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Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2017/354

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484330043.002

ISBN: 9781484330043

Keywords: Europe, Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of

The prolonged political uncertainty has taken a toll on economic growth, with investment suffering because of weak sentiment. With the formation of the new government, policies should now focus on rebuilding fiscal...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2016/356

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475554816.002

ISBN: 9781475554816

Keywords: Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of

This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economy of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been growing at a solid pace on the back of strong domestic demand and exports. The real GDP is now 16...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/357

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475554861.002

ISBN: 9781475554861

Keywords: Selected Issues Papers, Foreign direct investment, Employment, Economic growth, Infrastructure, Labor market reforms, Public investment, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), Spillovers

This Selected Issues paper quantifies the short- and medium-term growth effects of major ongoing highway and railway projects in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. A standard neoclassical growth model is au...

Europe
			: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Europe : A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts »

Volume/Issue: 2016/155

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sheila Quinn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475520088.001

ISBN: 9781475520088

Keywords: Gender budgeting, Europe, fiscal policies and administration, gender inequality

This paper surveys European gender budgeting efforts, which have enjoyed sustained support for more than a decade and a half. In a number of countries, gender budgeting led to significant changes in budget legislat...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2015

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2015 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513528793.012

ISBN: 9781513528793

Keywords: exchange, foreign exchange, exchange rate, currency, market

This is the 66th issue of the AREAER, which provides comprehensive descriptions of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It describes each...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: 2015 Article IV Consultation - Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : 2015 Article IV Consultation - Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2015/242

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513544663.002

ISBN: 9781513544663

Keywords: Article IV consultation reports, Economic growth, Fiscal policy, Fiscal consolidation, Export competitiveness, Monetary policy, Economic indicators, Balance of payments statistics, Debt sustainability analysis, Staff Reports

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economic recovery of Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has strengthened. Real GDP growth accelerated to 3.8 percent in 2014, from 2.7 percent in 2013. Stron...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2015/243

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513551395.002

ISBN: 9781513551395

Keywords: Export competitiveness, Export performance, Fiscal policy, Fiscal sustainability, Selected Issues Papers, Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of, environment, trade, incentives, values

This Selected Issues paper analyzes export competitiveness in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia). Export performance in FYR Macedonia has been strong over the last decade, critically contribu...

Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , Ruud A. Mooij , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513563831.001

ISBN: 9781513563831

Keywords: Corporate income tax, BEPS, tax avoidance, international taxation, tax, tax rates, tax rate, tax bases, tax base, Business Taxes and Subsidies

International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS'). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for adva...

Regional Economic Issues, April 2015, Europe
			: The Western Balkans: 15 Years of Economic Transition

Regional Economic Issues, April 2015, Europe : The Western Balkans: 15 Years of Economic Transition »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498356510.086

ISBN: 9781498356510

Keywords: environment, bank, credit, capital, market

This report analyses the main economic developments and achievements in the Western Balkan countries, and lays out the key macroeconomic policy challenges for the future....

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Fourth Post-Program Monitoring Discussions

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Fourth Post-Program Monitoring Discussions »

Volume/Issue: 2015/18

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484392669.002

ISBN: 9781484392669

Keywords: debt, monetary fund, expenditure

KEY ISSUES The jobs and growth agenda should remain a top policy priority, with efforts focused on relaxing key constraints for domestic firms. Priorities include properly implementing and monitoring recent initiat...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation and Third Post-Program Monitoring Discussions

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation and Third Post-Program Monitoring Discussions »

Volume/Issue: 2014/231

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498376549.002

ISBN: 9781498376549

Keywords: external debt, current account, central bank, public debt, debt ratio

Growth accelerated to 3.1 percent in 2013, driven by a positive net exports contribution. The broad policy direction is supportive of near term macroeconomic stability. The key challenge is to transition from stabi...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/232

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498376150.002

ISBN: 9781498376150

Keywords: remittances, diaspora, remittance, migration, workers ’; remittances

...

Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions

Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions »

Volume/Issue: 2014/62

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475570809.002

ISBN: 9781475570809

Keywords: Debt sustainability analysis, Monetary policy, Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of, Fiscal policy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), Staff Reports, Post-program monitoring, Press releases, external debt, current account

This paper reviews the key points of Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia). Growth in FYR Macedonia continues to strengthen, although the recovery...

Boosting Job Growth in the Western Balkans

Boosting Job Growth in the Western Balkans »

Volume/Issue: 2014/16

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dmitriy Kovtun , Alexis Mayer Cirkel , Zuzana Murgasova , Dustin Smith , and Suchanan Tambunlertchai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484391037.001

ISBN: 9781484391037

Keywords: The Balkans, unemployment, labor market, employment, long-term unemployment, labor force, General,

Labor markets in the Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia) are characterized by some of the highest unemployment and low employment rates in Europe. W...

Côte d'Ivoire
			: 2013 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement

Côte d'Ivoire : 2013 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2013/367

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484313213.002

ISBN: 9781484313213

Keywords: debt management, external debt, current account, central bank, domestic debt

This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that Côte d'Ivoire is recovering from a long period of economic stagnation and political conflict that culminated in the post-election crisis of end-2010 and early 2011....

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: 2013 Article IV Consultation and First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : 2013 Article IV Consultation and First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions »

Volume/Issue: 2013/178

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484323717.002

ISBN: 9781484323717

Keywords: external debt, current account, debt sustainability, central bank, government debt

Conservative policies, together with external official assistance, provided Macedonia with buffers to confront spillovers from the global crisis and deal with domestic shocks. External and financial stability have...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues Paper

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2013/179

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336670.002

ISBN: 9781484336670

Keywords: unemployment, labor market, employment, unemployment rates, labor force

The Macedonian labor market exhibits a high unemployment rate, yet does not demonstrate obvious and large enough constraints on the demand or supply side. Considerable achievements can be made by maintaining macroe...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Technical Assistance Evaluation Report

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Technical Assistance Evaluation Report »

Volume/Issue: 2013/118

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484301838.002

ISBN: 9781484301838

Keywords: national accounts, government finance, government finance statistics, national accounts statistics, data sources

This paper discusses findings of the Technical Assistance Evaluation Report for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Overall, the authorities indicated that technical assistance (TA) and training had been ver...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012
			: Working Together To Support Global Recovery

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012 : Working Together To Support Global Recovery »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354152.011

ISBN: 9781616354152

Keywords: credit, balance of payments, technical assistance, financial sector, debt relief

The IMF's 2012 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2012, which covers the period from May 1, 2011, thr...

Austria
			: Selected Issues

Austria : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/252

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506785.002

ISBN: 9781475506785

Keywords: subsidiaries, banking, banking system, banks ? loan, banking sector

The Austrian authorities introduced new supervisory guidance aiming at constraining the funding model of the three largest Austrian banks' subsidiaries. The guidance introduced the concept of Loan-to-Local-Stable-F...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/134

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504156.002

ISBN: 9781475504156

Keywords: domestic debt, central bank, debt management, government securities, government debt, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This Selected Issues Paper assesses Macedonia's public debt markets and presents recommendations for their further development. Macedonia's domestic debt market is in the early stages of development and is small by...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation.

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation. »

Volume/Issue: 2012/133

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504149.002

ISBN: 9781475504149

Keywords: public debt, central bank, external debt, current account, debt sustainability, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This 2011 Article IV Consultation highlights that Macedonia is poised to achieve low but positive growth under the baseline scenario of a shallow recession in the euro area. Under a downside scenario, growth would...

Summary Proceedings of the Sixty-Second Annual Meetings 2008

Summary Proceedings of the Sixty-Second Annual Meetings 2008 »

Series: Summary Proceedings

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504682.015

ISBN: 9781475504682

Keywords: financial markets, financial stability, financial system, international financial, financial sector

The speeches made by officials attending the IMF-World Bank Annual Meetings are published in this volume, along with the press communiqués issued by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Develo...

Surges

Surges »

Volume/Issue: 2012/22

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahvash Qureshi , Atish Ghosh , Juan Zalduendo , and Jun Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931841.001

ISBN: 9781463931841

Keywords: surges, emerging market economies, net capital flows, net capital, exchange rate, capital flow,

This paper examines why surges in capital flows to emerging market economies (EMEs) occur, and what determines the allocation of capital across countries during such surge episodes. We use two different methodologi...

Treasury Bills and/Or Central Bank Bills for Absorbing Surplus Liquidity
			: The Main Considerations

Treasury Bills and/Or Central Bank Bills for Absorbing Surplus Liquidity : The Main Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2012/40

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Obert Nyawata

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933838.001

ISBN: 9781463933838

Keywords: consolidated public sector, central bank, government securities, debt management, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: Public Policy,

This paper discusses the challenging question of whether central banks should use treasury bills or central bank bills for draining excess liquidity in the banking system. While recognizing that there are practical...

Inflation Dynamics in FYR Macedonia

Inflation Dynamics in FYR Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2011/287

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Maral Shamloo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463927219.001

ISBN: 9781463927219

Keywords: Inflation forecasting, VECM, DFM, Phillips Curve, central bank, inflation dynamics, monetary economics, Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: General (includes Measurement and Data)

In this paper we study the dynamics of inflation in Macedonia, provide three forecasting tools and draw some policy conclusions from the quantitative results. We explore three forecasting methods for inflation. We...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2011
			: Pursuing Equitable and Balanced Growth

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2011 : Pursuing Equitable and Balanced Growth »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351106.011

ISBN: 9781616351106

Keywords: financial sector, financial stability, debt relief, statistics, balance of payments

The IMF's 2011 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2011, which covers the period from May 1, 2010, thr...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: First Review Under the Precautionary Credit Line

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : First Review Under the Precautionary Credit Line »

Volume/Issue: 2011/280

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463902988.002

ISBN: 9781463902988

Keywords: external debt, international reserves, debt service, eurobond

The report says that Macedonia continues to pursue sound economic policies that are consistent with the program supported by the Precautionary Credit Line (PCL) arrangement. The authorities strengthened debt manage...

Efficiency-Adjusted Public Capital and Growth

Efficiency-Adjusted Public Capital and Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2011/217

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Abdoul Wane , and Chris Papageorgiou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463903503.001

ISBN: 9781463903503

Keywords: Public capital stock, public investment efficiency, appraisal, selection, implementation, evaluation of public investment, growth accounting, public investment, capital stock, investment management

This paper constructs an efficiency-adjusted public capital stock series and re-examines the public capital and growth relationship for 52 developing countries. The results show that public capital is a significant...

Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard
			: Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis

Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard : Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2011/177

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Concha Verdugo Yepes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462312306.001

ISBN: 9781462312306

Keywords: Terrorist Financing, Compliance, AML/CFT International Standard, international cooperation, terrorist, terrorism, Economics of Regulation, International Law, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper assesses countries' compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) international standard during the period 2004 to 2011. We find that overall compliance is...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350048.043

ISBN: 9781616350048

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: 2010 Article IV Consultation and Request for an Arrangement Under the Precautionary Credit Line

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : 2010 Article IV Consultation and Request for an Arrangement Under the Precautionary Credit Line »

Volume/Issue: 2011/42

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 February 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455216680.002

ISBN: 9781455216680

Keywords: debt, deficit, interest, external debt, balance of payments, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

In this study, economic recovery and growth of Macedonia are discussed. In the financial sector, nonperforming loans (NPLs) rose, and bank profitability declined as a result of the crisis. Executive Directors agree...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2011/33

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 February 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455216673.002

ISBN: 9781455216673

Keywords: debt, debt management, domestic debt, debt management strategy, deficit, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This paper asks 1) whether reliance on Eurobond financing over the medium term is consistent with sound debt management policy and 2) whether Macedonia can reasonably expect Eurobond borrowing costs to fall in the...

The Electricity Sector in FYR Macedonia

The Electricity Sector in FYR Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2011/30

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Tieman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455216772.001

ISBN: 9781455216772

Keywords: FYR Macedonia, Liberalization, EU acquis, ECT, subsidy, electricity sector, subsidization, Electric Utilities, Industry Studies: Utilities and Transportation: Government Policy, Energy and the Macroeconomy

This paper describes the current state of the Macedonian electricity sector. It looks at ongoing structural changes, driven by the gradual adoption of the EU acquis on energy, and comes up with estimates for electr...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Making Fiscal Decentralization Work
			: Cross-Country Experiences

Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069855.084

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

The question of what makes fiscal decentralization work is faced by many policymakers around the world. This book draws on both the relevant literature and policy and technical advice provided by the IMF to a wide...

Government Cash Management
			: Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies

Government Cash Management : Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462318254.005

ISBN: 9781462318254

Keywords: government cash management, cash management, debt management, financial policies, central bank, debt, cash flow

This technical note describes the interaction of government cash management with other financial policies. The note offers guidance on policy, institutional, and practical issues for governments looking to develop...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068629.043

ISBN: 9781589068629

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Competition and Firm Productivity
			: Evidence from Firm-Level Data

Competition and Firm Productivity : Evidence from Firm-Level Data »

Volume/Issue: 2010/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Schiffbauer , and Sandra Ospina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982114.001

ISBN: 9781451982114

Keywords: regulation, entry costs, survey, correlation, instrumental variables, heteroscedasticity, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper presents empirical evidence on the impact of competition on firm productivity. Using firm-level observations from the World Bank Enterprise Survey database, we find a positive and robust causal relations...

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform
			: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform : The Experience of Europe and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2010/75

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adam Leive

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982183.001

ISBN: 9781451982183

Keywords: Health care reform, public health expenditure, primary care, health systems, health insurance, public health, fee-for-service, National Government Expenditures and Health, Health: General,

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia...

ICT Equipment Investment and Growth in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

ICT Equipment Investment and Growth in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2010/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Markus Haacker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982107.001

ISBN: 9781451982107

Keywords: ICT, technology, equipment investment, technological progress, trade data, technological advances, information technology, net exports, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, One

While production of ICT equipment plays a subordinate role for economic growth in most of these countries, they do benefit from capital deepening arising from falling prices of ICT equipment. Adapting established g...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues for the 2009 Article IV Consultation

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues for the 2009 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2009/20

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826173.002

ISBN: 9781451826173

Keywords: central bank, monetary fund, current account, public debt, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This Selected Issues paper assesses the desired level of foreign exchange reserves in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, given its commitment to maintain the exchange rate peg. A variety of methods includin...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Staff Report for the 2009 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Staff Report for the 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2010/19

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826166.002

ISBN: 9781451826166

Keywords: debt, interest, deficit, interest rate, central bank, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's vulnerability at the outset of the global crisis was its large current account deficit in the context of the exchange ra...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Handbook on Securities Statistics
			: Debt Securities Issues

Handbook on Securities Statistics : Debt Securities Issues »

Series: Web Based Statistical Publications

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510102.037

ISBN: 9781475510102

Keywords: debt securities, bond, securities issues, equity securities, financial corporations

Several high-level international groups urged development of methodological standards for securities statistics. In response, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the European Central Bank (ECB), and the I...

Commodity Price Volatility, Cyclical Fluctuations, and Convergence
			: What is Ahead for Inflation in Emerging Europe?

Commodity Price Volatility, Cyclical Fluctuations, and Convergence : What is Ahead for Inflation in Emerging Europe? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/41

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Edda Zoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871890.001

ISBN: 9781451871890

Keywords: Price Convergence, price inflation, price level, inflation response,

This paper assesses the role of international commodity prices, cyclical fluctuations, and convergence in driving inflation in 18 European emerging economies. Country specific VARs and panel estimates indicate that...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: 2008 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2009/60

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826159.002

ISBN: 9781451826159

Keywords: debt, deficit, interest, external debt, interest rate

The staff report for the 2008 Article IV Consultation of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia discusses economic developments and policies. The new government's economic program aims to raise growth further, b...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2009/61

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451952711.002

ISBN: 9781451952711

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, output growth, current account deficit, terms of trade, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This Selected Issues paper for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is examined. Real GDP growth accelerated to 5 percent in 2007 and 6 percent in the first half of 2008, from its historical average of about 3...

Summary Proceedings of the Sixty-First Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors

Summary Proceedings of the Sixty-First Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors »

Series: Summary Proceedings

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067899.015

ISBN: 9781589067899

Keywords: debt, financial markets, bank group, globalization, financial market

The speeches made by officials attending the IMF-World Bank Annual Meetings are published in this volume, along with the press communiqués issued by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Develo...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067523.041

ISBN: 9781589067523

Keywords: claims, liabilities, loans, banking, interest, debt, financial derivatives, money market, debt securities, portfolio investment

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

International Financial Statistics, July 2008

International Financial Statistics, July 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964165.041

ISBN: 9781451964165

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics, June 2008

International Financial Statistics, June 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964097.041

ISBN: 9781451964097

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Informality and Bank Credit
			: Evidence from Firm-Level Data

Informality and Bank Credit : Evidence from Firm-Level Data »

Volume/Issue: 2008/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Junko Koeda , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869552.001

ISBN: 9781451869552

Keywords: informality, business environment, Transition countries, dummy variable, working capital, survey, probability,

The paper relies on a firm-level data on transition economies to examine the relationship between informality and bank credit. We find evidence that informality is robustly and significantly associated with lower a...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Third Review Under the Stand:  By Arrangement and Request for Rephasing of Access:  Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Third Review Under the Stand: By Arrangement and Request for Rephasing of Access: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement »

Volume/Issue: 2008/107

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826142.002

ISBN: 9781451826142

Keywords: debt, budget, interest, deficit, central bank

Macedonia's economic performance under the program has remained strong, reflecting the authorities' commitment to build on the progress made and to advance the reform agenda. The average inflation rate was 2.3 perc...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066564.044

ISBN: 9781589066564

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Effect of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs on Expectations
			: The Case of Transition Economies

Effect of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs on Expectations : The Case of Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2007/261

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868241.001

ISBN: 9781451868241

Keywords: inflation, survey, surveys, probability, statistically significant effect

We analyze the effect of IMF programs on economic agents' expectations about the economy in transitional countries using survey data from the Central and Eastern Eurobarometer poll, an annual general public survey...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria and Rephasing of the Program:  Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria and Rephasing of the Program: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2007/257

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826135.002

ISBN: 9781451826135

Keywords: debt, budget, interest, deficit

This paper discusses the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria and Rephasing of the Program. The 2007 fiscal deficit tar...

Impact of Intra-European Trade Agreements, 1990-2005
			: Policy Implications for the Western Balkans and Ukraine

Impact of Intra-European Trade Agreements, 1990-2005 : Policy Implications for the Western Balkans and Ukraine »

Volume/Issue: 2007/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zhaogang Qiao , and Johannes Herderschee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866902.001

ISBN: 9781451866902

Keywords: Gravity Model, Customs Union, Currency Union, customs, trade agreement,

The paper provides quantitative estimates of the impact of the European trade agreements on trade flows. It applies both static and dynamic panel estimation techniques. The results are useful to policymakers becaus...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065789.044

ISBN: 9781589065789

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

The Design and Implementation of Deposit Insurance Systems

The Design and Implementation of Deposit Insurance Systems »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Hoelscher , Michael Taylor , and Ulrich Klueh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065031.084

ISBN: 9781589065031

Keywords: Deposit insurance, insurance system, banking, insurance systems, deposit insurance systems

This paper describes recently established deposit insurance systems, identifying emerging trends. In line with previous IMF work on the subject, it argues against the development of "best practices" applicable to a...

A Gravity Model of Workers' Remittances

A Gravity Model of Workers' Remittances »

Volume/Issue: 2006/290

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erik Lueth , and Marta Ruiz-Arranz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865509.001

ISBN: 9781451865509

Keywords: Bilateral remittance flows, gravity model, remittances, remittance, remittance flows, exchange rate, bilateral remittance, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

This paper creates the first dataset of bilateral remittance flows for a limited set of developing countries and estimates a gravity model for workers' remittances. We find that most of the variation in bilateral r...

Export Performance and External Competitiveness in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Export Performance and External Competitiveness in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2006/261

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eva Gutierrez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865219.001

ISBN: 9781451865219

Keywords: Competitiveness, equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rate, real exchange rate, reer, real effective exchange rate, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonia, Fyr,

This paper reviews a broad set of indicators of competitiveness in the Macedonian economy and estimates the equilibrium real effective exchange rate (REER) using different methodologies. Although the REER is broadl...

Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia
			: Staff Report for the 2006 Article IV Consultation

Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia : Staff Report for the 2006 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2006/344

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826111.002

ISBN: 9781451826111

Keywords: debt, interest, deficit, external debt, interest rate, Macedonia, FYR,

Macedonia showed an economic recovery owing to its macroeconomic policies. Executive Directors appreciated the sound fiscal policies and efforts in bringing inflation under control and increasing international res...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Selected Issues

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2006/345

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826128.002

ISBN: 9781451826128

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, current account, real exchange, competitiveness, Macedonia, FYR,

The paper analyzes the export performance and external competitiveness in FYR Macedonia. It describes the trends in the account balance, external vulnerabilities, and different approaches to estimate the equilibriu...

New Evidence on Fiscal Adjustment and Growth in Transition Economies

New Evidence on Fiscal Adjustment and Growth in Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2006/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Simone , and Alex Segura-Ubiergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865042.001

ISBN: 9781451865042

Keywords: growth, fiscal balance, transition countries, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Models with Panel Data, Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General,

This paper analyzes the relationship between fiscal adjustment and real GDP growth in a panel of 26 transition economies during 1992-2001. Unlike most previous studies using cross-country regressions, the paper fin...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930375.042

ISBN: 9781451930375

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, free trade, oil exporting countries, trade data, merchandise exports, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2006

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065772.041

ISBN: 9781589065772

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, loans, deposit money, deposit money banks, interest, financial derivatives, debt securities, portfolio investment

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Report on Observance of Standards and Codes:  Fiscal Transparency Module

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: Fiscal Transparency Module »

Volume/Issue: 2006/282

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826104.002

ISBN: 9781451826104

Keywords: budget process, public debt, budget law, internal audit, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonia, FYR,

This report summarizes the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in the Former Yugoslav R...

Summary Proceedings of the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors

Summary Proceedings of the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors »

Series: Summary Proceedings

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065116.015

ISBN: 9781589065116

Keywords: debt sustainability, oil prices, balance of payments, young people, world economy

The speeches made by officials attending the IMF-World Bank Annual Meetings are published in this volume, along with the press communiqués issued by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Develo...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement, Requests for Waiver of Performance Criteria, and Extension of Repurchase Expectations

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement, Requests for Waiver of Performance Criteria, and Extension of Repurchase Expectations »

Volume/Issue: 2006/188

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826098.002

ISBN: 9781451826098

Keywords: debt, budget, deficit, interest, external debt, Macedonia, FYR,

This paper discusses key findings of the First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement for Macedonia. Macroeconomic performance of Macedonia remains strong. Through end-December 2005, the authorities met all of the p...

IMF-Supported Programs
			: Recent Staff Research

IMF-Supported Programs : Recent Staff Research »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Alessandro Rebucci , and Ashoka Mody

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063617.072

ISBN: 9781589063617

Keywords: International Monetary Fund, current account, capital flows, private capital, private capital flows, conditionality

Research work by the IMF's staff on the effectiveness of the country programs the organization supports, which has long been carried out, has intensified in recent years. IMF analysts have sought to 'open up the bl...

Fiscal Policy and Financial Development

Fiscal Policy and Financial Development »

Volume/Issue: 2006/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Hauner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862867.001

ISBN: 9781451862867

Keywords: Bank efficiency, bank profitability, financial development, public sector, banking, banking sector, bank credit, bank borrowing, National Budget, Deficit

We examine the effects of public sector borrowing from the domestic banking system on financial development in middle-income countries. While these countries' external debt has been falling, the share of bank credi...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064607.044

ISBN: 9781589064607

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Financial Sector Conditionality
			: Is Tougher Better?

Financial Sector Conditionality : Is Tougher Better? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/230

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roger Kronenberg , and Alessandro Giustiniani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862492.001

ISBN: 9781451862492

Keywords: financial sectors, banking, banking sector, structural conditionality, banking sector reform, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, Financial Economics,

The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at IMF conditionality in the banking sector. Our analysis shows that while such conditionality became more stringent following the Asian crisis, compliance has remaine...

IMF Survey
			: Volume 34, Issue 17

IMF Survey : Volume 34, Issue 17 »

Volume/Issue: 34/17

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938883.023

ISBN: 9781451938883

Keywords: tax treaties, international monetary fund, tax policy, economic outlook

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Request for Stand-By Arrangement and Extension of Repurchase Expectations

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Request for Stand-By Arrangement and Extension of Repurchase Expectations »

Volume/Issue: 2005/339

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451952889.002

ISBN: 9781451952889

Keywords: debt, budget, interest, external debt, deficit, Macedonia, FYR,

This paper discusses the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYR Macedonia) Request for a Stand-By Arrangement and Extension of Repurchase Expectations. The authorities have asked the IMF to support an ambitio...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 14

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 14 »

Volume/Issue: 34/14

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938760.023

ISBN: 9781451938760

Keywords: tax treaties, international monetary fund, tax policy, public sector

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 13

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 13 »

Volume/Issue: 34/13

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938715.023

ISBN: 9781451938715

Keywords: international monetary fund, regional cooperation, global integration, global economy

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Labor Productivity and Real Exchange Rate
			: The Balassa-Samuelson Disconnect in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Labor Productivity and Real Exchange Rate : The Balassa-Samuelson Disconnect in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2005/113

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Boileau Loko , and Anita Tuladhar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861327.001

ISBN: 9781451861327

Keywords: Real exchange rate, Balassa-Samuelson, exchange rate, reer, real effective exchange rate, effective exchange rate, export performance, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of,

This paper seeks to investigate the transmission mechanisms linking productivity to the real exchange rate in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. At first glance, the stylized facts-low labor productivity gr...

Data Consistency in IMF Publications
			: Country Staff Reports Versus International Financial Statistics

Data Consistency in IMF Publications : Country Staff Reports Versus International Financial Statistics »

Volume/Issue: 2005/46

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Cady , and Anthony Pellechio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860658.001

ISBN: 9781451860658

Keywords: International Financial Statistics, statistics, current account, balance of payments, public debt, current account balance, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data, International Finance: General

Data published in IMF country staff reports and International Financial Statistics (IFS) may differ for identical variables and, at times, users may be unaware of the reasons for these differences and lack the info...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063822.044

ISBN: 9781589063822

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Currency Bloc Formation as a Dynamic Process Based on Trade Network Externalities

Currency Bloc Formation as a Dynamic Process Based on Trade Network Externalities »

Volume/Issue: 2004/222

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875294.001

ISBN: 9781451875294

Keywords: Currency blocs, trade network externalities, stochastic and dynamic games, path dependency, equation, intermediate goods, probability, average trade, network externalities, Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies

The recent experience of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) has stimulated the debate over currency union and reinforced the incentive for the emergence of currency blocs in other regions of the world....

Can the IMF's Medium-Term Growth Projections Be Improved?

Can the IMF's Medium-Term Growth Projections Be Improved? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo , and Catia Batista

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874488.001

ISBN: 9781451874488

Keywords: Model estimation, forecasting, growth, inflation, statistic, terms of trade, inflation rates, Model Construction and Estimation, Forecasting and Other Model Applications, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General

Numerous reports have noted that the IMF's medium-term growth projections are overly optimistic, raising questions as to how these can be improved. To this end, we estimate a growth model and examine its out-of-sam...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-Data Module

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-Data Module »

Volume/Issue: 2004/309

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826067.002

ISBN: 9781451826067

Keywords: national accounts, balance of payments, debt, government finance, international standards, Macedonia, FYR, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Data Module on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reviews assessment by agency and dataset. The mission has a set of recommendations for Macedonia's st...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063815.041

ISBN: 9781589063815

Keywords: oil exporting, industrial countries, oil exporting countries

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Ex Post Assessment of Performance Under Fund-Supported Programs

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Ex Post Assessment of Performance Under Fund-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2004/276

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826029.002

ISBN: 9781451826029

Keywords: budget, debt, public sector, interest, deficit, Macedonia, FYR,

The staff report for the Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement on the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia highlights economic developments and policies. FYR of Macedonia's economic performance since...

Russia and the WTO
			: The "Gravity" of Outsider Status

Russia and the WTO : The "Gravity" of Outsider Status »

Volume/Issue: 2004/159

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yaroslav Lissovolik , and Bogdan Lissovolik

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857702.001

ISBN: 9781451857702

Keywords: WTO, gravity model, Russia, dummy variable, trade restrictions, trading partners, statistics, import duties, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Environment,

With China's accession to the WTO in 2001, Russia is by far that organization's most prominent nonmember. This paper applies the gravity model to gauge whether this "outsider" status has been affecting Russia's exp...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062689.044

ISBN: 9781589062689

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, direct investment, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics:  Banking Supervision, Payment Systems, Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, and Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Banking Supervision, Payment Systems, Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, and Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2003/374

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826081.002

ISBN: 9781451826081

Keywords: banking, credit, payments, payment system, banking system, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonia, Fyr,

The financial system remains vulnerable to weak governance in smaller banks and also to weaknesses in banks' balance sheets. Banking is characterized by high real interest rates, large spreads, and a limited appeti...

Budget System Reform in Transitional Economies
			: The Case of the Former Yugoslav Republics

Budget System Reform in Transitional Economies : The Case of the Former Yugoslav Republics »

Volume/Issue: 2003/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jack Diamond , and Duncan Last

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875881.001

ISBN: 9781451875881

Keywords: Budget Reform, Yugoslavia, payments, budget system, financial management, budget institutions, budget execution, Federal Republic of,

For the republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) as for many other transition economies, an important step in introducing a more market-oriented system was the restructuring of their...

Growth, Governance, and Fiscal Policy Transmission Channels in Low-Income Countries

Growth, Governance, and Fiscal Policy Transmission Channels in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Naoko Kojo , Arye Hillman , and Emanuele Baldacci

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875737.001

ISBN: 9781451875737

Keywords: Growth, low-income countries, public spending, fiscal deficit, fiscal contractions, expansionary fiscal, National Deficit Surplus, low-income countries and Finance, Taxation, Deficit

Private investment is the principal transmission channel through which fiscal policy affects growth in high-income countries. In low-income countries, governance and also other considerations suggest that the prima...

Trade Liberalization Strategies
			: What Could South Eastern Europe Learn From Cefta and Bfta?

Trade Liberalization Strategies : What Could South Eastern Europe Learn From Cefta and Bfta? »

Volume/Issue: 2003/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Antonis Adam , James McHugh , and Theodora Kosma

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875799.001

ISBN: 9781451875799

Keywords: Trade liberalization, gravity models, stability pact, CEFTA, BFTA, trade area, free trade, free trade area, regional trade, portfolio choice

This paper explores the effectiveness of the Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA) and the Baltic Free Trade Area (BFTA). Estimates from a gravity model and bilateral trade data support the view that both CEFTA...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Applicability of Performance Criteria

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Applicability of Performance Criteria »

Volume/Issue: 2003/354

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451826074.002

ISBN: 9781451826074

Keywords: debt, budget, interest, deficit, central bank, Macedonia, FYR,

Macedonia's macroeconomic stabilization program continues to rest on the basis of fiscal and monetary policies, and has restored the fiscal balance to a sustainable level after two years of high deficits. Further s...

Early Birds, Late Risers, and Sleeping Beauties
			: Bank Credit Growth to the Private Sector in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans

Early Birds, Late Risers, and Sleeping Beauties : Bank Credit Growth to the Private Sector in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans »

Volume/Issue: 2003/213

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ivanna Hollar , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874969.001

ISBN: 9781451874969

Keywords: financial developments, capital inflows, bank credit, banking, capital mobility, bank loans, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

Following a period of privatization and restructuring, commercial banks in Central and Eastern Europe and, more recently, in the Balkans have rapidly expanded their lending to the private sector. This paper describ...

The Role of Supervisory tools in Addressing Bank Borrowers' Currency Mismatches

The Role of Supervisory tools in Addressing Bank Borrowers' Currency Mismatches »

Volume/Issue: 2003/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Armando Méndez Morales , and Maria del Mar Cacha

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875195.001

ISBN: 9781451875195

Keywords: Prudential regulation, provisions, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange rate depreciation, foreign exchange position, currency risk, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

Bank borrowers' currency mismatches often result from unhedged foreign currency borrowing in economies where there is significant dollarization, exposing the financial sector to disguised credit risk. In the absenc...

Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries
			: Bridging the Great Divide

Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries : Bridging the Great Divide »

Volume/Issue: 2003/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gianni De Nicolo , Sami Geadah , and Dmitriy Rozhkov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874570.001

ISBN: 9781451874570

Keywords: Financial development, banking, credit risk, banking system, banking sector, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Republic of,

This paper documents the great divide in the level of financial development between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 countries and the more advanced economies in transition, in particular those of Cen...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062184.012

ISBN: 9781589062184

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2003 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly But Unevenly

The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly But Unevenly »

Volume/Issue: 2003/185

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shang-Jin Wei , and Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859430.001

ISBN: 9781451859430

Keywords: WTO, gravity, special and differential treatment, industrial country, industrial countries, free trade area, free trade, trade liberalization,

This paper furnishes robust evidence that the GATT/WTO has had a powerful and positive impact on trade. The impact has, however, been uneven. GATT/WTO membership for industrial countries has been associated with a...

Enterprise Restructuring and Transition
			: Evidence From the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Enterprise Restructuring and Transition : Evidence From the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia »

Volume/Issue: 2003/136

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855838.001

ISBN: 9781451855838

Keywords: Enterprise restructuring, corporate performance, ownership concentration, privatization, private ownership, Education: Other, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: General, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This paper reviews developments in corporate performance in the FYR Macedonia during the 1990s. The paper finds substantial differences in performance between surviving old firms and nimbler new ones. The paper rev...