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Multi-Country Report
			: Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/145

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484302996.002

ISBN: 9781484302996

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Bahrain, Djibouti, Europe, Indonesia, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Middle East, Nigeria

This paper presents country experiences with reforms to strengthen regulatory oversight of the Islamic banking sector. Based on the selected country experiences, a number of important lessons and policy options can...

Multi-Country Report
			: Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/153

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303719.002

ISBN: 9781484303719

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Europe, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mali, Middle East, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sub-Saharan Africa

This report reviews the IMF's effort to build fiscal capacity in fragile states. It presents case studies on IMF technical assistance (TA) and capacity development in the fiscal area, provided by its Fiscal Affairs...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 January 2017

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523256.069

ISBN: 9781475523256

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies in participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of t...

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity
			: Crossing the Tipping Point

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity : Crossing the Tipping Point »

Volume/Issue: 2016/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vitor Gaspar , Laura Jaramillo , and Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558142.001

ISBN: 9781475558142

Keywords: Nigeria, Political economy, Income taxes, Taxation, Tax evasion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tax administration, Spain, Western Hemisphere, China

An empirical finding by Gaspar, Jaramillo and Wingender (2016) shows that once countries cross a tax-to-GDP threshold of around 12¾ percent, real GDP per capita increases sharply and in a sustained manner over the...

How to Improve the Financial Oversight of Public Corporations

How to Improve the Financial Oversight of Public Corporations »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Richard Allen , and Miguel Alves

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475551983.061

ISBN: 9781475551983

Keywords: Capitalization, Public corporations, Europe, Asia and Pacific, Australia, South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sweden, state-owned enterprises, risk

Many studies have highlighted how failures of public corporations (otherwise known as state-owned enterprises) can result in huge economic and fiscal costs. To contain the risks associated with these costs, an effe...

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Paulo Medas , Veronique Salins , and Jeff Danforth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536065.061

ISBN: 9781475536065

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Canada, Chile, Commodity prices, Malaysia, Natural resources, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Hemisphere, Commodity boom

Resource-rich countries have to manage highly volatile commodity revenues. In periods of revenue booms there is a tendency for large spending scale-ups. When facing large and persistent reductions in commodity pric...

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation, First Review under the Extended Credit Facility, and Request for Waiver for Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Exective Director for the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe : 2016 Article IV Consultation, First Review under the Extended Credit Facility, and Request for Waiver for Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Exective Director for the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe »

Volume/Issue: 2016/174

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498307444.002

ISBN: 9781498307444

Keywords: debt, poverty, monetary fund, commercial banks, market

This paper discusses recent economic developments and economic outlook and risks of São Tomé and Príncipe. Although São Tomé and Príncipe's economic development is constrained by its insularity, fragility, limited...

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
			: Selected Issues

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/98

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475550009.002

ISBN: 9781475550009

Keywords: investment, public investment, public, infrastructure, per

This paper presents stylized facts on the quantitative and qualitative infrastructure gap in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), estimates the efficiency of public investment, and recommends how t...

Natural Disasters and Food Crises in Low-Income Countries
			: Macroeconomic Dimensions

Natural Disasters and Food Crises in Low-Income Countries : Macroeconomic Dimensions »

Volume/Issue: 2016/65

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olumuyiwa Adedeji , Jana Gieck-Bricco , and Vera Kehayova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513596013.001

ISBN: 9781513596013

Keywords: Natural disasters, Food decline, food, food crisis, food supply, food security, food production, Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Economic Growth of Open Economies

The exposure of low-income countries to natural disasters has a significant impact on food production and food security. This paper provides a framework for assessing a country's vulnerability to food crisis in the...

IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics Annual Report 2015

IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics Annual Report 2015 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498386128.044

ISBN: 9781498386128

Keywords: balance of payments, currency, investment, currencies, assets

The 2015 Annual Report of the IMF Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics (Committee) provides an overview of recent trends in global balance of payments and international investment position (IIP) statistics,...

Introducing a New Broad-based Index of Financial Development

Introducing a New Broad-based Index of Financial Development »

Volume/Issue: 2016/5

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katsiaryna Svirydzenka

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513583709.001

ISBN: 9781513583709

Keywords: Financial Development, Financial Institutions and Markets, Index, markets, financial institutions, financial systems, financial markets, General, Index Numbers and Aggregation, Methodology for Collecting

There is a vast body of literature estimating the impact of financial development on economic growth, inequality, and economic stability. A typical empirical study approximates financial development with either one...

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind »

Volume/Issue: 2016/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lars Svensson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314787.001

ISBN: 9781498314787

Keywords: macroprudential policy, unemployment, unemployment rate, debt, marginal cost, benchmark, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), All Countries

“Leaning against the wind” (LAW) with a higher monetary policy interest rate may have benefits in terms of lower real debt growth and associated lower probability of a financial crisis but has costs in terms of hig...

Government Spending Effects in Low-income Countries

Government Spending Effects in Low-income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/286

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wenyi Shen , Susan Yang , and Luis-Felipe Zanna

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513578972.001

ISBN: 9781513578972

Keywords: Fiscal Policy, Low-income Countries, Public Investment, Fiscal Multipliers, Small Open DSGE Models, Aid, investment, government spending, exchange rate, exchange

Despite the voluminous literature on fiscal policy, very few papers focus on low-income countries (LICs). This paper develops a new-Keynesian small open economy model to show, analytically and through simulations,...

International Sovereign Bonds by Emerging Markets and Developing Economies
			: Drivers of Issuance and Spreads

International Sovereign Bonds by Emerging Markets and Developing Economies : Drivers of Issuance and Spreads »

Volume/Issue: 2015/275

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrea Presbitero , Dhaneshwar Ghura , Olumuyiwa Adedeji , and Lamin Njie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513581729.001

ISBN: 9781513581729

Keywords: Sovereign bond issuance, bond spreads, developing countries, bonds, sovereign bonds, bond, markets, sovereign bond, International Lending and Debt Problems, Asset Pricing

What determines the ability of low-income developing countries to issue bonds in international capital and what explains the spreads on these bonds? This paper examines these questions using a dataset that includes...

Papua New Guinea
			: 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea : 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Papua New Guinea »

Volume/Issue: 2015/318

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513584683.002

ISBN: 9781513584683

Keywords: commodity prices, monetary fund, liquidity, exchange, market

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that Papua New Guinea (PNG) is facing strong headwinds from lower global commodity prices. Although the commencement of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production has booste...

Papua New Guinea
			: Selected Issues

Papua New Guinea : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2015/319

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513564357.002

ISBN: 9781513564357

Keywords: bank, banks, services, banking, financial services

This Selected Issues paper provides an overview of financial access and inclusion indicators, related causal factors, and both current and possible reform priorities for on Papua New Guinea (PNG). The paper present...

Fiscal Consequences of Terrorism

Fiscal Consequences of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2015/225

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , and John Ricco

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510965.001

ISBN: 9781513510965

Keywords: tax, revenue, attacks, share, General, National Security and War, All Countries,

This paper provides an empirical analysis of how the frequency and severity of terrorism affect government revenue and expenditure during the period 1970-2013 using a panel dataset on 153 countries. We find that te...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513519418.069

ISBN: 9781513519418

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of the...

IMF Financial Operations 2015

IMF Financial Operations 2015 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513549897.071

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

IMF Financial Operations 2015 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also provides backgr...

What Measure of Inflation Should a Developing Country Central Bank Target?

What Measure of Inflation Should a Developing Country Central Bank Target? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rahul Anand , Eswar Prasad , and Boyang Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513572574.001

ISBN: 9781513572574

Keywords: monetary policy framework, core inflation, headline inflation, financial frictions, inflation, economies, welfare, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects),

In closed or open economy models with complete markets, targeting core inflation enables monetary policy to maximize welfare by replicating the flexible price equilibrium. We analyze this result in the context of d...

From Ambition to Execution
			: Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals

From Ambition to Execution : Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals »

Volume/Issue: 2015/18

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Stefania Fabrizio , Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu , Catherine Pattillo , Adrian Peralta-Alva , Andrea Presbitero , Baoping Shang , Genevieve Verdier , Marie-Therese Camilleri , Kazuaki Washimi , Lisa Kolovich , Monique Newiak , Martin Cihak , Inci Otker , Luis-Felipe Zanna , and Carol Baker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513573304.006

ISBN: 9781513573304

Keywords: Inclusive growth, Income inequality, Gender, Environmental sustainability, Sustainable development, Fiscal policy, Developing countries, sustainable development goals, growth, structural transformation

The formal launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets the global development agenda through 2030, placing significant emphasis on promoting social and environmental sustainability alongside economic gr...

Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

Transforming Non-Renewable Resource Economies (NREs)

Transforming Non-Renewable Resource Economies (NREs) »

Volume/Issue: 2015/171

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bill Battaile , and Saurabh Mishra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513573571.001

ISBN: 9781513573571

Keywords: resource curse, diversification, income, productivity, gdp, development, Global Outlook, General,

This paper provides an empirical benchmarking of growth, productivity and export patterns for developing NREs against other low and middle income developing countries, to inform policy discussions and future analyt...

Côte D'Ivoire
			: Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria

Côte D'Ivoire : Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria »

Volume/Issue: 2015/147

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513533346.002

ISBN: 9781513533346

Keywords: deficit, monetary fund, fiscal deficit, investment, debt

This paper discusses Côte d'Ivoire's Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria (PCs). Performance under the IMF-supported program conti...

West African Economic and Monetary Union
			: Selected Issues

West African Economic and Monetary Union : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2015/101

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475567595.002

ISBN: 9781475567595

Keywords: reserve, deficit, exchange, current account deficit, monetary fund

...

Soft Power and Exchange Rate Volatility

Soft Power and Exchange Rate Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2015/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , Richard Harris , and Fatih Yilmaz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475530520.001

ISBN: 9781475530520

Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, exchange, exchange rate, volatility, exchange rates, trade, Time-Series Models, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

Standard models-based exclusively on macro-financial variables-have made little progress in explaining the behavior of exchange rates. In this paper, we introduce a neglected set of 'soft power' factors capturing...

Fair Play
			: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation

Fair Play : More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Christian Gonzales , Sonali Jain-Chandra , Kalpana Kochhar , and Monique Newiak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354424.006

ISBN: 9781498354424

Keywords: Labor force participation, Gender equality, Women, female labor force participation, gender equity, legal rights, gender, labor force, female labor, Participación en la fuerza laboral;Mujeres;Igualdad de género;Mercados de trabajo;Reformas del mercado laboral;Aspectos económicos de la familia;Análisis entre países

This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel dat...

On the First-Round Effects of International Food Price Shocks
			: the Role of the Asset Market Structure

On the First-Round Effects of International Food Price Shocks : the Role of the Asset Market Structure »

Volume/Issue: 2015/33

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rafael Portillo , and Luis-Felipe Zanna

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498333092.001

ISBN: 9781498333092

Keywords: Food Price Shocks, First-Round Effects, New-Keynesian Models, Asset Market Structure, food, price, market, prices, inflation, General

We develop a tractable small open-economy model to study the first-round effects of international food price shocks in developing countries. We define first-round effects as changes in headline inflation that, hold...

Credit Booms and Macroeconomic Dynamics
			: Stylized Facts and Lessons for Low-Income Countries

Credit Booms and Macroeconomic Dynamics : Stylized Facts and Lessons for Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Arena , Serpil Bouza , Era Dabla-Norris , Kerstin Gerling , and Lamin Njie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484356869.001

ISBN: 9781484356869

Keywords: macroeocnomic dynamics, low-income countries, emerging market economies, credit, booms, credit boom, banking, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, emerging market economies.,

Using a comprehensive database on bank credit, covering 135 developing countries over the period 1960-2011, we identify, document, and compare the macro-economic dynamics of credit booms across low- and middle-inco...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Requests for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, Augmentation of Access, and Twelve-Month Extension of the Current Arrangement

Côte d'Ivoire : Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement and Requests for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, Augmentation of Access, and Twelve-Month Extension of the Current Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2014/358

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498349741.002

ISBN: 9781498349741

Keywords: debt, monetary fund, market, investment, external debt

All end-June performance criteria and indicative targets under the ECF arrangement were met, and all structural benchmarks were completed, albeit with minor delays. However, there was a nonobservance of the continu...

Private Saving Accelerations

Private Saving Accelerations »

Volume/Issue: 2014/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Ebeke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498368490.001

ISBN: 9781498368490

Keywords: Private saving, accelerations, economic performance, saving, savings, volatility, investment, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

Domestic private saving rates have been on a declining trend in many Emerging Markets (EMs), raising questions about countries' ability to generate sufficient domestic resources to finance investment. This paper ex...

Papua New Guinea
			: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

Papua New Guinea : Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/325

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498355711.002

ISBN: 9781498355711

Keywords: debt, exchange, exchange rate, monetary fund, revenue

This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Papua New Guinea's economy is experiencing an important transition, as new liquefied natural gas (LNG) production and exports commence. With LNG production and expo...

Papua New Guinea
			: Selected Issues Paper

Papua New Guinea : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2014/326

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616355296.002

ISBN: 9781616355296

Keywords: revenue, debt, expenditure, budget

This Selected Issues paper analyzes the sustainability of Papua New Guinea's current and medium-term fiscal policy and its consistency with government objectives. The Papua New Guinea government faces major challen...

Finance & Development, December 2014

Finance & Development, December 2014 »

Volume/Issue: 51/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484315422.022

ISBN: 9781484315422

Keywords: Finance and Development, health, public health, public health spending, health care, primary health care

This chapter emphasizes the importance of health policy and its implementation and connection to economic growth. The chapter also offers a different view of progress in the provision of better health facilities. T...

Does conditionality in IMF-supported programs promote revenue reform?

Does conditionality in IMF-supported programs promote revenue reform? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/206

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484380048.001

ISBN: 9781484380048

Keywords: structural conditionality, revenue, tax, taxes, revenues, goods, Models with Panel Data, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, General,

This paper studies whether revenue conditionality in Fund-supported programs had any impact on the revenue performance of 126 low- and middle-income countries during 1993-2013. The results indicate that such condit...

Slowdown in Emerging Markets
			: Sign of a Bumpy Road Ahead?

Slowdown in Emerging Markets : Sign of a Bumpy Road Ahead? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Evridiki Tsounta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498304719.001

ISBN: 9781498304719

Keywords: potential growth, emerging market economies, growth, growth rate, capital, tfp, labor, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

Following very strong growth during the period 2000-12, emerging market economies (EMEs) experienced a slowdown in the last couple of years. This paper examines the supply-side drivers of the strong growth performa...

World Saving

World Saving »

Volume/Issue: 2014/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli , Alexander Herman , and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475545517.001

ISBN: 9781475545517

Keywords: corporate saving, Global Financial Crisis, household saving, national saving, private saving, saving, income, future, trade, Models with Panel Data

This paper presents new evidence on the behavior of saving in the world, by extending previous empirical research in five dimensions. First, it is based on a very large and recent database, covering 165 countries f...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014
			: From stabilization to sustainable growth

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014 : From stabilization to sustainable growth »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498315357.011

ISBN: 9781498315357

Keywords: Annual reports, Administrative and Capital budgets, Bilateral surveillance, External training programs, Executive Board, Financial sector surveillance, IMF, IMF Finance, IMF Lending, Fund budget

Seven years after the onset of the global financial crisis, the world still has a way to go to secure a sustainable recovery marked by strong growth that supports rapid job creation and benefits all, International...

Food Prices and the Multiplier Effect of Trade Policy

Food Prices and the Multiplier Effect of Trade Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2014/182

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paolo Giordani , Nadia Rocha , and Michele Ruta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498320382.001

ISBN: 9781498320382

Keywords: Loss aversion, Multiplier effect, Food crisis, domestic price, world price, global trade, import tariff, import subsidy, International Relations and International Political Economy: Other, Global Commodity Crises

This paper studies the relationship between trade policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, governments may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large food price shocks...

A Constrained Choice? Impact of Concessionality Requirements on Borrowing Behavior

A Constrained Choice? Impact of Concessionality Requirements on Borrowing Behavior »

Volume/Issue: 2014/176

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Calixte Ahokpossi , Laurence Allain , and Giovanna Bua

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498349727.001

ISBN: 9781498349727

Keywords: Concessionality, debt limits policy, propensity score matching, external debt, public debt, private creditors, debt relief, concessional debt, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Lending and Debt Problems

This paper uses the propensity matching score approach to assess the impact of the IMF's debt limits policy (DLP) on borrowing behavior in countries eligible to borrow from its concessional lending window. The pape...

Islamic Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Status and Prospects

Islamic Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Status and Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 2014/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrique Gelbard , Mumtaz Hussain , Rodolfo Maino , Yibin Mu , and Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498348669.001

ISBN: 9781498348669

Keywords: sukuk, islamic banks, banking, General,

Islamic finance is a fast growing activity in world markets. This paper provides a survey on Islamic Finance in SSA. Ongoing activities include Islamic banking, sukuk issuances (to finance infrastructure projects),...

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries
			: A Handbook

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries : A Handbook »

Series: Books

Author(s): Jack Calder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475575170.071

ISBN: 9781475575170

Keywords: natural resource, natural resources, natural resource taxes, natural resource taxation, tax authority

This handbook is one of the first of its kind to focus attention on effectively administering revenues from extractive industries. It provides policymakers and officials in developing and emerging market economies...

First-Time International Bond Issuance-New Opportunities and Emerging Risks

First-Time International Bond Issuance-New Opportunities and Emerging Risks »

Volume/Issue: 2014/127

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anastasia Guscina , Guilherme Pedras , and Gabriel Presciuttini

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498390699.001

ISBN: 9781498390699

Keywords: Bond market, LICs, frontier markets, bond, international bond, bond issuance, global bond, International Lending and Debt Problems, Asset Pricing,

International bond issuance by debut issuers has risen in recent years. The uptick was a result of both demand and supply factors. The search for yield and demand for portfolio diversification have resulted in dema...

Emerging Markets in Transition
			: Growth Prospects and Challenges

Emerging Markets in Transition : Growth Prospects and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2014/6

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Luis Cubeddu , Alexander Culiuc , Ghada Fayad , Yuan Gao , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , Ceyda Oner , Roberto Perrelli , Sarah Sanya , Evridiki Tsounta , and Zhongxia Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498327664.006

ISBN: 9781498327664

Keywords: Emerging markets, growth, potential growth, convergence, heterogeneity, structural reform, productivity, terms of trade, trading partners, commodity prices

After a short-lived slowdown in the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis and a swift rebound, emerging markets (EM) are now entering a period of slower growth. In fact, growth is now lower than the po...

Côte D'Ivoire
			: Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria and Extension of the Current Arrangement

Côte D'Ivoire : Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria and Extension of the Current Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2014/163

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498355865.002

ISBN: 9781498355865

Keywords: external debt, public debt, current account, domestic financing

This paper discusses Côte d'Ivoire's Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Requests for Modification of Performance Criteria (PC) and Extension of the Current Ar...

Rising BRICs and Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa's Business Cycle Patterns

Rising BRICs and Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa's Business Cycle Patterns »

Volume/Issue: 2014/35

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Oumar Diallo , and Sampawende Tapsoba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484306598.001

ISBN: 9781484306598

Keywords: Business Cycle Synchronicity, and the BRICs., trade intensity, trading partners, industry trade, impact of trade, General,

This paper assesses the extent to which Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)'s business cycle is synchronized with that of the rest of the world (RoW). Findings suggest that SSA's business cycle has not only moved in the same...

A Hybrid Approach to Estimating the Efficiency of Public Spending on Education in Emerging and Developing Economies

A Hybrid Approach to Estimating the Efficiency of Public Spending on Education in Emerging and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2014/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484398241.001

ISBN: 9781484398241

Keywords: Education expenditure, efficiency, hybrid, developing economies, emerging economies, education spending, expenditure, educational outcomes, Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality

The measurement of the efficiency of public education expenditure using parametric and non-parametric methods has proven challenging. This paper seeks to overcome the difficulties of earlier studies by using a hybr...

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology »

Volume/Issue: 2013/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , Luis Catão , Luca Ricci , Rudolfs Bems , Mitali Das , Julian Di Giovanni , Filiz Unsal , Marola Castillo , Jungjin Lee , Jair Rodriguez , and Mauricio Vargas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484346686.001

ISBN: 9781484346686

Keywords: net foreign assets, current accounts, private credit, reserve currency, current account balances, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) methodology has been developed by the IMF's Research Department as a successor to the CGER methodology for assessing current accounts and exchange rates in a multilaterally con...

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort »

Volume/Issue: 2013/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ricardo Fenochietto , and Carola Pessino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484301272.001

ISBN: 9781484301272

Keywords: tax effort, tax frontier, tax capacity, stochastic tax frontier, inefficiency, tax revenues, tax analysis, determinants of tax revenue, tax system, Models with Panel Data

This paper presents a model to determine the tax effort and tax capacity of 113 countries and the main variables on which they depend. The results and the model allow a clear determination of which countries are ne...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484366806.012

ISBN: 9781484366806

Keywords: Exchange rate adjustments, Exchange rate appreciation, Exchange rate assessments, Exchange rate developments, Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate depreciation, Exchange rate guarantees, Exchange rate indicators, Exchange rate indexes, Exchange rate management

This is the 64th issue of the AREAER. It provides a description of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It also provides information on th...

Papua New Guinea
			: Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation

Papua New Guinea : Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/339

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475556216.002

ISBN: 9781475556216

Keywords: external debt, public debt, current account, public external debt, debt sustainability

This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that Papua New Guinea has achieved strong economic growth over the past decade, benefiting from high commodity prices, mineral investment inflows, sound macroeconomic po...

Finance and Development, December 2013

Finance and Development, December 2013 »

Volume/Issue: 50/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484316917.022

ISBN: 9781484316917

Keywords: intellectual property, global trade, supply chain, copyright

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterl...

Africa's Got Work to Do
			: Employment Prospects in the New Century

Africa's Got Work to Do : Employment Prospects in the New Century »

Volume/Issue: 2013/201

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Louise Fox , Cleary Haines , Jorge Huerta Munoz , and Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484389195.001

ISBN: 9781484389195

Keywords: wage employment, household enterprises, labor, General, Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure, Sub-Saharan Africa.,

Estimates of the current and future structure of employment in sub-Saharan Africa (2005–20) are obtained based on household survey estimates for 28 countries and an elasticity-type model that relates employm...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013 : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515398.011

ISBN: 9781475515398

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

Energy Subsidy Reform
			: Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558111.071

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book prov...

Waste Not, Want Not
			: The Efficiency of Health Expenditure in Emerging and Developing Economies

Waste Not, Want Not : The Efficiency of Health Expenditure in Emerging and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli , and Javier Kapsoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 August 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484364260.001

ISBN: 9781484364260

Keywords: Health expenditure, efficiency, emerging economies, developing economies, public health, health spending, public expenditure, public health spending, Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality

Public health spending is low in emerging and developing economies relative to advanced economies and health outputs and outcomes need to be substantially improved. Simply increasing public expenditure in the healt...

Testing the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis since 1650
			: Evidence from Panel Techniques that Allow for Multiple Breaks

Testing the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis since 1650 : Evidence from Panel Techniques that Allow for Multiple Breaks »

Volume/Issue: 2013/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Kaddour Hadri , Prakash Loungani , and Yao Rao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484341155.001

ISBN: 9781484341155

Keywords: Primary, commodities, Unit, root tests, Multiple, Structural breaks, Volatility, commodity markets, price fluctuations, transport costs

In this paper, we re-examine two important aspects of the dynamics of relative primary commodity prices, namely the secular trend and the short run volatility. To do so, we employ 25 series, some of them starting a...

Benchmarking Structural Transformation Across the World

Benchmarking Structural Transformation Across the World »

Volume/Issue: 2013/176

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Alun Thomas , Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu , and Yingyuan Chen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484359662.001

ISBN: 9781484359662

Keywords: Structural Transformation, Quantile Regression, Panel Data, globalization, gdp per capita, real gdp, economic globalization, economic growth, General,

This paper documents stylized facts on the process of structural transformation around the world and empirically analyzes its determinants using data on real value added by sector of economic activity (agriculture,...

The Macroeconomic Effects of Natural Resource Extraction
			: Applications to Papua New Guinea

The Macroeconomic Effects of Natural Resource Extraction : Applications to Papua New Guinea »

Volume/Issue: 2013/138

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Suman Basu , Jan Gottschalk , Werner Schule , Nikhil Vellodi , and Susan Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484321379.001

ISBN: 9781484321379

Keywords: natural resource, resource-rich developing countries, DSGE models, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, foreign exchange, money supply, Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development, Economic Growth of Open Economies

To investigate the effects on Papua New Guinea’s economy of substantial liquified natural gas revenues arriving in 2015, we employ a model to examine the macroeconomic effects of a scalingup of natural resou...

The Growth Comeback in Developing Economies
			: A New Hope or Back to the Future?

The Growth Comeback in Developing Economies : A New Hope or Back to the Future? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Bluedorn , Rupa Duttagupta , Jaime Guajardo , and Nkunde Mwase

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484321980.001

ISBN: 9781484321980

Keywords: growth, takeoff, low-income countries, convergence, export growth, balance of payments, trade openness, regulatory barriers, economic cooperation, General

Growth takeoffs in developing economies have rebounded in the past two decades. Although recent takeoffs have lasted longer than takeoffs before the 1990s, a key question is whether they could unravel like some did...

Handbook on Residential Property Prices (RPPIs)

Handbook on Residential Property Prices (RPPIs) »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Statistical Office of the European Communities;International Labour Office;International Monetary Fund;Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development;United Nations;World Bank

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9789279259845.069

ISBN: 9789279259845

Keywords: real estate, mortgage, regression model, stratification, real estate price

For most citizens, buying a residential property (dwelling) is the most important transaction during their lifetime. Residential properties represent the most significant component of households’ expenses an...

Export Quality in Developing Countries

Export Quality in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2013/108

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Henn , Chris Papageorgiou , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351635.001

ISBN: 9781484351635

Keywords: Product Quality, Upgrading, export quality, exporter, exporters, commodity exporters, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Information and Product Quality,

This paper develops new, far more extensive estimates of export quality, covering 178 countries and hundreds of products over 1962–2010. Quality upgrading is particularly rapid during the early stages of dev...

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013
			: Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013 : Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World »

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566253.089

ISBN: 9781475566253

Keywords: public debt, government debt, fiscal adjustment, central bank, debt ratios

Continued progress in reducing advanced economy deficits and a gradually improving external environment have lowered short-term fiscal risks, according to this issue, but global prospects nevertheless remain subdue...

Aid, Exports, and Growth
			: A Time-Series Perspective on the Dutch Disease Hypothesis

Aid, Exports, and Growth : A Time-Series Perspective on the Dutch Disease Hypothesis »

Volume/Issue: 2013/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joong Kang , Alessandro Prati , and Alessandro Rebucci

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484320112.001

ISBN: 9781484320112

Keywords: Common factors, Panel VARs, Exchange rate overvaluation, exchange rate, real exchange rate, exchange rate policy, trade liberalization, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

We use a heterogeneous panel VAR model identified through factor analysis to study the dynamic response of exports, imports, and per capita GDP growth to a “global” aid shock. We find that a global ai...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

Automatic Fuel Pricing Mechanisms with Price Smoothing
			: Design, Implementation, and Fiscal Implications

Automatic Fuel Pricing Mechanisms with Price Smoothing : Design, Implementation, and Fiscal Implications »

Volume: 12

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): David Coady , Javier Arze del Granado , Luc Eyraud , and Anita Tuladhar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566949.005

ISBN: 9781475566949

Keywords: Petroleum products, price smoothing, fuel taxes, price, prices, retail, pricing, volatility

Many developing and emerging countries do not fully pass-through increases in international fuel prices to domestic retail prices, with adverse consequences for fuel tax revenues and tax volatility. The adoption of...

Recent Improvements to the Government Finance Statistics Yearbook Database in Response to Analytical Needs

Recent Improvements to the Government Finance Statistics Yearbook Database in Response to Analytical Needs »

Volume/Issue: 2013/15

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mike Seiferling

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475528251.001

ISBN: 9781475528251

Keywords: government finance, accrual accounting, government revenue, General,

The demand for high quality detailed public finance statistics covering a globally representative sample of countries has increased dramatically during the recent financial crisis. Due to the complexity of public f...

The Rising Resilience of Emerging Market and Developing Economies

The Rising Resilience of Emerging Market and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2012/300

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abdul Abiad , John Bluedorn , Jaime Guajardo , and Petia Topalova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475584851.001

ISBN: 9781475584851

Keywords: low-income countries, growth, expansion, recovery, inflation, external shocks, domestic shocks, trade openness, low inflation, General

Economic performance in many emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) improved substantially over the past twenty years. The past decade was particularly good-for the first time EMDEs spent more time in exp...

Economic Diversification in LICs
			: Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications

Economic Diversification in LICs : Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2012/13

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Chris Papageorgiou , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475532180.006

ISBN: 9781475532180

Keywords: Trade and real-sector diversification, quality upgrading, volatility, growth, LICs, export diversification, external shocks, external trade, total exports, trading partners

Limited diversification is an underlying characteristic of many low-income countries (LICs). Concentration in sectors with limited scope for increases in productivity and quality may result in less broad-based and...

Exogenous Shocks and Growth Crises in Low-Income Countries
			: A Vulnerability Index

Exogenous Shocks and Growth Crises in Low-Income Countries : A Vulnerability Index »

Volume/Issue: 2012/264

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , and Yasemin Bal-Gunduz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 November 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475528510.001

ISBN: 9781475528510

Keywords: Vulnerability index, growth crises, low-income countries, real gdp, gdp growth, gdp per capita, trading partners, exchange rate regime, Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models, Economic Growth of Open Economies

This paper develops a new index which provides early warning signals of a growth crisis in the event of large external shocks in low-income countries. Multivariate regression analysis and a univariate signaling app...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012
			: Financial Statements

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012 : Financial Statements »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354169.011

ISBN: 9781616354169

Keywords: financial statements, technical assistance, cash flows, financial assets, financial instruments

The IMF's 2012 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2012, which covers the period from May 1, 2011, thr...

Can Policies Affect Employment Intensity of Growth? A Cross-Country Analysis

Can Policies Affect Employment Intensity of Growth? A Cross-Country Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2012/218

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Davide Furceri , Ernesto Crivelli , and Joël Toujas-Bernate

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505689.001

ISBN: 9781475505689

Keywords: employment elasticities, structural policies, reforms, labor market, labor market policies, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment and Investment: Other, Mobility

The aim of this paper is to provide new estimates of employment-output elasticities and assess the effect of structural and macroeocnomic policies on the employment-intensity of growth. Using an unbalanced panel of...

How much should I hold?  Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Markets and Small Islands

How much should I hold? Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Markets and Small Islands »

Volume/Issue: 2012/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nkunde Mwase

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505559.001

ISBN: 9781475505559

Keywords: Logit and quantile regression, Islands, EMP, Deleveraging, reserve holdings, short-term debt, current account, balance of payments, exchange rate regimes, International Finance Forecasting and Simulation

This paper investigates the drivers of reserves in emerging markets (EMs) and small island (SIs) and develops an operational metric for estimating reserves in SIs taking into account their unique characteristics. I...

Selected Decisions and Selected Documents of the International Monetary Fund, Thirty-Sixth Issue
			: Thirty-Sixth Issue

Selected Decisions and Selected Documents of the International Monetary Fund, Thirty-Sixth Issue : Thirty-Sixth Issue »

Series: Selected Decisions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353889.014

ISBN: 9781616353889

Keywords: payments, debt, obligations, external debt, balance of payments

The Thirty-Sixth Issue of Selected Decisions and Selected Documents of the International Monetary Fund includes decisions, interpretations, and resolutions of the Executive Board and the Board of Governors of the I...

Foreign Aid and Revenue
			: Still a Crowding Out Effect?

Foreign Aid and Revenue : Still a Crowding Out Effect? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , Sanjeev Gupta , Priscilla Muthoora , and Dora Benedek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505344.001

ISBN: 9781475505344

Keywords: tax revenues, tax revenue, total tax revenue

This paper reexamines the relationship between aid and domestic tax revenues using a more recent and comprehensive dataset covering 118 countries for the period 1980 - 2009. Overall, our results support earlier fin...

Papua New Guinea
			: 2012 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Public Information Notice

Papua New Guinea : 2012 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice »

Volume/Issue: 2012/126

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504033.002

ISBN: 9781475504033

Keywords: public debt, external debt, debt service, current account, public external debt

Papua New Guinea has seen solid economic growth over the past decade, supported by sound macroeconomic policies. This 2012 Article IV Consultation discusses that the financial sector in Papua New Guinea remains pro...

Country Stress Events
			: Does Governance Matter?

Country Stress Events : Does Governance Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/116

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anna Kochanova , and Carlos Caceres

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503456.001

ISBN: 9781475503456

Keywords: fiscal stress, probability, statistics, probabilities, descriptive statistics, Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation, Law and Economics: General (including Data Sources and Description), Business Environment, Fiscal Crises

This paper analyzes the linkages between governance quality and country stress events. It focuses on two types of events: fiscal and political stress events, for which two innovative stress indicators are introduce...

Crises, Labor Market Policy, and Unemployment

Crises, Labor Market Policy, and Unemployment »

Volume/Issue: 2012/65

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Davide Furceri , Lorenzo E. Bernal-Verdugo , and Dominique Guillaume

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938420.001

ISBN: 9781463938420

Keywords: Labor market, flexibility, reforms, labor market institutions, labor market flexibility, labor market policies, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment and Investment: Other

Using a sample of 97 countries spanning the period 1980?2008, we estimate that financial crises have a large negative impact on unemployment in the short term, but that this effect rapidly disappears in the medium...

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg
			: Do Trade Patterns Matter?

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg : Do Trade Patterns Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502251.001

ISBN: 9781475502251

Keywords: Basket peg, hard peg, exchange rate volatility, WAEMU, exchange rate, effective exchange rate, trading partners, nominal effective exchange rate, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

This paper assesses the role of trade patterns in shaping the volatility of the effective exchange rate under two alternative peg regimes: a hard peg to a single currency and a peg to a basket of currencies. I link...

Institutional Transformations, Polity and Economic Outcomes
			: Testing the North-Wallis-Weingast Doorsteps Framework

Institutional Transformations, Polity and Economic Outcomes : Testing the North-Wallis-Weingast Doorsteps Framework »

Volume/Issue: 2012/87

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and Sophia Gollwitzer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502510.001

ISBN: 9781475502510

Keywords: institutions, economic performance, political performance, transition, income inequality, political system, political control, political variables, political institutions, General Aggregative Models: Other

This paper tests the theoretical framework developed by North, Wallis and Weingast (2009) on the transition from closed to open access societies. They posit that societies need to go through three doorsteps: (i) th...

Spillovers to Low-Income Countries
			: Importance of Systemic Emerging Markets

Spillovers to Low-Income Countries : Importance of Systemic Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2012/49

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Raphael Espinoza , and Sarwat Jahan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463937102.001

ISBN: 9781463937102

Keywords: Growth Spillovers, Low-Income Countries, Decoupling, Panel Estimate, real gdp, gdp growth, commodity prices, commodity exporters, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

This paper documents the expanding economic linkages between low-income countries (LICs) and a narrow group of "Emerging Market leaders" that have become major players in regional and global trade and financial flo...

International Reserves in Low Income Countries
			: Have they Served As Buffers?

International Reserves in Low Income Countries : Have they Served As Buffers? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/7

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463930561.001

ISBN: 9781463930561

Keywords: Reserve adequacy, exogenous shocks, terms of trade, current account, reserve holdings, exchange rate regime,

This paper provides a historical perspective on the role of international reserves in low-income countries as a cushion against large external shocks over the last three decades - including the current global crisi...

Finance & Development, December 2011

Finance & Development, December 2011 »

Volume/Issue: 48/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451953695.022

ISBN: 9781451953695

Keywords: monetary fund, news, photography, journalism

Africa's Middle-Class Motor finds growing evidence that a recent resurgence in the continent's economic well-being has staying power. In his overview article, Harvard professor Calestous Juma says the emphasis for...

Internationaler Währungsfonds, Jahresbericht 2011
			: Ausgewogenes Wachstum Verfolgen Für Alle

Internationaler Währungsfonds, Jahresbericht 2011 : Ausgewogenes Wachstum Verfolgen Für Alle »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2011

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351144.011

ISBN: 9781616351144

Keywords: Fy2011, IMF Financing, IMF Accountability, IMF Surveillance, IMF Governance, financial sector, financial stability, debt relief, statistics, balance of payments

The IMF's 2011 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2011, which covers the period from May 1, 2010, thr...

Internationaler währungsfondS, Rapport Annuel 2011
			: Vers Une Croissance Équitable Et Équilibrée

Internationaler währungsfondS, Rapport Annuel 2011 : Vers Une Croissance Équitable Et Équilibrée »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2011

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351137.011

ISBN: 9781616351137

Keywords: Fy2011, IMF Financing, IMF Accountability, IMF Surveillance, IMF Governance, financial sector, financial stability, debt relief, statistics, balance of payments

The IMF's 2011 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2011, which covers the period from May 1, 2010, thr...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2011
			: Financial Statements

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2011 : Financial Statements »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351182.011

ISBN: 9781616351182

Keywords: financial statements, debt relief, cash flows, general resources account, financial instruments

The IMF's 2011 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2011, which covers the period from May 1, 2010, thr...

Papua New Guinea
			: Financial System Stability Assessment

Papua New Guinea : Financial System Stability Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2011/163

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455291694.002

ISBN: 9781455291694

Keywords: banking, risk management, banking system, banking sector, due diligence

Papua New Guinea (PNG) was only mildly impacted on the financial front during the global crisis. Although the financial sector in PNG has been a source of strength in 2000, vulnerabilities exist and need to be care...

Papua New Guinea
			: 2011 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea : 2011 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Papua New Guinea »

Volume/Issue: 2011/117

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455281589.002

ISBN: 9781455281589

Keywords: public debt, external debt, debt service, current account, debt sustainability

Papua New Guinea showed solid economic growth, supported by greater political stability, fiscal framework, and a healthy banking sector. Executive Directors encouraged the authorities to consider tighter macroecono...

Words vs. Deeds
			: What Really Matters?

Words vs. Deeds : What Really Matters? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahvash Qureshi , Atish Ghosh , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455261413.001

ISBN: 9781455261413

Keywords: policy credibility, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, central bank, inflation performance, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper revisits the link between the nominal exchange rate regime and inflation, based on a sample of 145 emerging market and developing countries (EMDCs) over the period 1980-2010. We contend that, just as a d...

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth
			: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth : Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926564.006

ISBN: 9781463926564

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Economic growth, Emerging markets, Income distribution, Poverty reduction, sustainable growth, per capita income, external debt, external shocks

This note raises the IMF’s profile on a number of issues related to inequality, unemployment, governance, etc. It builds on earlier empirical work that examined correlations between growth downbreaks/duratio...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350048.043

ISBN: 9781616350048

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Food Prices and Political Instability

Food Prices and Political Instability »

Volume/Issue: 2011/62

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , and Markus Bruckner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455221066.001

ISBN: 9781455221066

Keywords: Conflict, Political Institutions, food price, food production, food insecurity, food consumption, Economic Systems: General, General,

We examine the effects that variations in the international food prices have on democracy and intra-state conflict using panel data for over 120 countries during the period 1970-2007. Our main finding is that in Lo...

Classifications of Countries Basedon their Level of Development
			: How it is Done and How it Could Be Done

Classifications of Countries Basedon their Level of Development : How it is Done and How it Could Be Done »

Volume/Issue: 2011/31

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lynge Nielsen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455216789.001

ISBN: 9781455216789

Keywords: Country classification systems, taxonomy, taxonomies, per capita income, balance of payments, exporting countries, Economic Development: General,

The paper analyzes how the UNDP, the World Bank, and the IMF classify countries based on their level of development. These systems are found lacking in clarity with regard to their underlying rationale. The paper a...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Rapport Annuel 2010
			: Pour Une Reprise Mondiale Équilibrée

Rapport Annuel 2010 : Pour Une Reprise Mondiale Équilibrée »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350185.011

ISBN: 9781616350185

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2010
			: Financial Statements

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2010 : Financial Statements »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350253.011

ISBN: 9781616350253

Keywords: financial statements, general resources account, debt relief, cash flows, financial instruments

This paper presents the IMF financial statements for 2009-10. The paper highlights that the consolidated financial statements of the General Department are prepared in accordance with International Financial Report...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2010
			: Supporting a Balanced Global Recovery

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2010 : Supporting a Balanced Global Recovery »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350154.011

ISBN: 9781616350154

Keywords: financing, finance, debt, credit, bank

The IMF's 2010 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2010, which covers the period from May 1, 2009, thr...

Business Cycle Fluctuations, Large Shocks, and Development Aid
			: New Evidence

Business Cycle Fluctuations, Large Shocks, and Development Aid : New Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2010/240

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Camelia Minoiu , and Luis-Felipe Zanna

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209408.001

ISBN: 9781455209408

Keywords: foreign aid, bilateral donors, business cycle, macroeconomic shocks, aid flows, bilateral aid, development aid, dynamic effects, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

We examine the cyclical properties of development aid using bilateral data for 22 donors and over 100 recipients during 1970?2005. We find that bilateral aid flows are on average procyclical with respect to busines...