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West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
			: Selected Issues

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/98

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475550009.002

ISBN: 9781475550009

Keywords: investment, public investment, public, infrastructure, per

This paper presents stylized facts on the quantitative and qualitative infrastructure gap in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), estimates the efficiency of public investment, and recommends how t...

Soft Power and Exchange Rate Volatility

Soft Power and Exchange Rate Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2015/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , Richard Harris , and Fatih Yilmaz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475530520.001

ISBN: 9781475530520

Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, exchange, exchange rate, volatility, exchange rates, trade, Time-Series Models, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

Standard models-based exclusively on macro-financial variables-have made little progress in explaining the behavior of exchange rates. In this paper, we introduce a neglected set of 'soft power' factors capturing...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Requests for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, Augmentation of Access, and Twelve-Month Extension of the Current Arrangement

Côte d'Ivoire : Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Requests for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, Augmentation of Access, and Twelve-Month Extension of the Current Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2014/358

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498349741.002

ISBN: 9781498349741

Keywords: debt, monetary fund, market, investment, external debt

All end-June performance criteria and indicative targets under the ECF arrangement were met, and all structural benchmarks were completed, albeit with minor delays. However, there was a nonobservance of the continu...

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort »

Volume/Issue: 2013/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ricardo Fenochietto , and Carola Pessino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484301272.001

ISBN: 9781484301272

Keywords: tax effort, tax frontier, tax capacity, stochastic tax frontier, inefficiency, tax revenues, tax analysis, determinants of tax revenue, tax system, Models with Panel Data

This paper presents a model to determine the tax effort and tax capacity of 113 countries and the main variables on which they depend. The results and the model allow a clear determination of which countries are ne...

Export Quality in Developing Countries

Export Quality in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2013/108

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Henn , Chris Papageorgiou , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351635.001

ISBN: 9781484351635

Keywords: Product Quality, Upgrading, export quality, exporter, exporters, commodity exporters, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Information and Product Quality,

This paper develops new, far more extensive estimates of export quality, covering 178 countries and hundreds of products over 1962–2010. Quality upgrading is particularly rapid during the early stages of dev...

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth
			: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth : Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926564.006

ISBN: 9781463926564

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Economic growth, Emerging markets, Income distribution, Poverty reduction, sustainable growth, per capita income, external debt, external shocks

This note raises the IMF’s profile on a number of issues related to inequality, unemployment, governance, etc. It builds on earlier empirical work that examined correlations between growth downbreaks/duratio...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210497.042

ISBN: 9781455210497

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, free trade, world trade, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows

The Direction of Trade Statistics Online service provides data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners. The database includes: total bilateral and multilate...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455214624.042

ISBN: 9781455214624

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 57, No. 1

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 57, No. 1 »

Volume: 57

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069114.024

ISBN: 9781589069114

Keywords: debt overhang, debt relief, indebted countries, external debt, highly indebted countries

Do highly indebted countries suffer from a debt overhang? Can debt relief foster their growth rates? To answer these important questions, this article looks at how the debt-growth relation varies with indebtedness...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930092.042

ISBN: 9781451930092

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, partner country, trading partners, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows, world trade

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960044.042

ISBN: 9781451960044

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960006.042

ISBN: 9781451960006

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959987.042

ISBN: 9781451959987

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959901.042

ISBN: 9781451959901

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative:  Preliminary Document

Côte d'Ivoire : Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative: Preliminary Document »

Volume/Issue: 2009/33

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451807912.002

ISBN: 9781451807912

Keywords: debt relief, debt service, external debt, traditional debt relief

This paper discusses Côte d'Ivoire's preliminary assessment of eligibility for assistance under the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. The March 2007 Ouagadougou Political Accord provides a roadma...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics, November 2008

International Financial Statistics, November 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964363.041

ISBN: 9781451964363

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, loans, portfolio investment, debt securities, equity securities, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930283.042

ISBN: 9781451930283

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930252.042

ISBN: 9781451930252

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Financial Statistics, May 2008

International Financial Statistics, May 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964042.041

ISBN: 9781451964042

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, loans, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, interest, payments

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960143.042

ISBN: 9781451960143

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, merchandise exports, exporting countries, total exports, exporting country, internet, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066564.044

ISBN: 9781589066564

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960105.042

ISBN: 9781451960105

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960068.042

ISBN: 9781451960068

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

External Debt and Economic Reform
			: Does a Pain Reliever Delay the Necessary Treatment?

External Debt and Economic Reform : Does a Pain Reliever Delay the Necessary Treatment? »

Volume/Issue: 2007/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Athanasios Vamvakidis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866148.001

ISBN: 9781451866148

Keywords: economic reform, external borrowing, foreign aid, external financing, Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

Recent literature argues that conflict in shifting adjustment costs between different socioeconomic groups delays necessary reforms and finds that such reforms often follow economic crises. This paper expands these...

Jahresbericht 2006
			: Die vorteile der weltwirtschaft für alle sichern

Jahresbericht 2006 : Die vorteile der weltwirtschaft für alle sichern »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2007

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065642.011

ISBN: 9781589065642

Keywords: debt, debt relief, interest, loans, payments, external debt, multilateral debt, obligations, liabilities, debt sustainability

The Annual Report 2006 to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during the financial year (May 1, 2005, through April 30, 2006). The main sections cover the Fund's Medium-Term Strategy; c...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930399.042

ISBN: 9781451930399

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065789.044

ISBN: 9781589065789

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930375.042

ISBN: 9781451930375

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, free trade, oil exporting countries, trade data, merchandise exports, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

A Principal-Agent Theory Approach to Public Expenditure Management Systems in Developing Countries

A Principal-Agent Theory Approach to Public Expenditure Management Systems in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2006/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luc Leruth , and Elisabeth Paul

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864649.001

ISBN: 9781451864649

Keywords: principal-agent theory, probability, expenditure, public expenditure, expenditure management,

A well-functioning public expenditure management (PEM) system is considered a critical pillar of government efficiency, on par with a low-distortion tax system and efficient tax administration. The paper discusses...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly. June 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly. June 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930344.042

ISBN: 9781451930344

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930320.042

ISBN: 9781451930320

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064621.043

ISBN: 9781589064621

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, financial corporations, interest, benefits, local governments, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Infrastructure Aid, Deindustrialization, and Welfare

Infrastructure Aid, Deindustrialization, and Welfare »

Volume/Issue: 2005/150

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eun Choi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861693.001

ISBN: 9781451861693

Keywords: Infrastructure Aid, Deindustrialization, export sector, import sector, currency appreciation, terms of trade, world prices,

This paper investigates the deindustrialization and welfare effects of infrastructure aid in developing countries. In the short run, cost-saving infrastructure aid in the export sector increases the domestic wage r...

Finance & Development, March 2005

Finance & Development, March 2005 »

Volume/Issue: 42/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451953909.022

ISBN: 9781451953909

Keywords: trading system, global trading, freer trade, press, facsimile

This paper highlights that the current round of trade talks under the auspices of the World Trade Organization aims at better integrating developing countries-especially the small and poor ones-into the global trad...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063846.043

ISBN: 9781589063846

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, financial corporations, interest, benefits, local governments, salaries

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.),...

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063839.042

ISBN: 9781589063839

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting countries, oil exporting, exporting countries, partner country, partner countries, international investment

The Direction of Trade Statistics yearbook gives seven years of data for about 184 countries and two sets of world and area summaries: world and area trade as seen by the reporting countries and as seen by the part...

Does Compliance with Basel Core Principles Bring Any Measurable Benefits?

Does Compliance with Basel Core Principles Bring Any Measurable Benefits? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Richard Podpiera

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874532.001

ISBN: 9781451874532

Keywords: nonperforming loans, interest margin, net interest margin, banking sector, heteroscedasticity, banking supervision, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

We explore the relationship between banking sector performance and the quality of regulation and supervision as measured by compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCP). Using B...

Real Exchange Rates In Developing Countries
			: Are Balassa-Samuelson Effects Present?

Real Exchange Rates In Developing Countries : Are Balassa-Samuelson Effects Present? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/188

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Ehsan Choudhri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859591.001

ISBN: 9781451859591

Keywords: Balassa-Samuelson effects, exchange rate, real exchange rate, relative price, terms of trade, exchange rates, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

There is little empirical research on whether Balassa-Samuelson effects can explain the long-run behavior of real exchange rates in developing countries. This paper presents new evidence on this issue based on a pa...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063815.041

ISBN: 9781589063815

Keywords: oil exporting, industrial countries, oil exporting countries

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Cote d'Ivoire
			: Statistical Appendix

Cote d'Ivoire : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2004/157

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451807875.002

ISBN: 9781451807875

Keywords: debt, interest, external debt, balance of payments, current expenditure, Cote d'Ivoire,

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062696.043

ISBN: 9781589062696

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, loans, financial derivatives, financial assets, social security, financial corporations, interest, benefits, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

What Are the Channels Through Which External Debt Affects Growth?

What Are the Channels Through Which External Debt Affects Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/15

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helene Poirson Ward , Luca Ricci , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843293.001

ISBN: 9781451843293

Keywords: Growth, growth accounting, tfp, total factor productivity, low debt, debt ratios, International Lending and Debt Problems, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Economic Development: General, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper investigates the channels through which debt affects growth, specifically whether debt affects growth through factor accumulation or total factor productivity growth. It also tests for the presence of no...

Time-Varying Thresholds
			: An Application to Purchasing Power Parity

Time-Varying Thresholds : An Application to Purchasing Power Parity »

Volume/Issue: 2003/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gene Leon , and Serineh Najarian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859218.001

ISBN: 9781451859218

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, nonlinearity, real exchange rate, statistics, time-varying thresholds, asymmetry,

This paper introduces a time-varying threshold autoregressive model (TVTAR), which is used to examine the persistence of deviations from PPP. We find support for the stationary TVTAR against the unit root hypothesi...

An Empirical Reassessment of the Relationship Between Finance and Growth

An Empirical Reassessment of the Relationship Between Finance and Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2003/123

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Giovanni Favara

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854633.001

ISBN: 9781451854633

Keywords: Financial development, panel methods, equation, statistics, gdp per capita, correlation, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper reexamines the empirical relationship between financial development and economic growth. It presents evidence based on cross-section and panel data using an updated dataset, a variety of econometric meth...

The Millennium Development Goals, Capacity Building, and the Role of the IMF

The Millennium Development Goals, Capacity Building, and the Role of the IMF »

Volume/Issue: 2003/119

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dalia Hakura , and Saleh Nsouli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854190.001

ISBN: 9781451854190

Keywords: Capacity Building, standards, standards and codes, training centers, regional training centers, training programs, Development Planning and Policy: General,

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent a global commitment to improve economic and social conditions in low-income countries. Capacity building is key to promoting higher economic growth, which, in turn,...

The Long-Run Effects of Tradeon Income and Income Growth

The Long-Run Effects of Tradeon Income and Income Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2003/37

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Brunner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845594.001

ISBN: 9781451845594

Keywords: panel data model, trade share, gdp per capita, bilateral trade, growth rate, international trade, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems,

This paper examines the dynamic relationship between trade and income. While most economists agree that increased trade leads to an increase in average income, economic theory is ambiguous about the possible effect...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 January 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061866.043

ISBN: 9781589061866

Keywords: expenditure, total expenditure, capital expenditure, social security, expenditure on goods, expenditures, social security funds, social insurance, unemployment, social insurance fund

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2002/11

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969856.003

ISBN: 9781451969856

Keywords: Poverty, Fund-supported adjustment programs, IMF Programs, Social Impact, poverty reduction, impact analysis, social impact analysis, civil service, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, General Welfare,

This paper aims to inform on the status of Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) in IMF-supported programs, detailing the results presented in the recent review of PRGF-supported programs. The review showed tha...

Keynes, Cocoa, and Copper
			: In Search of Commodity Currencies

Keynes, Cocoa, and Copper : In Search of Commodity Currencies »

Volume/Issue: 2002/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Luis Céspedes , and Paul Cashin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875300.001

ISBN: 9781451875300

Keywords: Exchange rate, developing country, real exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rates, reer, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper examines whether the real exchange rates of commodity-exporting countries and the real prices of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world prices of 44 commodities and...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

IMF Research Bulletin, September 2002

IMF Research Bulletin, September 2002 »

Volume/Issue: 3/3

Series: IMF Research Bulletin

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451928075.026

ISBN: 9781451928075

Keywords: tfp, growth accounting, capital accumulation, labor productivity, productivity growth

The IMF Research Bulletin, a quarterly publication, selectively summarizes research and analytical work done by various departments at the IMF, and also provides a listing of research documents and other research-r...

Governance, Corruption, and Economic Performance

Governance, Corruption, and Economic Performance »

Series: Books

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , and George Abed

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061163.071

ISBN: 9781589061163

Keywords: decentralization, military spending, military, tax revenue, government expenditure

This volume presents 18 recent IMF research studies on the causes and consequences of corruption, as well as how it can most effectively be combated to improve governance, increase economic growth, and reduce pover...

Microfinance Institutions and Public Policy

Microfinance Institutions and Public Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2002/159

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857689.001

ISBN: 9781451857689

Keywords: microcredit, bank regulation, microfinance institutions, financial institutions, financial institution, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

Many governments and nongovernmental organizations have adopted policies to promote the growth of microfinance institutions (MFIs). The appropriate level and form of support for MFIs are discussed in this paper on...

Aid and Fiscal Management

Aid and Fiscal Management »

Volume/Issue: 2002/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Timothy Lane , and Ales Bulir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853612.001

ISBN: 9781451853612

Keywords: Foreign aid, exchange rate, fiscal policy, tax revenues, exchange rates

This paper focuses on the macroeconomic aspects of fiscal management in aid-receiving countries. Despite the declining share of aid in budgets of donor countries, aid continues to play an important role in many dev...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2001

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2001 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060531.043

ISBN: 9781589060531

Keywords: expenditure, total expenditure, capital expenditure, social security, expenditure on goods, expenditures, social security funds, social insurance, unemployment, disability

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Macroeconomic Policy and Poverty Reduction

Macroeconomic Policy and Poverty Reduction »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Alejandro Izquierdo , Ward Brown , Brian Ames , and Shatayanan Devarajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060173.054

ISBN: 9781589060173

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, macroeconomic stability, fixed exchange rate, exchange rate regime

This pamphlet excerpts a chapter on macroeconomic policy from the Poverty Reduction Policy Source book, a guide prepared by the World Bank and IMF to assist countries in developing and strengthening their poverty r...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451958621.041

ISBN: 9781451958621

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, deposit money, deposit money banks, debt securities, financial derivatives, equity securities, portfolio investment, loans

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Factor Reallocation and Growth in Developing Countries

Factor Reallocation and Growth in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2000/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helene Poirson Ward

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851717.001

ISBN: 9781451851717

Keywords: Factor reallocation, dualism, growth, labor reallocation, labor productivities, labor productivity, gdp growth

This paper examines the extent to which developing countries benefit from intersectoral factor transfers by specifying the impact and determinants of sectoral changes and of the degree of dualism (or allocation ine...

Bank Failures and Fiscal Austerity
			: Policy Presecriptions for a Developing Country

Bank Failures and Fiscal Austerity : Policy Presecriptions for a Developing Country »

Volume/Issue: 2000/90

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Feltenstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851380.001

ISBN: 9781451851380

Keywords: bank failures, general equilibrium, banking system, monetary policy, bank behavior, bank assets

This work employs a dynamic general equilibrium model to evaluate the causes and implications of bank insolvencies. The model is applied to stylized data from several South Asian countries. It derives conclusions a...

International Trade and Productivity Growth
			: Exploring the Sectoral Effects for Developing Countries

International Trade and Productivity Growth : Exploring the Sectoral Effects for Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2000/17

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ehsan Choudhri , and Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843521.001

ISBN: 9781451843521

Keywords: Productivity Growth, Technological Gap, tfp, growth rates, growth rate, transfer of technology

The paper estimates an empirical relation based on Krugman’s ‘technological gap’ model to explore the influence of the pattern of international trade and production on the overall productivity...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

From Toronto Terms to the HIPC Initiative
			: A Brief History of Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries

From Toronto Terms to the HIPC Initiative : A Brief History of Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1999/142

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christina Daseking , and Robert Powell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856231.001

ISBN: 9781451856231

Keywords: External Debt, HIPCs, Low-Income Countries, debt, debt reduction, debt relief, creditors, debt service

The low-income country debt crisis had its origins in weak macroeconomic policies, and official creditors’ willingness to take risks unacceptable to private lenders. Payments problems were initially addresse...

How Persistent Are Shocks to World Commodity Prices?

How Persistent Are Shocks to World Commodity Prices? »

Volume/Issue: 1999/80

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hong Liang , C. McDermott , and Paul Cashin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850284.001

ISBN: 9781451850284

Keywords: Commodity prices, median-unbiased estimation, shock persistence, price stabilization, time series, export earnings, confidence interval, confidence intervals

This paper examines the persistence of shocks to world commodity prices, using monthly IMF data on primary commodities between 1957–98. We find that shocks to commodity prices are typically long–lasti...

Does Monetary Policy Stabilize the Exchange Rate Following a Currency Crisis?

Does Monetary Policy Stabilize the Exchange Rate Following a Currency Crisis? »

Volume/Issue: 1999/42

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ilan Goldfajn , and Poonam Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846195.001

ISBN: 9781451846195

Keywords: interest rates, tight monetary policy, real interest rate

This paper provides evidence on the relationship between monetary policy and the exchange rate in the aftermath of currency crises. It analyzes a large data set of currency crises in 80 countries for the period 198...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1997

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1997 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756664.012

ISBN: 9781557756664

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, exchange rate, exchange control, forward exchange, foreign investment

This 1997 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange restrictions of individual member countries, including Hong Kong,...

Policy towards Commodity Shocks in Developing Countries

Policy towards Commodity Shocks in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1996/84

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jan Gunning , and Paul Collier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850598.001

ISBN: 9781451850598

Keywords: taxation, central bank, inflation, public expenditure

On the basis of a comparative study of 23 episodes involving commodity price shocks we find that both the public and private sectors typically save around half of a windfall gain resulting from a price rise. We arg...

Selected WTO Rules and Some Implications for Fund Policy Advice

Selected WTO Rules and Some Implications for Fund Policy Advice »

Volume/Issue: 1996/23

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Thierry Buchs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451921113.001

ISBN: 9781451921113

Keywords: export subsidies, export performance, trade-related investment, trade-related investment measures, transition economies

The paper surveys six WTO agreements selected on the basis of their potential relevance for Fund-supported programs, namely Customs Valuation, Subsidies, Safeguards, Antidumping, Trade-Related Investment Measures,...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942712.012

ISBN: 9781451942712

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment, foreign exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Employment and Wages in the Public Sector
			: A Cross-Country Study

Employment and Wages in the Public Sector : A Cross-Country Study »

Volume/Issue: 1995/70

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849110.001

ISBN: 9781451849110

Keywords: employment, wages, wage, government employment

We study the determinants of employment and wages in the public sector, using a new set of panel data for 34 LDCs and 21 OECD countries from 1972–992, by estimating equations suggested by an efficiency wage...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942651.012

ISBN: 9781451942651

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, direct investment, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Social Dimensions of the IMF'S Policy Di Alogue (Reprinted 1998) P047

Social Dimensions of the IMF'S Policy Di Alogue (Reprinted 1998) P047 »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754790.054

ISBN: 9781557754790

Keywords: expenditure, expenditures, safety nets, social safety nets, subsidies

This pamphlet focuses on the IMF's role in social policy advice. First,the evolution of the IMF's involvement in social issues is traced,and the lessons that can be drawn from this experience, includingpolicy impli...

North-South RandD Spillovers

North-South RandD Spillovers »

Volume/Issue: 1994/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elhanan Helpman , David Coe , and Alexander Hoffmaister

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856385.001

ISBN: 9781451856385

Keywords: r &;amp; d, foreign r &;amp; d, industrial countries, total factor productivity

We examine the extent to which developing countries that do little, if any, research and development themselves benefit from R&D that is performed in the industrial countries. By trading with an industrial c...

Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth

Tuition Subsidies in a Model of Economic Growth »

Volume/Issue: 1994/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852332.001

ISBN: 9781451852332

Keywords: subsidy, education sector, subsidies, educational attainment, educational subsidies

This paper examines a two-sector aggregative growth model with human capital and educated unemployment. In the model, a tuition subsidy may lead to a long-run decline in the educated fraction of the population, bec...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1994

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1994 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942606.012

ISBN: 9781451942606

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, foreign bank, foreign trade

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

The Impact of Worldwide Military Spending Cutson Developing Countries

The Impact of Worldwide Military Spending Cutson Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1993/86

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Steven Symansky , Tamim Bayoumi , and Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850802.001

ISBN: 9781451850802

Keywords: military, military spending, military expenditures, expenditures, arms

This paper investigates the economic impact of a coordinated reduction in military expenditures of 20 percent using a specially modified version of the MULTIMOD world economic model. Simulation results indicate tha...

Openness, Human Development, and Fiscal Policies
			: Effectson Economic Growth and Speed of Adjustment

Openness, Human Development, and Fiscal Policies : Effectson Economic Growth and Speed of Adjustment »

Volume/Issue: 1993/59

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Delano Villanueva

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451965780.001

ISBN: 9781451965780

Keywords: growth rate, equation, economic growth, growth rate of output, equations

The model developed here postulates that learning through experience plays a critical role in raising labor productivity over time, with three major consequences. First, the steady-state growth rate (of output) bec...

Military Expenditures 1972-1990
			: The Reasons Behind the Post-1985 Fall in World Military Spending

Military Expenditures 1972-1990 : The Reasons Behind the Post-1985 Fall in World Military Spending »

Volume/Issue: 1993/18

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843590.001

ISBN: 9781451843590

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, military spending, military expenditure

World military expenditures have fallen by over 20 percent in proportion to GDP from 1985 to 1990. This study examines the determinants of military expenditures in 125 countries during 1972-90 to ascertain what fac...

Government Expenditure and Economic Growth
			: An Empirical Investigation

Government Expenditure and Economic Growth : An Empirical Investigation »

Volume/Issue: 1989/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974157.001

ISBN: 9781451974157

Keywords: expenditure, economic growth, growth rate, expenditures, capital expenditure

This paper examines the empirical evidence on the contribution that government and, in particular, capital expenditure make to the growth performance of a sample of developing countries. Using the Denison growth ac...

Finance & Development, September 1986

Finance & Development, September 1986 »

Volume/Issue: 23/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353667.022

ISBN: 9781616353667

Keywords: farmers, farm, farming, world markets, agricultural exports

This paper examines the trade and pricing policies in world agriculture. In the United States, the government pays farmers not to grow cereals and in the European Community, farmers are paid to grow more. Many have...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1985

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1985 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352011.012

ISBN: 9781616352011

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange control, exchange rate, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, direct investment, exchange rates, exchange transactions

This paper discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. Global output and trade recovered strongly in 1984, as inflation in the industrial countries remained relatively...

Finance & Development, March 1982

Finance & Development, March 1982 »

Volume/Issue: 19/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1982

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353483.022

ISBN: 9781616353483

Keywords: bank loans, government expenditures, structural adjustment, bank management

This paper highlights that important changes have been made in the World Bank's management systems since Mr. A. W. Clausen became President in July 1981. The changes reflect Mr. Clausen's belief that there needs to...

Finance & Development, June 1980

Finance & Development, June 1980 »

Volume/Issue: 17/2

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1980

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353414.022

ISBN: 9781616353414

Keywords: bank, finance, banking, development banking, projects

This paper highlights that in a shift of policy, the World Bank decided to finance directly health projects in developing countries. Under its old policy, formulated in 1974, health components providing basic healt...

Finance & Development, December 1979

Finance & Development, December 1979 »

Volume/Issue: 16/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1979

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353391.022

ISBN: 9781616353391

Keywords: monetary fund, banking, development banking, bank loans, offshore banking

This paper highlights that the fight against worldwide inflation was the main theme of the Finance Ministers and central bank Governors from 138 member countries that participated in the 1979 Annual Meeting of the...

Finance & Development, December 1978

Finance & Development, December 1978 »

Volume/Issue: 15/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1978

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353353.022

ISBN: 9781616353353

Keywords: balance of payments, capital increase, trading system, bond issues

This paper highlights that the 1978 World Bank Annual Meeting, held in Washington, D.C. during September 25-28, 1978, emphasized that greater efforts need to be made by both developed and developing countries, on d...

Finance & Development, September 1975

Finance & Development, September 1975 »

Volume/Issue: 12/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1975

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353223.022

ISBN: 9781616353223

Keywords: rural development, rural roads, bank loan, bank lending

This paper describes the need for a new framework for international resource transfers. The paper highlights that the only international deal that presently exists on resource transfers is enshrined in the acceptan...