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A Governance Dividend for Sub-Saharan Africa?

A Governance Dividend for Sub-Saharan Africa? »

Volume/Issue: 2019/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Amine Hammadi , Marshall Mills , Nelson Sobrinho , Vimal Thakoor , and Ricardo Velloso

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484354872.001

ISBN: 9781484354872

Keywords: Zambia, Zimbabwe, Congo, Democratic Republic of the, Congo, Republic of, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa

Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) tend to lag those in most other regions in terms of governance and perceptions of corruption. Weak governance undermines economic performance through various channels, includin...

Regional Spillovers in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Exploring Different Channels

Regional Spillovers in Sub-Saharan Africa : Exploring Different Channels »

Volume/Issue: 2018/1

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Francisco Arizala , Matthieu Bellon , Margaux MacDonald , Montfort Mlachila , and Mustafa Yenice

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484367148.062

ISBN: 9781484367148

Keywords: Uganda, Togo, Tanzania, Swaziland, South Sudan, Spillovers, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sierra Leone, Congo, Republic of, Congo, Democratic Republic of the

After close to two decades of strong economic activity, overall growth in sub-Saharan Africa decelerated markedly in 2015-16 as the largest economies experienced negative or flat growth. Regional growth started rec...

Lessons for Effective  Fiscal Decentralization in  Sub-Saharan Africa

Lessons for Effective Fiscal Decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2018/10

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Niko Hobdari , Vina Nguyen , Salvatore Dell'Erba , and Edgardo Ruggiero

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484358269.087

ISBN: 9781484358269

Keywords: Kenya, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius

Fiscal decentralization is becoming a pressing issue in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting demands for a greater local voice in spending decisions and efforts to strengthen social cohesion. Aga...

Public Investment Efficiency in Sub-Saharan African Countries

Public Investment Efficiency in Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2018/9

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Karim Barhoumi , Ha Vu , Shirin Nikaein Towfighian , and Rodolfo Maino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484360019.087

ISBN: 9781484360019

Keywords: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti

There is significant room to improve public investment efficiency in sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in sub-Saharan African countries is lagging vis-à-vis peers such as emerging and developing Asia as well as Latin...

Medium-Term Budget Frameworks in Sub-Saharan African Countries

Medium-Term Budget Frameworks in Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2017/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Richard Allen , Taz Chaponda , Lesley Fisher , and Rohini Ray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314203.001

ISBN: 9781484314203

Keywords: Zambia, Congo, Republic of, Congo, Democratic Republic of the, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Togo, Tanzania, Sudan, Swaziland, Sub-Saharan Africa

More than 15 years ago, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on a program of budgetary reform, an important element of which was a medium-term budget framework (MTBF). This working paper focuses on the per...

Growth Breaks and Growth Spells in Sub-Saharan Africa

Growth Breaks and Growth Spells in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2017/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francisco Arizala , Jesus Gonzalez-Garcia , Charalambos Tsangarides , and Mustafa Yenice

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314166.001

ISBN: 9781484314166

Keywords: Africa, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros

This paper examines the growth performance of sub-Saharan African countries since 1960 through the lens of growth turning points (accelerations and decelerations) and periods of sustained growth (growth spells). Gr...

The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Size and Determinants

The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa : Size and Determinants »

Volume/Issue: 2017/156

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Leandro Medina , Andrew Jonelis , and Mehmet Cangul

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484305942.001

ISBN: 9781484305942

Keywords: Uganda, South Africa, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo

The multiple indicator-multiple cause (MIMIC) method is a well-established tool for measuring informal economic activity. However, it has been criticized because GDP is used both as a cause and indicator variable....

Structural Transformation in Employment and Productivity
			: What Can Africa Hope For?

Structural Transformation in Employment and Productivity : What Can Africa Hope For? »

Volume: 17

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Louise Fox , Alun Thomas , and Cleary Haines

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475583397.087

ISBN: 9781475583397

Keywords: Employment, Productivity, Structural adjustment, Structural transformation, Sub Saharan Africa

This paper provides the most complete analysis of the structural transformation among low- and low-middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa to date....

Food Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Causes and Policy Implications

Food Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa : Causes and Policy Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2016/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emre Alper , Niko Hobdari , and Ali Uppal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475563115.001

ISBN: 9781475563115

Keywords: South Africa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tanzania, Sudan, Swaziland

This paper analyzes food inflation trends in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from 2000 to 2016 using two novel datasets of disaggregated CPI baskets. Average food inflation is higher, more volatile, and similarly persiste...

Sub-Saharan African Migration
			: Patterns and Spillovers

Sub-Saharan African Migration : Patterns and Spillovers »

Volume/Issue: 2016/09

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Jesus Gonzalez-Garcia , Ermal Hitaj , Montfort Mlachila , Arina Viseth , and Mustafa Yenice

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475546668.062

ISBN: 9781475546668

Keywords: Togo, Tanzania, Uganda, Swaziland, Spillovers, Sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone

Amid rapid population growth, migration in sub-Saharan Africa has been increasing briskly over the last 20 years. Up to the 1990s, the stock of migrants-citizens of one country living in another country-was dominat...

Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Promoting Inclusive and Sustainable Growth

Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa : Promoting Inclusive and Sustainable Growth »

Volume: 16

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Montfort Mlachila , Ahmat Jidoud , Monique Newiak , Bozena Radzewicz-Bak , and Misa Takebe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475532401.087

ISBN: 9781475532401

Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa...

Cyclical Behavior of Fiscal Policy among Sub-Saharan African Countries

Cyclical Behavior of Fiscal Policy among Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Volume: 16

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Tetsuya Konuki , and Mauricio Villafuerte

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513563541.087

ISBN: 9781513563541

Keywords: Fiscal analysis, Fiscal policy, Cyclical indicators, Sub-Saharan Africa, Oil exporting states, fiscal policy, sub-saharan Africa, oil exporters, financial markets,

Excessively procyclical fiscal policy can be harmful. This paper investigates to what extent the fiscal policies of sub-Saharan African countries were procyclical in recent years and the reasons for the degree of f...

Fixed Base Year vs. Chain Linking in National Accounts
			: Experience of Sub-Saharan African Countries

Fixed Base Year vs. Chain Linking in National Accounts : Experience of Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2016/133

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robert Dippelsman , Venkat Josyula , and Eric Métreau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475569339.001

ISBN: 9781475569339

Keywords: System of National Accounts, chain linking, volume measures, fixed base year

There are two approaches for producing volume estimates of GDP, fixed base year and annual chaining. While most advanced economies have adopted the chain-linked approach in the past twenty years, some African count...

Women's Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets

Women's Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christine Dieterich , Anni Huang , and Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484388518.001

ISBN: 9781484388518

Keywords: Multi-sector Labor Market, Agriculture Feminization, Female Informal Employment, Household Enterprise Employment, SSA Labor Market

As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countrie...

Inequality, Gender Gaps and Economic Growth
			: Comparative Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa

Inequality, Gender Gaps and Economic Growth : Comparative Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2016/111

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dalia Hakura , Mumtaz Hussain , Monique Newiak , Vimal Thakoor , and Fan Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484382349.001

ISBN: 9781484382349

Keywords: Income inequality, gender inequality, economic growth, and sub-Saharan Africa

A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that inequality-income or gender related-can impede economic growth. Using dynamic panel regressions and new time series data, this paper finds that both income and gen...

Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) Selected Issues

Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2015/308

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510583.002

ISBN: 9781513510583

Keywords: Economic growth, Oil prices, Public investment, Monetary transmission mechanism, Economic indicators, Economic models, Selected Issues Papers, Central African Economic and Monetary Community, growth, governance

This Selected Issues paper compares the growth performance of Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) countries with that of comparative countries. During the last two decades, the average growth of...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2015
			: Sub-Saharan Africa

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2015 : Sub-Saharan Africa »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 2015

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513562490.086

ISBN: 9781513562490

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; commodity exporters; oil-exporting countries; competitiveness; trade integration; income inequality; gender inequality

Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has weakened after more than a decade of solid growth, although this overall outlook masks considerable variation across the region. Some countries have been negatively affected by fall...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2015
			: Sub-Saharan Africa

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2015 : Sub-Saharan Africa »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513597331.086

ISBN: 9781513597331

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; commodity exporters; oil-exporting countries; competitiveness; trade integration; income inequality; gender inequality

Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has weakened after more than a decade of solid growth, although this overall outlook masks considerable variation across the region. Some countries have been negatively affected by fall...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2015
			: Tackling Challenges Together

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2015 : Tackling Challenges Together »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475544886.011

ISBN: 9781475544886

Keywords: debt, imf, tax, interest, investment

The past year has been a time of unexpected challenges for the international community. Amid the continued focus on spurring stronger and more inclusive growth and strengthening global cooperation, the IMF faced ec...

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2015
			: Sub-Saharan Africa

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2015 : Sub-Saharan Africa »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2015

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475595840.086

ISBN: 9781475595840

The sharp decline in oil and other commodity prices have adversely impacted sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the region is projected to register another year of solid economic performance. In South Africa, however...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2014: Sub Saharan Africa
			: Staying the Course

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2014: Sub Saharan Africa : Staying the Course »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 October 2014

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498386777.086

ISBN: 9781498386777

Growth in much of Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to remain strong, driven by efforts to invest in infrastructure and strong agricultural production. The current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone i...

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2014: Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Fostering Inclusive Growth

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2014: Sub-Saharan Africa : Fostering Inclusive Growth »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 April 2014

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475578942.086

ISBN: 9781475578942

The five Regional Economic Outlooks published biannually by the IMF cover Asia and Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Western Hemisphere. In each volume, recent econo...

Perspectives économiques régionales, Oct 13
			: Afrique subsaharienne Maintenir le rythme

Perspectives économiques régionales, Oct 13 : Afrique subsaharienne Maintenir le rythme »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 2013

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484369470.086

ISBN: 9781484369470

Keywords: frontier markets, exchange rate, capital inflows, debt, private capital, portfolio flows, balance of payments, structural reforms, exchange rate pegs, foreign exchange

The October 2013 Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa provides a comprehensive report on the prospects for growth in the region, as well as the major risks to the outlook. Generally, growth is expected to...

Perspectives économiques régionales, Mai 13
			: Afrique subsaharienne Créer une dynamique dans une économie mondiale à plusieurs vitesses

Perspectives économiques régionales, Mai 13 : Afrique subsaharienne Créer une dynamique dans une économie mondiale à plusieurs vitesses »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 May 2013

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484345030.086

ISBN: 9781484345030

Keywords: bond, bonds, sovereign bonds, sovereign bond, exchange rate, public debt, inflation, exchange rate pegs, debt sustainability, debt relief

Growth remained strong in the region in 2012, with regional GDP rates increasing in most countries (excluding Nigeria and South Africa). Projections point to a moderate, broad-based acceleration in growth to around...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Sub-Saharan African Economies and its Determinants

Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Sub-Saharan African Economies and its Determinants »

Volume/Issue: 2012/141

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ivohasina Razafimahefa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503982.001

ISBN: 9781475503982

Keywords: exchange rate, impulse responses, exchange rate pass, exchange rate changes,

This paper analyzes the exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices and its determinants in sub-Saharan African countries. It finds that the pass-through is incomplete. The pass-through is larger following a depr...

International Reserves in Low Income Countries
			: Have they Served As Buffers?

International Reserves in Low Income Countries : Have they Served As Buffers? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/7

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463930561.001

ISBN: 9781463930561

Keywords: Reserve adequacy, exogenous shocks, terms of trade, current account, reserve holdings, exchange rate regime,

This paper provides a historical perspective on the role of international reserves in low-income countries as a cushion against large external shocks over the last three decades - including the current global crisi...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Mother, Can I Trust the Government? Sustained Financial Deepening
			: A Political Institutionsview

Mother, Can I Trust the Government? Sustained Financial Deepening : A Political Institutionsview »

Volume/Issue: 2010/210

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and Genevieve Verdier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205417.001

ISBN: 9781455205417

Keywords: Financial development, political institutions, financial liberalization, financial deepening, financial sector development, financial system, financial sector, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: General

Only a minority of countries have succeeded in establishing a developed financial system, despite widespread financial liberalization. Confronted with this finding, the political institutions view claims that susta...

The International Financial Crisis and Global Recession
			: Impact on the CEMAC Region and Policy Considerations

The International Financial Crisis and Global Recession : Impact on the CEMAC Region and Policy Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2009/20

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Dimitre Milkov , Rafael Portillo , Plamen Iossifov , and John Wakeman-Linn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455255252.004

ISBN: 9781455255252

Keywords: Emerging markets, Global financial crisis, policy response, cost containment, CEMAC, fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, monetary policy, foreign exchange, exchange rate

The financial sector of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) has been seriously affected by the global financial crisis and resulting global recession. This note assesses the response of CEMA...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067523.041

ISBN: 9781589067523

Keywords: claims, liabilities, loans, banking, interest, debt, financial derivatives, money market, debt securities, portfolio investment

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data »

Volume/Issue: 2008/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870114.001

ISBN: 9781451870114

Keywords: Real exchange rate, exchange rate, real exchange rates

This paper focuses on assessments of real exchange rates using PPP data and examines their limitations when these are based exclusively on bivariate estimations. It begins by presenting an analytical framework of t...

The Choice of Monetary and Exchange Rate Arrangements for a Small, Open, Low-Income Economy
			: The Case of São Tomé and Príncipe

The Choice of Monetary and Exchange Rate Arrangements for a Small, Open, Low-Income Economy : The Case of São Tomé and Príncipe »

Volume/Issue: 2008/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jian-Ye Wang , Nisreen Farhan , Amar Shanghavi , Márcio Ronci , and Misa Takebe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869781.001

ISBN: 9781451869781

Keywords: Monetary and exchange rate arrangements, small economy, open economy, nominal anchor, peg, currency union, exchange rate, inflation, monetary union, central bank

This paper assesses São Tomé and Príncipe's monetary and exchange rate arrangements in light of the country's monetary history and the relevant experience of comparable countries in Africa. The study highlights sev...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066564.044

ISBN: 9781589066564

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Competitiveness in the CFA Franc Zone

Competitiveness in the CFA Franc Zone »

Volume/Issue: 2007/212

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Tsangarides , and Gustavo Ramirez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867763.001

ISBN: 9781451867763

Keywords: Competitiveness, CFA franc, WAEMU, CEMAC, exchange rate, reer, exchange rates, real effective exchange rate, effective exchange rate,

This paper reviews the evolution of competitiveness in the CFA franc zone using a proposed comprehensive competitiveness framework. In particular, we examine competitiveness in the WAEMU and CEMAC regions by analyz...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065789.044

ISBN: 9781589065789

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

FEER for the CFA Franc

FEER for the CFA Franc »

Volume/Issue: 2006/236

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Tsangarides , and Yasser Abdih

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864960.001

ISBN: 9781451864960

Keywords: Equilibrium real exchange rate, FEER, cointegration, WAEMU, CEMAC, exchange rate, effective exchange rate, real exchange rate, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Time-Series Models, Forecasting and Other Model Applications

We apply the fundamentals equilibrium exchange rate (FEER) approach and the Johansen cointegration methodology to investigate the behavior of the real effective exchange rates of the two monetary unions of the CFA...

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.5 marzo 2006

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.5 marzo 2006 »

Volume/Issue: 35/5

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451943740.023

ISBN: 9781451943740

El Boletín del FMI aborda de manera específica el trabajo del FMI y los grandes temas macroeconómicos y financieros internacionales y ofrece análisis sobre la evolución en los distintos países y regiones y en el mu...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064607.044

ISBN: 9781589064607

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance? Revisiting the Debt-Growth Link

Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance? Revisiting the Debt-Growth Link »

Volume/Issue: 2005/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tito Cordella , Luca Ricci , and Marta Ruiz-Arranz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862423.001

ISBN: 9781451862423

Keywords: Growth, Debt Overhang, Debt Irrelevance, HIPCs, external debt, public debt, International Lending and Debt Problems, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

Do Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) suffer from a debt overhang? Is debt relief going to improve their growth rates? To answer these important questions, we look at how the debt-growth relationship varies wit...

Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC)
			: Selected Issues

Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2005/390

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451806519.002

ISBN: 9781451806519

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, real exchange

This Selected Issues paper on the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) reviews the evolution of actual and equilibrium real effective exchange rates (REER). The current level of the CEMAC REER is...

Tax Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization

Tax Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization »

Volume/Issue: 2005/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Keen , and Thomas Baunsgaard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861310.001

ISBN: 9781451861310

Keywords: Tax reform, tax revenues, tax revenue, trade taxes, domestic tax, trade reform,

With the public finances of many developing and emerging market countries still heavily dependent on trade tax revenues, further trade liberalization may be hindered unless they are able to develop alternative sour...

Growth Empirics Under Model Uncertainty
			: Is Africa Different?

Growth Empirics Under Model Uncertainty : Is Africa Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/18

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860375.001

ISBN: 9781451860375

Keywords: growth regressions, Bayesian model averaging, dynamic panel estimation, debt, probability, samples, debt service, external debt, Bayesian Analysis, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Models with Panel Data

This paper attempts to identify robust patterns of cross-country growth behavior in the world as a whole and Africa. It employs a novel methodology that incorporates a dynamic panel estimator, and Bayesian Model Av...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063822.044

ISBN: 9781589063822

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Output Response to Currency Crises

Output Response to Currency Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2003/230

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Deepak Mishra , and Poonam Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875522.001

ISBN: 9781451875522

Keywords: currency crisis, debt burden, crisis episodes, short-term debt, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

This paper analyzes the behavior of output during currency crises using a sample of 195 crisis episodes in 91 developing countries during 1970-98. It finds that more than two-fifths of the crises in the sample were...

Availability of Financial Soundness Indicators

Availability of Financial Soundness Indicators »

Volume/Issue: 2003/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Graham Slack

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847888.001

ISBN: 9781451847888

Keywords: dissemination, compilation guide, capital adequacy, banking, banking crises, crisis countries, competitiveness, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

Because the wave of financial crises in recent years has spurred analysts' and policymakers' interest in monitoring the vulnerabilities of financial systems, the need for supporting data has increased. This paper p...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits
			: The Case of Central and West African Countries

The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits : The Case of Central and West African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/79

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philippe Beaugrand , Montfort Mlachila , and Boileau Loko

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850215.001

ISBN: 9781451850215

Keywords: budget deficit financing, public debt, debt management, central bank, National Budget, Deficit, And Debt, macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, And General Outlook,

The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central...

How Volatile and Unpredictable Are Aid Flows, and What Are the Policy Implications?

How Volatile and Unpredictable Are Aid Flows, and What Are the Policy Implications? »

Volume/Issue: 2001/167

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): A. Hamann , and Ales Bulir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858181.001

ISBN: 9781451858181

Keywords: external aid, volatility, predictability, IMF-supported programs, correlation, prediction, aid flows,

This paper examines empirical evidence on the volatility and uncertainty of aid flows, and the main policy implications. Aid is found to be more volatile than fiscal revenues- particularly in highly aid-dependent c...

The Breakdown of Credit Relations Under Conditions of a Banking Crisis
			: A Switching Regime Approach

The Breakdown of Credit Relations Under Conditions of a Banking Crisis : A Switching Regime Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2000/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sònia Muñoz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855692.001

ISBN: 9781451855692

Keywords: Bank Supply of Credit, Banking Crises, banking crisis, bank credit, deposit insurance, bank runs, banking policy

This paper empirically analyzes the effects of a banking crisis on bank credit to the private sector for a panel of developing, developed, and transition economies for the period 1970-1998. The model illustrates ho...

Terms of Trade Shocks in Africa
			: Are they Short-Lived or Long-Lived?

Terms of Trade Shocks in Africa : Are they Short-Lived or Long-Lived? »

Volume/Issue: 2000/72

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849332.001

ISBN: 9781451849332

Keywords: Shock Persistence, trade shocks, terms of trade shocks, confidence interval, time series

This paper examines the persistence of shocks to the terms of trade, using annual data on 42 Sub-Saharan African countries between 1960-96. We find that the persistence of terms of trade shocks varies widely&#x2014...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Effects of Economic Policies and Corruption

Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa : Effects of Economic Policies and Corruption »

Volume/Issue: 1998/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dhaneshwar Ghura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855685.001

ISBN: 9781451855685

Keywords: tax revenue, tax base, taxation, tax ratio, government expenditure

An analysis of data for 39 sub-Saharan African countries during 1985–96 indicates that the variations in tax revenue-GDP ratios within this group are influenced by economic policies and the level of corrupti...

Current Account Reversals and Currency Crises
			: Empirical Regularities

Current Account Reversals and Currency Crises : Empirical Regularities »

Volume/Issue: 1998/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Assaf Razin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451952421.001

ISBN: 9781451952421

Keywords: currency crisis, current account reversal, growth, real exchange rate, current account deficits, currency crises, current account balance, current account reversals

This paper studies large reductions in current account deficits and exchange rate depreciations in low- and middle-income countries. It examines which factors help predict the occurrence of a reversal or a currency...

The Efficiency of Government Expenditure
			: Experiences From Africa

The Efficiency of Government Expenditure : Experiences From Africa »

Volume/Issue: 1997/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Keiko Honjo , Marijn Verhoeven , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451922400.001

ISBN: 9781451922400

Keywords: government expenditure, efficiency, education, health, social indicators, production possibility frontier, government spending, education spending, primary school, primary school enrollment

This paper assesses the efficiency of government expenditure on education and health in 38 countries in Africa in 1984-95, both in relation to each other and compared with countries in Asia and the Western Hemisphe...

An Analysis of External Debt and Capital Flight in the Severely Indebted Low Income Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

An Analysis of External Debt and Capital Flight in the Severely Indebted Low Income Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 1997/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Simeon Ajayi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451961119.001

ISBN: 9781451961119

Keywords: external debt, debt, debt overhang, debt service, debt burden

The general objective of this study is to analyze the external debt and debt burdens of the severely indebted sub-Saharan African countries, estimate the magnitude of capital flight from them, and relate the estima...

Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries and the HIPC Initiative

Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries and the HIPC Initiative »

Volume/Issue: 1997/24

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kamau Thugge , and Anthony Boote

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844108.001

ISBN: 9781451844108

Keywords: External Debt, Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, stock-of-debt operation, debt reduction, debt relief, present value

The paper describes the debt burden of low-income countries and the traditional mechanisms that have been implemented by the international community to alleviate this burden. While these mechanisms are sufficient t...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942712.012

ISBN: 9781451942712

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment, foreign exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs
			: Revisiting Some Methodological Issues

The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs : Revisiting Some Methodological Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1995/92

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Susan Schadler , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , and Mauro Mecagni

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451951486.001

ISBN: 9781451951486

Keywords: equation, debt service, standard errors, external debt, statistics

This paper examines whether ESAF-supported programs during 1986-91 had significant independent effects on growth, inflation and the external debt service ratio. Econometric estimates of the Generalized Evaluation E...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942651.012

ISBN: 9781451942651

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, direct investment, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Public and Private Investment and the Convergence of Per Capita Incomes in Developing Countries

Public and Private Investment and the Convergence of Per Capita Incomes in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1993/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Manmohan Kumar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847031.001

ISBN: 9781451847031

Keywords: private investment, public investment, human capital, direct investment

This paper examines the extent to which there has been convergence in real per capita incomes across developing countries during the last two decades. In the analysis particular emphasis is placed on the separate r...

IMF Staff papers, Volume 37 No. 2

IMF Staff papers, Volume 37 No. 2 »

Volume: 37

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451947069.024

ISBN: 9781451947069

Keywords: inflation, balance of payments, current account, macroeconomic stability

This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of IMF-supported adjustment programs. The evidence is reviewed for such effects, and new estimates are provided of these effects for 69 developing countries with progra...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1986

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1986 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352004.012

ISBN: 9781616352004

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange control, exchange rate, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

This report describes developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1985 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1986. The report highlights...