial

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536768.001

ISBN: 9781475536768

Keywords: fiscal risk, public investment, subnational government

In this paper, we argue that there is much room for China to strengthen its regulatory framework for public-private partnerships (PPPs). We show that infrastructure projects carried out through local government fin...

Rebalancing in China-Progress and Prospects

Rebalancing in China-Progress and Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 2016/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475532937.001

ISBN: 9781475532937

Keywords: Rebalancing, China

China is transitioning to a greener, more inclusive, more consumer and service based, and less credit-driven economy. This paper defines a framework for assessing rebalancing, reviews progress, and discusses medium...

China's Financial Interlinkages and Implications For Inter-Agency Coordination

China's Financial Interlinkages and Implications For Inter-Agency Coordination »

Volume/Issue: 2016/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Min Liao , Tao Sun , and Jinfan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475530490.001

ISBN: 9781475530490

Keywords: financial landscape, risks, policy coordination

China's financial system has become very large, diversified, and interconnected. This changing financial landscape could potentially produce systemic risks, arising primarily from growing financial interconnectedne...

The People's Republic of China
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for The People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China : 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for The People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2016/270

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524321.002

ISBN: 9781475524321

This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights China's continued transition to sustainable growth, with progress on many fronts. Growth slowed to 6.9 percent in 2015 and is projected to moderate to 6.6 percent in 201...

The People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

The People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/271

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524383.002

ISBN: 9781475524383

This Selected Issues paper reviews China's progress along various dimensions of rebalancing. External rebalancing has advanced well, while progress on internal rebalancing has been mixed-substantial on the supply s...

China's Growing Influence on Asian Financial Markets

China's Growing Influence on Asian Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serkan Arslanalp , Wei Liao , Shi Piao , and Dulani Seneviratne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475525137.001

ISBN: 9781475525137

Keywords: China, Spillovers, Equity markets, Foreign Exchange Markets

This paper finds that financial spillovers from China to regional markets are on the rise. The main transmission channel appears to be trade linkages, although direct financial linkages are playing an increasing ro...

Spillovers from China's Growth Slowdown and Rebalancing to the ASEAN-5 Economies

Spillovers from China's Growth Slowdown and Rebalancing to the ASEAN-5 Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2016/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Dizioli , Jaime Guajardo , Vladimir Klyuev , Rui Mano , and Mehdi Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524260.001

ISBN: 9781475524260

Keywords: China’;s slowdown and rebalancing, international business cycle, spillovers, Global VAR, Flexible System of Global Models (FSGM), ASEAN-5.

After many years of rapid expansion, China's growth is slowing to more sustainable levels and is rebalancing, with consumption becoming the main growth driver. This transition is likely to have negative effects on...

Inflation, Financial Developments, and Wealth Distribution

Inflation, Financial Developments, and Wealth Distribution »

Volume/Issue: 2016/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wai-Yip Alex Ho , and Chun-Yu Ho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498352826.001

ISBN: 9781498352826

Keywords: Inflation, Borrowing Constraint, Adjustment Cost, Heterogeneous Agents, Wealth Distribution

We find that from 1995 to 2002 in China, the dispersion of wealth decreased, the moneywealth ratio increased for all wealth levels and the aggregate money-output ratio increased. We develop a two-asset dynamic gene...

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation, First Review under the Extended Credit Facility, and Request for Waiver for Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Exective Director for the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe : 2016 Article IV Consultation, First Review under the Extended Credit Facility, and Request for Waiver for Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Exective Director for the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe »

Volume/Issue: 2016/174

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498307444.002

ISBN: 9781498307444

Keywords: debt, poverty, monetary fund, commercial banks, market

This paper discusses recent economic developments and economic outlook and risks of São Tomé and Príncipe. Although São Tomé and Príncipe's economic development is constrained by its insularity, fragility, limited...

Thailand
			: Selected Issues

Thailand : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/140

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484376003.002

ISBN: 9781484376003

Keywords: market, price, value, volatility, market volatility

This paper discusses selected issues related to the economy of Thailand. The economy of Thailand is largely dependent on China. A 1 percent decline in China's GDP lowers Thailand's output by about 0.2 percent. Popu...

Chinese Imports
			: What's Behind the Slowdown?

Chinese Imports : What's Behind the Slowdown? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joong Shik Kang , and Wei Liao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484368626.001

ISBN: 9781484368626

Keywords: Imports; Rebalancing; Exchange Rate; Onshoring

Real imports in China have decelerated significantly over the last two years to below 4 percent (yoy) from double-digit growth in previous years. Weaker investment, partly due to progress in rebalancing from invest...

Debt Equity Conversions and NPL Securitization in China
			: Some Initial Considerations

Debt Equity Conversions and NPL Securitization in China : Some Initial Considerations »

Volume: 16

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): James Daniel , Jose Garrido , and Marina Moretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513524153.005

ISBN: 9781513524153

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Credit, bank lending, borrowing, bank, bank regulation, insolvency, liquidation, non-performing, loan

This note considers the role debt-equity conversions and NPL securitization can play in addressing excessive corporate debt in China, and the corresponding burden on banks of impaired assets. It finds that such tec...

Global Financial Stability Report, April 2016
			: Potent Policies for a Successful Normalization

Global Financial Stability Report, April 2016 : Potent Policies for a Successful Normalization »

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513506777.082

ISBN: 9781513506777

Keywords: Financial stability, Global Financial Stability Report, Global Financial Stability Reports, Global Financial Stability Risks, International financial stability, Macroprudential policies and financial stability, market, emerging market, insurance, equity

The current Global Financial Stability Report (April 2016) finds that global financial stability risks have risen since the last report in October 2015. The new report finds that the outlook has deteriorated in adv...

Mauritius
			: 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Mauritius

Mauritius : 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Mauritius »

Volume/Issue: 2016/89

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475522662.002

ISBN: 9781475522662

Keywords: investment, monetary fund, investment rates, banking sector, reserve

This paper discusses key issues related to the economy of Mauritius. In 2015, the economy of Mauritius has grown at moderate rate; inflation is low; and the external position has improved. However, macroeconomic co...

Tax Administration Reform in China
			: Achievements, Challenges, and Reform Priorities

Tax Administration Reform in China : Achievements, Challenges, and Reform Priorities »

Volume/Issue: 2016/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Brondolo , and Zhiyong Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523614.001

ISBN: 9781475523614

Keywords: Tax Administration, Tax Administration Reform, China Tax Administration

Tax administration improvements have contributed significantly to a doubling of China's tax-to-GDP ratio and the substantial reduction in taxpayers' compliance costs since the mid-1990s. This paper describes the ke...

Dynamic Connectedness of Asian Equity Markets

Dynamic Connectedness of Asian Equity Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/57

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roberto Guimarães-Filho , and Gee Hee Hong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513572451.001

ISBN: 9781513572451

Keywords: financial spillovers, Asia financial integration, financial linkages, stock market, equity, markets, market, returns, equity returns, General,

Understanding how markets are connected and shocks are transmitted is an important issue for policymakers and market participants. In this paper, we examine the connectedness of Asian equity markets within the regi...

China's Imports Slowdown
			: Spillovers, Spillins, and Spillbacks

China's Imports Slowdown : Spillovers, Spillins, and Spillbacks »

Volume/Issue: 2016/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexei Kireyev , and Andrei Leonidov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513555850.001

ISBN: 9781513555850

Keywords: shocks, spillover, spillin, spillback, network, gdp, revenue, demand, Neural Networks and Related Topics, Country and Industry Studies of Trade

The paper models international spillovers from a hypothetical drop of China's imports as a result of China's rebalancing of its growth model. A network-based model used in the paper allows capturing higher round ne...

Finance and Development March 2016

Finance and Development March 2016 »

Volume/Issue: 53/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Communications Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513570532.022

ISBN: 9781513570532

Keywords: Finance and Development, population, population growth, workforce, monetary fund, finance

This article profiles economist David Card, whose work on minimum wages, immigration, and education challenged conventional wisdom. Card rose to prominence in 1995 when he won the coveted John Bates Clark Medal, th...

Quality and the Great Trade Collapse

Quality and the Great Trade Collapse »

Volume/Issue: 2016/30

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Natalie Chen , and Luciana Juvenal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498347587.001

ISBN: 9781498347587

Keywords: heterogeneity, multi-product firms, quality, trade collapse, unit values, wine, trade, goods, value, export growth

We explore whether the global financial crisis has had heterogeneous effects on traded goods differentiated by quality. Combining a dataset of Argentinean firm-level destination-specific wine exports with quality r...

Pilot Project on Concentration and Distribution Measures for a Selected Set of Financial Soundness Indicators

Pilot Project on Concentration and Distribution Measures for a Selected Set of Financial Soundness Indicators »

Volume/Issue: 2016/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joseph Crowley , Plapa Koukpamou , Elena Loukoianova , and André Mialou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498337014.001

ISBN: 9781498337014

Keywords: Financial Soundness Indicators, Concentration and Distribution Measures, institutions, data, pilot project, confidentiality, information, General, All Countries, Fiscal Crisis,

This paper reports the main findings of a pilot project launched in July 2014 by the IMF’s Statistics Department to test augmenting the IMF’s financial soundness indicators (FSIs) with concentration and distributio...

Trends in Gender Equality and Women’s Advancement

Trends in Gender Equality and Women’s Advancement »

Volume/Issue: 2016/21

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Janet Stotsky , Sakina Shibuya , Lisa Kolovich , and Suhaib Kebhaj

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475592955.001

ISBN: 9781475592955

Keywords: Economics of gender, gender indicators, indices, women, gender equality, life expectancy, mortality, maternal mortality, General, All Countries

This paper examines trends in indicators of gender equality and women’s development, using evidence derived from individual indicators and gender equality indices. We extend both the United Nations Development Prog...

The Fiscal Costs of Contingent Liabilities

The Fiscal Costs of Contingent Liabilities »

Volume/Issue: 2016/14

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elva Bova , Marta Ruiz-Arranz , Frederik Toscani , and H. Elif Ture

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498303606.001

ISBN: 9781498303606

Keywords: Fiscal Crisis, General, All Countries,, Budget deficits, Public debt, Contingent liabilities

We construct the first comprehensive dataset of contingent liability realizations in advanced and emerging markets for the period 1990–2014. We find that contingent liability realizations are a major source of fisc...

Corporate Investment in Emerging Markets
			: Financing vs. Real Options Channel

Corporate Investment in Emerging Markets : Financing vs. Real Options Channel »

Volume/Issue: 2015/285

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Delong Li , Nicolas Magud , and Fabian Valencia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513539935.001

ISBN: 9781513539935

Keywords: financial frictions, real options, uncertainty shocks, interest, interest rates, markets, cash flows, General, All Countries,

We examine how firm and country heterogeneity shape the response of corporate investment in emerging markets to changes in global interest rates and volatility. We test for the presence of (i) a financing channel o...

Financial Distortions in China
			: A General Equilibrium Approach

Financial Distortions in China : A General Equilibrium Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2015/274

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Diego Anzoategui , Mali Chivakul , and Wojciech Maliszewski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513565149.001

ISBN: 9781513565149

Keywords: Financial distortions, interest rate liberalization, implicit government guarantees, interest, guarantees, deposit, implicit guarantees, deposits, General, Asia including Middle East

Widespread implicit guarantees and interest ceilings were major distortions in China's financial system, contributing to a misallocation of resources. We analyze the impact of removing such frictions in a general e...

Contingent Liabilities from Banks
			: How to Track Them?

Contingent Liabilities from Banks : How to Track Them? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/255

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serkan Arslanalp , and Yin Liao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513568560.001

ISBN: 9781513568560

Keywords: bank, banks, banking, risk, Government Policy and Regulation, All Countries,

In this paper, we develop a methodology to assess potential losses to the government that could arise from bank failures. The approach is intended to be simple, parsimonious, and used in real time. It generates an...

Finance and Development, December 2015

Finance and Development, December 2015 »

Volume/Issue: 52/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475537161.022

ISBN: 9781475537161

Keywords: energy, carbon, emissions, climate, investment

This article presents an overview of the life of Richard Layard, who believes that the basic purpose of economics is the maximization of happiness and well-being. As director of the Wellbeing Programme at the Londo...

Inflation Targeting and Exchange Rate Regimes in Emerging Markets

Inflation Targeting and Exchange Rate Regimes in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/228

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Ebeke , and Armand Fouejieu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513586267.001

ISBN: 9781513586267

Keywords: Inflation targeting, Exchange rate regime, Non-linearities, exchange rate, inflation, central bank, General, Globalization: General, All Countries,

This paper investigates the effects of the adoption of inflation targeting (IT) on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging markets (EMs), conditional on certain macroeconomic conditions. Using a large sample...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513519418.069

ISBN: 9781513519418

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of the...

Global Financial Stability Report, October 2015
			: Vulnerabilities, Legacies, and Policy Challenges - Risks Rotating to Emerging Markets

Global Financial Stability Report, October 2015 : Vulnerabilities, Legacies, and Policy Challenges - Risks Rotating to Emerging Markets »

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513582047.082

ISBN: 9781513582047

Keywords: Liquidity, global financial crisis, securities markets, corporate debt, commodity prices, corporate bonds, regulations, equity bubble, normalization, risk premiums

The October 2015 Global Financial Stability Report finds that, despite an improvement in financial stability in advanced economies, risks continue to rotate toward emerging markets. The global financial outlook is...

IMF Financial Operations 2015

IMF Financial Operations 2015 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513549897.071

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

IMF Financial Operations 2015 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also provides backgr...

Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

A New Look at the Determinants of Growth in Asian Countries

A New Look at the Determinants of Growth in Asian Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/195

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Manuk Ghazanchyan , Janet Stotsky , and Qianqian Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513524535.001

ISBN: 9781513524535

Keywords: growth, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, economies, currency, General, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies, General, Asia including Middle East,

This study examines the drivers of growth in Asian countries, with focus on the role of investment, the exchange rate regime, financial risk, and capital account openness. We use a panel data set of a sample of Asi...

People's Republic of China
			: Staff Report for the 2015 Article IV Consultation

People's Republic of China : Staff Report for the 2015 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/234

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 August 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513512907.002

ISBN: 9781513512907

Keywords: inflation, market, monetary fund, financial crisis, interest rates

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that China is transitioning to a new normal, with slower-yet-safer, more sustainable growth. Growth in 2014 fell to 7.4 percent and, in 2015, is forecast to slow further...

Emerging Market Heterogeneity
			: Insights from Cluster and Taxonomy Analysis

Emerging Market Heterogeneity : Insights from Cluster and Taxonomy Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2015/155

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zhongxia Zhang , and Yuan Gao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513587622.001

ISBN: 9781513587622

Keywords: growth, heterogeneity, cluster analysis, taxonomy, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

This paper studies growth patterns in Emerging Market Economies (EMs) from the perspective on clusters and taxonomies. First, it documents developments over the past five decades in EMs and uses a cluster analysis...

China's Labor Market in the 'New Normal'

China's Labor Market in the 'New Normal' »

Volume/Issue: 2015/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Waikei Lam , Xiaoguang Liu , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513570693.001

ISBN: 9781513570693

Keywords: Mobility, labor market, labor, employment, General, General, General, General, General, General,

As China implements reforms under the 'new normal,' maintaining stability in the labor market is a priority. The country's demography and labor dynamics are changing, after benefitting in past decades from ample ch...

Network Effects of International Shocks and Spillovers

Network Effects of International Shocks and Spillovers »

Volume/Issue: 2015/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexei Kireyev , and Andrei Leonidov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513542928.001

ISBN: 9781513542928

Keywords: shocks, spillover, network, balance of payments, imports, import, trading partners, Neural Networks and Related Topics, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Open Economy Macroeconomics

This paper proposes a method for assessing international spillovers from nominal demand shocks. It quantifies the impact of a shock in one country on all other countries. The paper concludes that the network effect...

Assessing Default Risks for Chinese Firms
			: A Lost Cause?

Assessing Default Risks for Chinese Firms : A Lost Cause? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/140

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Law , and Shaun Roache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513597584.001

ISBN: 9781513597584

Keywords: default probabilities, equity, market, Asset Pricing, Financial Forecasting and Simulation,

Assessing default risks for Chinese firms is hard. Standard measures of risk using market indicators may be unreliable because of implicit guarantees, the large role played by less-informed investors, and other mar...

The Leap of the Tiger
			: How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap

The Leap of the Tiger : How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap »

Volume/Issue: 2015/131

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reda Cherif , and Fuad Hasanov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513556017.001

ISBN: 9781513556017

Keywords: growth, middle-income trap, innovation, technology, electronics, it, at, technologies, Government Policy, General

Only a few European economies and Korea and Taiwan Province of China reached high-income status during 1970-2010. Malaysia's real income per capita increased to 26 percent of the U.S. level in 2010 from 20 percent...

Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality
			: A Global Perspective

Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality : A Global Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2015/13

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Kalpana Kochhar , Nujin Suphaphiphat , Frantisek Ricka , and Evridiki Tsounta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513555188.006

ISBN: 9781513555188

Keywords: Cross-country analysis, Inequality, Gini coefficient, income, income inequality, middle class, income share, Equity, Justice, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

This paper analyzes the extent of income inequality from a global perspective, its drivers, and what to do about it. The drivers of inequality vary widely amongst countries, with some common drivers being the skill...

Côte D'Ivoire
			: Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria

Côte D'Ivoire : Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria »

Volume/Issue: 2015/147

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513533346.002

ISBN: 9781513533346

Keywords: deficit, monetary fund, fiscal deficit, investment, debt

This paper discusses Côte d'Ivoire's Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria (PCs). Performance under the IMF-supported program conti...

China's Growth
			: Can Goldilocks Outgrow Bears?

China's Growth : Can Goldilocks Outgrow Bears? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/113

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wojciech Maliszewski , and Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513504643.001

ISBN: 9781513504643

Keywords: potential growth, output gap, production, investment, inflation, credit, potential output, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

The paper analyzes the recent growth dynamics in China, evaluating both cyclical positions and long-term growth prospects. The analysis shows that financial cycles play a more important role than traditional inflat...

Determinants of Firm Profitability in Colombia's Manufacturing Sector
			: Exchange Rate or Structural?

Determinants of Firm Profitability in Colombia's Manufacturing Sector : Exchange Rate or Structural? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/97

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Naomi Griffin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484364222.001

ISBN: 9781484364222

Keywords: Real exchange rate, structural changes, exchange rate, imports, demand, real effective exchange rate, Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope, General,

The appreciation of the real exchange rate over the past several years is considered one of the key drivers behind the weak performance of Colombia's manufacturing sector in recent years. This paper examines the ef...

Financial Crisis, US Unconventional Monetary Policy and International Spillovers

Financial Crisis, US Unconventional Monetary Policy and International Spillovers »

Volume/Issue: 2015/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Qianying Chen , Andrew Filardo , Dong He , and Feng Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475520668.001

ISBN: 9781475520668

Keywords: emerging economies, global VAR, international monetary policy spillovers, quantitative easing, unconventional monetary policy, federal reserve, securities, reserve, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Monetary Policy (Targets

We study the impact of the US quantitative easing (QE) on both the emerging and advanced economies, estimating a global vector error-correction model (GVECM) and conducting counterfactual analyses. We focus on the...

Understanding Residential Real Estate in China

Understanding Residential Real Estate in China »

Volume/Issue: 2015/84

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mali Chivakul , Waikei Lam , Xiaoguang Liu , Wojciech Maliszewski , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484337066.001

ISBN: 9781484337066

Keywords: Real estate, Property, Growth, price, cities, prices, market, General,

China's residential real estate sector plays an important role in the economy and has been a key driver of growth. Since 2014 the sector has softened visibly, reflecting overbuilding across many cities. An orderly...

Investment in Emerging Markets We Are Not in Kansas Anymore…Or Are We?

Investment in Emerging Markets We Are Not in Kansas Anymore…Or Are We? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/77

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nicolas Magud , and Sebastian Sosa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475534221.001

ISBN: 9781475534221

Keywords: financial constraints, private investment, commodity, debt, General, General, General, General, capital inflows.,

We document that (i) although private investment growth in emerging markets has decelerated in recent years, it came down from cyclical highs and remains close to pre-crisis trends; and (ii) investment-to-output ra...

Assessing China's Corporate Sector Vulnerabilities

Assessing China's Corporate Sector Vulnerabilities »

Volume/Issue: 2015/72

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mali Chivakul , and Waikei Lam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484308783.001

ISBN: 9781484308783

Keywords: leverage, state-owned enterprise (SOE), real estate, interest rate shock, debt, interest, interest rate, profit, indebtedness, General,

This paper documents and assesses the risk stemming from rising corporate indebtedness in China using a firm-level dataset of listed firms. It finds that while leverage on average is not high, there is a fat tail...

The Level of Productivity in Traded and Non-Traded Sectors for a Large Panel of Countries

The Level of Productivity in Traded and Non-Traded Sectors for a Large Panel of Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/48

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano , and Marola Castillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484392140.001

ISBN: 9781484392140

Keywords: Sectoral Productivity, Traded and Non-Traded Sectors, industry, productivity, value added, value, products, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

This paper explains in detail the construction of series for productivity in the traded and nontraded sectors for a panel of 56 countries spanning 1989-2012. The level of productivity in each sector is defined as r...

Spillovers from United States Monetary Policy on Emerging Markets
			: Different This Time?

Spillovers from United States Monetary Policy on Emerging Markets : Different This Time? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/240

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jiaqian Chen , Tommaso Mancini Griffoli , and Ratna Sahay

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498380423.001

ISBN: 9781498380423

Keywords: monetary policy announcements, unconventional monetary policies, markets, market, emerging market economies, General, General, emerging markets.,

The impact of monetary policy in large advanced countries on emerging market economies-dubbed spillovers-is hotly debated in global and national policy circles. When the U.S. resorted to unconventional monetary pol...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Requests for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, Augmentation of Access, and Twelve-Month Extension of the Current Arrangement

Côte d'Ivoire : Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Requests for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, Augmentation of Access, and Twelve-Month Extension of the Current Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2014/358

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498349741.002

ISBN: 9781498349741

Keywords: debt, monetary fund, market, investment, external debt

All end-June performance criteria and indicative targets under the ECF arrangement were met, and all structural benchmarks were completed, albeit with minor delays. However, there was a nonobservance of the continu...

Finance & Development, December 2014

Finance & Development, December 2014 »

Volume/Issue: 51/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484315422.022

ISBN: 9781484315422

Keywords: Finance and Development, health, public health, public health spending, health care, primary health care

This chapter emphasizes the importance of health policy and its implementation and connection to economic growth. The chapter also offers a different view of progress in the provision of better health facilities. T...

Slowdown in Emerging Markets
			: Sign of a Bumpy Road Ahead?

Slowdown in Emerging Markets : Sign of a Bumpy Road Ahead? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Evridiki Tsounta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498304719.001

ISBN: 9781498304719

Keywords: potential growth, emerging market economies, growth, growth rate, capital, tfp, labor, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

Following very strong growth during the period 2000-12, emerging market economies (EMEs) experienced a slowdown in the last couple of years. This paper examines the supply-side drivers of the strong growth performa...

Minimum Wages and Firm Employment
			: Evidence from China

Minimum Wages and Firm Employment : Evidence from China »

Volume/Issue: 2014/184

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yi Huang , Prakash Loungani , and Gewei Wang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498332309.001

ISBN: 9781498332309

Keywords: wage, wages, minimum wage, General, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

This paper provides the first systematic study of how minimum wage policies in China affect firm employment over the 2000-2007 periods. Using a novel dataset of minimum wage regulations across more than 2,800 count...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

Emerging Market Volatility
			: Lessons from The Taper Tantrum

Emerging Market Volatility : Lessons from The Taper Tantrum »

Volume/Issue: 2014/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Vivek Arora , Athanasios Arvanitis , Hamid Faruqee , Papa N'Diaye , and Tommaso Mancini Griffoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498318204.006

ISBN: 9781498318204

Keywords: Monetary policy, Emerging markets, United States, Capital flows, Financial markets, Capital market volatility, Macroprudential Policy, Developed countries, Tapering, unconventional monetary policy

Accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies have spurred increased capital inflows into emerging markets since the global financial crisis. Starting in May 2013, when the Federal Reserve publicly discusse...

Growth Surprises and Synchronized Slowdowns in Emerging Markets--An Empirical Investigation

Growth Surprises and Synchronized Slowdowns in Emerging Markets--An Empirical Investigation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ghada Fayad , and Roberto Perrelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498335836.001

ISBN: 9781498335836

Keywords: Emerging market, growth surprises, trading partners&;amp;#x2019; demand, trading partners, global financial crisis, financial crisis, import demand, trading partner, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Economic Growth of Open Economies

Output growth has slowed in several emerging markets since 2011-a remarkable feature for a non-crisis period in EMs. Such synchronized slowdowns were largely unanticipated by scholars and forecasters alike. In this...

Bank Ownership and Credit Growth in Emerging Markets During and After the 2008-09 Financial Crisis - A Cross-Regional Comparison

Bank Ownership and Credit Growth in Emerging Markets During and After the 2008-09 Financial Crisis - A Cross-Regional Comparison »

Volume/Issue: 2014/171

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Guodong Chen , and Yi Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484390993.001

ISBN: 9781484390993

Keywords: Credit Growth, Bank Ownership, Financial Crisis, banking, banking regulation, foreign bank,

This paper examines bank credit growth in emerging markets before, during, and after the 2008-09 financial crisis using bank-level data, focusing on the role of bank ownership. Credit growth by foreign banks lagged...

Measuring External Risks for Peru
			: Insights from a Macroeconomic Model for a Small Open and Partially Dollarized Economy

Measuring External Risks for Peru : Insights from a Macroeconomic Model for a Small Open and Partially Dollarized Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2014/161

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fei Han

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498327220.001

ISBN: 9781498327220

Keywords: Macroeconomic Model, Partial Dollarization, External Risk, Macroeconomic Forecast, inflation, aggregate demand, monetary fund, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation, Forecasting and Simulation, Monetary Policy (Targets

This paper quantifies the effects of external risks for Peru, with particular attention to two major external risks, China's investment slowdown and the U.S. monetary policy tightening. In particular, a macroeconom...

Conventional and Insidious Macroeconomic Balance-Sheet Crises

Conventional and Insidious Macroeconomic Balance-Sheet Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2014/160

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bas Bakker , and Leslie Lipschitz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498389044.001

ISBN: 9781498389044

Keywords: crises, capital inflows, exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, effective exchange rate, General, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance, Globalization: General,

This paper describes the anatomy of two types of balance-sheet macroeconomic crises. Conventional balance-sheet crises are triggered by external imbalances and balance sheet vulnerabilities. They typically occur af...

After the Boom-Commodity Prices and Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean

After the Boom-Commodity Prices and Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean »

Volume/Issue: 2014/154

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bertrand Gruss

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498363518.001

ISBN: 9781498363518

Keywords: Global VAR (GVAR), commodity prices, output growth, Latin America, commodity exporters, exporters, commodity exports, Time-Series Models, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies

After skyrocketing over the past decade, commodity prices have remained stable or eased somewhat since mid-2011-and most projections suggest they are not likely to resume the upward trend observed in the last decad...

People's Republic of China
			: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

People's Republic of China : Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/235

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498308571.002

ISBN: 9781498308571

Keywords: bonds, financial institutions, bond, deposit rate

KEY ISSUES Context. After three decades of remarkable growth, the economy has been slowing. Much of the slowdown has been structural, reflecting the natural convergence process and waning dividends from past refor...

Future of Asia's Finance
			: How Can it Meet Challenges of Demographic Change and Infrastructure Needs?

Future of Asia's Finance : How Can it Meet Challenges of Demographic Change and Infrastructure Needs? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Waikei Lam , and Shanaka Peiris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498321082.001

ISBN: 9781498321082

Keywords: Demographic change, infrastructure financing, financial deepening, financial integration, capital and financial flows, bond, financial markets, financial sector development, bonds, Models with Panel Data

There is a role for Asia's financial sector to play to address the challenges associated with the region's changing demographics and infrastructure investment needs. Enhancing financial innovation and integration i...

Growth
			: Now and Forever?

Growth : Now and Forever? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/117

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Giang Ho , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498309820.001

ISBN: 9781498309820

Keywords: growth forecast, optimism bias, forecast horizon, economic growth, growth forecasts, growth rates, growth rate, economic growth forecasts,

Forecasters often predict continued rapid economic growth into the medium and long term for countries that have recently experienced strong growth. Using long-term forecasts of economic growth from the IMF/World Ba...

Impact of Fed Tapering Announcements on Emerging Markets

Impact of Fed Tapering Announcements on Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2014/109

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Prachi Mishra , Kenji Moriyama , Papa N'Diaye , and Lam Nguyen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498361484.001

ISBN: 9781498361484

Keywords: tapering, Fed policy announcements, vulnerability, stock market, bond, capital inflows, capital flow, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

This paper analyzes market reactions to the 2013-14 Fed announcements relating to tapering of asset purchases and their relationship to macroeconomic fundamentals and country economic and financial structures. The...

Emerging Markets in Transition
			: Growth Prospects and Challenges

Emerging Markets in Transition : Growth Prospects and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2014/6

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Luis Cubeddu , Alexander Culiuc , Ghada Fayad , Yuan Gao , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , Ceyda Oner , Roberto Perrelli , Sarah Sanya , Evridiki Tsounta , and Zhongxia Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498327664.006

ISBN: 9781498327664

Keywords: Emerging markets, growth, potential growth, convergence, heterogeneity, structural reform, productivity, terms of trade, trading partners, commodity prices

After a short-lived slowdown in the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis and a swift rebound, emerging markets (EM) are now entering a period of slower growth. In fact, growth is now lower than the po...

Côte D'Ivoire
			: Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria and Extension of the Current Arrangement

Côte D'Ivoire : Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria and Extension of the Current Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2014/163

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498355865.002

ISBN: 9781498355865

Keywords: external debt, public debt, current account, domestic financing

This paper discusses Côte d'Ivoire's Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria (PC) and Extension of the Current Ar...

Research Bulletin, June 2014

Research Bulletin, June 2014 »

Volume/Issue: 15/2

Series: IMF Research Bulletin

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498320795.026

ISBN: 9781498320795

Keywords: current account balances, current account balance, current account, rebalancing, low-income countries,

Articles in the June 2014 issue of the IMF Research Bulletin look at 'The Rise and Fall of Current Account Deficits in the Euro Area Periphery and the Baltics' (Joong Shik Kang and Jay C. Shambaugh) and 'The Two Si...

Finance and Development, June 2014

Finance and Development, June 2014 »

Volume/Issue: 51/2

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475535037.022

ISBN: 9781475535037

Keywords: Finance and Development, monetary fund, governance, central bank, good governance

This chapter highlights various ways Asia's growth has affected the world economy. The chapter also shows that if currency trends continue, the Asian economy is expected to be larger than that of the United States...

Determinants of International Tourism

Determinants of International Tourism »

Volume/Issue: 2014/82

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Culiuc

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484383032.001

ISBN: 9781484383032

Keywords: Gravity model, Real exchange rate, Small islands, tourist, tourists, tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

The paper estimates the impact of macroeconomic supply- and demand-side determinants of tourism, one of the largest components of services exports globally, and the backbone of many smaller economies. It applies th...

China's Monetary Policy and Interest Rate Liberalization
			: Lessons from International Experiences

China's Monetary Policy and Interest Rate Liberalization : Lessons from International Experiences »

Volume/Issue: 2014/75

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wei Liao , and Sampawende Tapsoba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484366295.001

ISBN: 9781484366295

Keywords: Financial Liberalization, Financial Innovation, Money Demand Function, financial reforms, financial market, money demand, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)

China has been moving to a more market oriented financial system, which has implications for the monetary policy environment. The paper investigates the stability of the money demand function (MDF) in light of prog...

Trade Integration and Business Cycle Synchronization
			: A Reappraisal with Focus on Asia

Trade Integration and Business Cycle Synchronization : A Reappraisal with Focus on Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2014/52

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Romain Duval , Kevin Cheng , Kum Hwa Oh , Richa Saraf , and Dulani Seneviratne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475522464.001

ISBN: 9781475522464

Keywords: Value Added, Business Cycle Synchronization, Asia, trade intensity, trade integration, industry trade, trade data, impact of trade, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Asia.,

This paper reexamines the relationship between trade integration and business cycle synchronization (BCS) using new value-added trade data for 63 advanced and emerging economies during 1995-2012. In a panel framewo...

Equitable and Sustainable Pensions
			: Challenges and Experience

Equitable and Sustainable Pensions : Challenges and Experience »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Frank Eich , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616359508.071

ISBN: 9781616359508

Keywords: pension, pensions, benefits, pension system, retirement age

Pension reform is high on the agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies, for many reasons. First, public pensions often constitute a large share of government expenditure. Second, population aging means...

Asia's Stock Markets
			: Are There Crouching Tigers and Hidden Dragons?

Asia's Stock Markets : Are There Crouching Tigers and Hidden Dragons? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/37

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fabian Lipinsky , and Li Lian Ong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484320143.001

ISBN: 9781484320143

Keywords: arbitrage pricing theory, Asian financial crisis, fundamentals, global financial crisis, idiosyncratic factors, integration, IOSCO, securities regulation, stock market, stock pricing

Stock markets play a key role in corporate financing in Asia. However, despite their increasing importance in terms of size and cross-border investment activity, the region's markets are reputed to be more 'idiosyn...

Why Was Asia Resilient? Lessons from the Past and for the Future

Why Was Asia Resilient? Lessons from the Past and for the Future »

Volume/Issue: 2014/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Phakawa Jeasakul , Cheng Lim , and Erik Lundback

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475540284.001

ISBN: 9781475540284

Keywords: Global financial crisis, resilience, financial and external vulnerabilities, banking, banking crisis, banking system, bank capital, loan classification, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Asia including Middle East,

Asia proved to be remarkably resilient in the face of the global financial crisis, but why was its output performance stronger than that of other regions? The paper shows that better initial conditions-in the form...

Rising BRICs and Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa's Business Cycle Patterns

Rising BRICs and Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa's Business Cycle Patterns »

Volume/Issue: 2014/35

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Oumar Diallo , and Sampawende Tapsoba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484306598.001

ISBN: 9781484306598

Keywords: Business Cycle Synchronicity, and the BRICs., trade intensity, trading partners, industry trade, impact of trade, General,

This paper assesses the extent to which Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)'s business cycle is synchronized with that of the rest of the world (RoW). Findings suggest that SSA's business cycle has not only moved in the same...

Debt and Growth
			: Is There a Magic Threshold?

Debt and Growth : Is There a Magic Threshold? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrea Pescatori , Damiano Sandri , and John Simon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484306444.001

ISBN: 9781484306444

Keywords: growth, gdp growth, debt thresholds, debt ratio, growth rate, General,

Using a novel empirical approach and an extensive dataset developed by the Fiscal Affairs Department of the IMF, we find no evidence of any particular debt threshold above which medium-term growth prospects are dra...

What is Shadow Banking?

What is Shadow Banking? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/25

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stijn Claessens , and Lev Ratnovski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475597349.001

ISBN: 9781475597349

Keywords: Regulation, Policy, banking activities, securitization, Government Policy and Regulation,

There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking...