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Income and Democracy
			: Lipset's Law Revisited

Income and Democracy : Lipset's Law Revisited »

Volume/Issue: 2012/295

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anke Hoeffler , Robert H. Bates , and Ghada Fayad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475596649.001

ISBN: 9781475596649

Keywords: democracy, dynamic panel data, parameter heterogeneity, cross-section dependence, time series, democratization, error correction coefficient, econometrics, political institutions, Models with Panel Data

We revisit Lipset‘s law, which posits a positive and significant relationship between income and democracy. Using dynamic and heterogeneous panel data estimation techniques, we find a significant and negative relat...

Is Social Spending Procyclical?

Is Social Spending Procyclical? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Hajdenberg , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209347.001

ISBN: 9781455209347

Keywords: social spending, expenditures, health expenditures, public expenditures, total expenditures,

This paper studies the cyclical behavior of public spending on health and education in 150 countries during 1987 - 2007. It finds that spending on education and health is procyclical in developing countries and acy...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2008/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , and Ummul Hasanath Ruthbah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868968.001

ISBN: 9781451868968

Keywords: Spending, Absorption, Growth, current account balance, reserve accumulation, current account, capital formation, central bank,

This paper examines the macroeconomic usage of aid using panel data for a broad sample of aid-recipients. By definition an increase in aid must go toward a reduction in the current account balance (absorbed aid), a...

Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance? Revisiting the Debt-Growth Link

Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance? Revisiting the Debt-Growth Link »

Volume/Issue: 2005/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tito Cordella , Luca Ricci , and Marta Ruiz-Arranz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862423.001

ISBN: 9781451862423

Keywords: Growth, Debt Overhang, Debt Irrelevance, HIPCs, external debt, public debt, International Lending and Debt Problems, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

Do Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) suffer from a debt overhang? Is debt relief going to improve their growth rates? To answer these important questions, we look at how the debt-growth relationship varies wit...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063815.041

ISBN: 9781589063815

Keywords: oil exporting, industrial countries, oil exporting countries

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Anuario de Estadísticas Financieras Internacionales, 2000

Anuario de Estadísticas Financieras Internacionales, 2000 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2000

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759306.041

ISBN: 9781557759306

El anuario de estadísticas financieras internacionales, que suele publicarse en septiembre, contiene los datos anuales de los países que figuran en las ediciones mensuales de las Estadísticas Financieras Internacio...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451958621.041

ISBN: 9781451958621

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, deposit money, deposit money banks, debt securities, financial derivatives, equity securities, portfolio investment, loans

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Does Higher Government Spending Buy Better Results in Education and Health Care?

Does Higher Government Spending Buy Better Results in Education and Health Care? »

Volume/Issue: 1999/21

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marijn Verhoeven , Sanjeev Gupta , and Erwin Tiongson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451843897.001

ISBN: 9781451843897

Keywords: public expenditure, primary and secondary education, primary health care, intrasectoral spending compostion, social indicators, health care, health care spending, public spending, infant mortality

There is little empirical evidence to support the claim that public spending improves education and health indicators. This paper uses cross-sectional data for 50 developing and transition countries to show that ex...

Four Decades of Fund Arrangements
			: Macroeconomic Stylized Facts Before the Adjustment Programs

Four Decades of Fund Arrangements : Macroeconomic Stylized Facts Before the Adjustment Programs »

Volume/Issue: 1995/74

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Julio Santaella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849530.001

ISBN: 9781451849530

Keywords: balance of payments, external debt, export markets, current account, debt crisis

This paper analyzes the initial conditions before Fund financial arrangements are adopted. Evidence from 324 Fund arrangements in 78 developing countries during 1973-91 indicates that there are important difference...