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Medium-Term Budget Frameworks in Sub-Saharan African Countries

Medium-Term Budget Frameworks in Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2017/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Richard Allen , Taz Chaponda , Lesley Fisher , and Rohini Ray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314203.001

ISBN: 9781484314203

Keywords: Zambia, Congo, Republic of, Congo, Democratic Republic of the, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Togo, Tanzania, Sudan, Swaziland, Sub-Saharan Africa

More than 15 years ago, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on a program of budgetary reform, an important element of which was a medium-term budget framework (MTBF). This working paper focuses on the per...

Growth Breaks and Growth Spells in Sub-Saharan Africa

Growth Breaks and Growth Spells in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2017/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francisco Arizala , Jesus Gonzalez-Garcia , Charalambos Tsangarides , and Mustafa Yenice

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314166.001

ISBN: 9781484314166

Keywords: Africa, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros

This paper examines the growth performance of sub-Saharan African countries since 1960 through the lens of growth turning points (accelerations and decelerations) and periods of sustained growth (growth spells). Gr...

The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Size and Determinants

The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa : Size and Determinants »

Volume/Issue: 2017/156

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Leandro Medina , Andrew Jonelis , and Mehmet Cangul

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484305942.001

ISBN: 9781484305942

Keywords: Uganda, South Africa, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo

The multiple indicator-multiple cause (MIMIC) method is a well-established tool for measuring informal economic activity. However, it has been criticized because GDP is used both as a cause and indicator variable....

Food Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Causes and Policy Implications

Food Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa : Causes and Policy Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2016/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emre Alper , Niko Hobdari , and Ali Uppal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475563115.001

ISBN: 9781475563115

Keywords: South Africa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tanzania, Sudan, Swaziland

This paper analyzes food inflation trends in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from 2000 to 2016 using two novel datasets of disaggregated CPI baskets. Average food inflation is higher, more volatile, and similarly persiste...

Fixed Base Year vs. Chain Linking in National Accounts
			: Experience of Sub-Saharan African Countries

Fixed Base Year vs. Chain Linking in National Accounts : Experience of Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2016/133

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robert Dippelsman , Venkat Josyula , and Eric Métreau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475569339.001

ISBN: 9781475569339

Keywords: System of National Accounts, chain linking, volume measures, fixed base year

There are two approaches for producing volume estimates of GDP, fixed base year and annual chaining. While most advanced economies have adopted the chain-linked approach in the past twenty years, some African count...

Women's Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets

Women's Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christine Dieterich , Anni Huang , and Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484388518.001

ISBN: 9781484388518

Keywords: Multi-sector Labor Market, Agriculture Feminization, Female Informal Employment, Household Enterprise Employment, SSA Labor Market

As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countrie...

Natural Resource Booms in the Modern Era
			: Is the curse still alive?

Natural Resource Booms in the Modern Era : Is the curse still alive? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Warner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513507224.001

ISBN: 9781513507224

Keywords: Resource Booms, gdp, economy, investment, capital, value, Infrastructures, All Countries,

The global boom in hydrocarbon, metal and mineral prices since the year 2000 created huge economic rents - rents which, once invested, were widely expected to promote productivity growth in other parts of the boomi...

Fiscal Consequences of Terrorism

Fiscal Consequences of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2015/225

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , and John Ricco

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510965.001

ISBN: 9781513510965

Keywords: tax, revenue, attacks, share, General, National Security and War, All Countries,

This paper provides an empirical analysis of how the frequency and severity of terrorism affect government revenue and expenditure during the period 1970-2013 using a panel dataset on 153 countries. We find that te...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2014: Sub Saharan Africa
			: Staying the Course

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2014: Sub Saharan Africa : Staying the Course »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 October 2014

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498386777.086

ISBN: 9781498386777

Growth in much of Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to remain strong, driven by efforts to invest in infrastructure and strong agricultural production. The current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone i...

From Volatility to Stability in Expenditure
			: Stabilization Funds in Resource-Rich Countries

From Volatility to Stability in Expenditure : Stabilization Funds in Resource-Rich Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Naotaka Sugawara

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 March 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515275.001

ISBN: 9781475515275

Keywords: stabilization fund, fiscal volatility, government expenditure, institution, stabilization, expenditure, public spending, Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary or Stabilization Policy, General, Government Policy,

This paper examines the effect of stabilization funds on the volatility of government expenditure in resource-rich countries. Using a panel data set of 68 resource-rich countries over 1988-2012, the results find th...

Fiscal Policy over the Election Cycle in Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Policy over the Election Cycle in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2013/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Ebeke , and Dilan Ölcer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475588514.001

ISBN: 9781475588514

Keywords: Elections, IMF programs, tax revenues, national fiscal rules, fiscal policy, fiscal rule, Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior,

Focusing on Low-Income Countries, we investigate the behavior of fiscal variables during and after elections. The results indicate that during election years, government consumption significantly increases and lead...

Perspectives économiques régionales, Mai 13
			: Afrique subsaharienne Créer une dynamique dans une économie mondiale à plusieurs vitesses

Perspectives économiques régionales, Mai 13 : Afrique subsaharienne Créer une dynamique dans une économie mondiale à plusieurs vitesses »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 May 2013

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484345030.086

ISBN: 9781484345030

Keywords: bond, bonds, sovereign bonds, sovereign bond, exchange rate, public debt, inflation, exchange rate pegs, debt sustainability, debt relief

Growth remained strong in the region in 2012, with regional GDP rates increasing in most countries (excluding Nigeria and South Africa). Projections point to a moderate, broad-based acceleration in growth to around...

Income and Democracy
			: Lipset's Law Revisited

Income and Democracy : Lipset's Law Revisited »

Volume/Issue: 2012/295

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anke Hoeffler , Robert H. Bates , and Ghada Fayad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475596649.001

ISBN: 9781475596649

Keywords: democracy, dynamic panel data, parameter heterogeneity, cross-section dependence, time series, democratization, error correction coefficient, econometrics, political institutions, Models with Panel Data

We revisit Lipset‘s law, which posits a positive and significant relationship between income and democracy. Using dynamic and heterogeneous panel data estimation techniques, we find a significant and negative relat...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics, October 2010

International Financial Statistics, October 2010 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210510.041

ISBN: 9781455210510

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, loans, debt, debt securities, equity securities, portfolio investment, payments, interest

The IMF's principal statistical publication, International Financial Statistics (IFS) Online, is the standard source of international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. For most countr...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210497.042

ISBN: 9781455210497

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, free trade, world trade, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows

The Direction of Trade Statistics Online service provides data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners. The database includes: total bilateral and multilate...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2010

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350017.041

ISBN: 9781616350017

Keywords: claims, liabilities, loans, financial derivatives, interest, debt, central bank, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455214624.042

ISBN: 9781455214624

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930092.042

ISBN: 9781451930092

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, partner country, trading partners, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows, world trade

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Estimating The Inflation-Growth Nexus-A Smooth Transition Model

Estimating The Inflation-Growth Nexus-A Smooth Transition Model »

Volume/Issue: 2010/76

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Raphael Espinoza , Ananthakrishnan Prasad , and Gene Leon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982190.001

ISBN: 9781451982190

Keywords: Growth, Phillips curve, Logistic Smooth Transition, effect of inflation, terms of trade, monetary fund,

Motivated by the global inflation episode of 2007-08 and concern that high levels of inflation could undermine growth, this paper uses a panel of 165 countries and data for 1960-2007 to revisit the nexus between in...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960044.042

ISBN: 9781451960044

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Macro-Hedging for Commodity Exporters

Macro-Hedging for Commodity Exporters »

Volume/Issue: 2009/229

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Damiano Sandri , and Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873764.001

ISBN: 9781451873764

Keywords: commodity exports, hedging instruments, forward contracts, open interest, commodity prices,

This paper uses a dynamic optimization model to estimate the welfare gains of hedging against commodity price risk for commodity-exporting countries. The introduction of hedging instruments such as futures and opti...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960006.042

ISBN: 9781451960006

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Commodity Terms of Trade
			: The History of Booms and Busts

Commodity Terms of Trade : The History of Booms and Busts »

Volume/Issue: 2009/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873528.001

ISBN: 9781451873528

Keywords: commodity booms, commodity busts, commodity exporters, exporters, Trade: General, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

We compile a historical dataset covering nearly 40 years of booms and busts in the commodity terms of trade of over 150 countries. We discuss the characteristics of these events and their effects on macroeconomic p...

International Financial Statistics, July 2009

International Financial Statistics, July 2009 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934250.041

ISBN: 9781451934250

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, loans, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, interest, payments

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959987.042

ISBN: 9781451959987

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Financial Statistics, May 2009

International Financial Statistics, May 2009 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934137.041

ISBN: 9781451934137

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, loans, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, interest, payments

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics, April, 2009

International Financial Statistics, April, 2009 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934069.041

ISBN: 9781451934069

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, loans, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, interest, payments

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959901.042

ISBN: 9781451959901

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Financial Statistics, March 2009

International Financial Statistics, March 2009 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934021.041

ISBN: 9781451934021

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, portfolio investment, equity securities, debt securities, loans, payments, money market

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics, December 2008

International Financial Statistics, December 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964387.041

ISBN: 9781451964387

Keywords: claims, financial derivatives, portfolio investment, equity securities, money market, deposit rate, deposit money, deposit money banks, commercial banks, money market instruments

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics, November 2008

International Financial Statistics, November 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964363.041

ISBN: 9781451964363

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, loans, portfolio investment, debt securities, equity securities, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067523.041

ISBN: 9781589067523

Keywords: claims, liabilities, loans, banking, interest, debt, financial derivatives, money market, debt securities, portfolio investment

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930283.042

ISBN: 9781451930283

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930252.042

ISBN: 9781451930252

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Reserves and Self-Insurance against External Shocks

International Reserves and Self-Insurance against External Shocks »

Volume/Issue: 2008/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Régis Barnichon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870077.001

ISBN: 9781451870077

Keywords: Natural Disasters, Terms of Trade Shocks, disasters, terms of trade, trade shocks, disaster,

The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published...

International Financial Statistics, May 2008

International Financial Statistics, May 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964042.041

ISBN: 9781451964042

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, loans, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, interest, payments

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2008/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , and Ummul Hasanath Ruthbah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868968.001

ISBN: 9781451868968

Keywords: Spending, Absorption, Growth, current account balance, reserve accumulation, current account, capital formation, central bank,

This paper examines the macroeconomic usage of aid using panel data for a broad sample of aid-recipients. By definition an increase in aid must go toward a reduction in the current account balance (absorbed aid), a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960143.042

ISBN: 9781451960143

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, merchandise exports, exporting countries, total exports, exporting country, internet, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066564.044

ISBN: 9781589066564

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics, November 2007

International Financial Statistics, November 2007 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934670.041

ISBN: 9781451934670

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics, July 2007

International Financial Statistics, July 2007 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934410.041

ISBN: 9781451934410

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, financial derivatives, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, money market, deposit money

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Determinants of Tax Revenue Efforts in Developing Countries

Determinants of Tax Revenue Efforts in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2007/184

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abhijit Sen Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867480.001

ISBN: 9781451867480

Keywords: Revenue performance, panel data, tax revenue, government revenue, export share, foreign debt, tax ratio,

This paper contributes to the existing empirical literature on the principal determinants of tax revenue performance across developing countries by using a broad dataset and accounting for some econometric issues t...

Trade Openness and Growth
			: Pursuing Empirical Glasnost

Trade Openness and Growth : Pursuing Empirical Glasnost »

Volume/Issue: 2007/156

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Billmeier , and Tommaso Nannicini

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867206.001

ISBN: 9781451867206

Keywords: trade openness, growth, matching estimators, synthetic control, gdp per capita, real gdp, trade liberalization,

Studies of the impact of trade openness on growth are based either on cross-country analysis-which lacks transparency-or case studies-which lack statistical rigor. We apply transparent econometric methods drawn fro...

International Financial Statistics, June 2007

International Financial Statistics, June 2007 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934342.041

ISBN: 9781451934342

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, financial derivatives, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, money market, deposit money

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics + Supplement, March 2007

International Financial Statistics + Supplement, March 2007 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934175.041

ISBN: 9781451934175

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, financial derivatives, portfolio investment, debt securities, equity securities, loans, deposit money, deposit money banks

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics, May 2007

International Financial Statistics, May 2007 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934311.041

ISBN: 9781451934311

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, financial derivatives, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, deposit money, deposit money banks

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930399.042

ISBN: 9781451930399

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065789.044

ISBN: 9781589065789

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930375.042

ISBN: 9781451930375

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, free trade, oil exporting countries, trade data, merchandise exports, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.5 marzo 2006

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.5 marzo 2006 »

Volume/Issue: 35/5

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451943740.023

ISBN: 9781451943740

El Boletín del FMI aborda de manera específica el trabajo del FMI y los grandes temas macroeconómicos y financieros internacionales y ofrece análisis sobre la evolución en los distintos países y regiones y en el mu...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064607.044

ISBN: 9781589064607

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Aid and Growth
			: What Does the Cross-Country Evidence Really Show?

Aid and Growth : What Does the Cross-Country Evidence Really Show? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/127

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Raghuram Rajan , and Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861464.001

ISBN: 9781451861464

Keywords: Cross-Sectional and Panel data, equation, statistics, outliers, standard errors, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

We examine the effects of aid on growth-- in cross-sectional and panel data--after correcting for the bias that aid typically goes to poorer countries, or to countries after poor performance. Even after this correc...

Why Do Some Countries Manage to Extract Growth from Foreign Aid?

Why Do Some Countries Manage to Extract Growth from Foreign Aid? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jean-François Ruhashyankiko

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860726.001

ISBN: 9781451860726

Keywords: Growth, Informal Economy, ethnic fractionalization, diminishing returns, income per capita, One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models,

Aid is primarily given to governments whereas the engine of sustained growth is the private sector. It is therefore illusory to investigate the impact of aid on growth without considering the impact of government i...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063822.044

ISBN: 9781589063822

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063839.042

ISBN: 9781589063839

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting countries, oil exporting, exporting countries, partner country, partner countries, international investment

The Direction of Trade Statistics yearbook gives seven years of data for about 184 countries and two sets of world and area summaries: world and area trade as seen by the reporting countries and as seen by the part...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063815.041

ISBN: 9781589063815

Keywords: oil exporting, industrial countries, oil exporting countries

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 51, Special Issue, IMF Fourth Annual Research Conference

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 51, Special Issue, IMF Fourth Annual Research Conference »

Volume: 51

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): Ashoka Mody , and Robert Flood

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063204.024

ISBN: 9781589063204

Keywords: current account reversals, current account deficit, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, Consumption (economics), Country Risk, Debtor And Creditor, Default (finance),

This is the 2004 (Volume 51) Special Issue of IMF Staff Papers, which includes 6 selected papers (from more than 20) that were presented at the IMF's Fourth Annual Research Conference, November 6-7, 2003....

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062689.044

ISBN: 9781589062689

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, direct investment, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Output Response to Currency Crises

Output Response to Currency Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2003/230

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Deepak Mishra , and Poonam Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875522.001

ISBN: 9781451875522

Keywords: currency crisis, debt burden, crisis episodes, short-term debt, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

This paper analyzes the behavior of output during currency crises using a sample of 195 crisis episodes in 91 developing countries during 1970-98. It finds that more than two-fifths of the crises in the sample were...

The Role of Supervisory tools in Addressing Bank Borrowers' Currency Mismatches

The Role of Supervisory tools in Addressing Bank Borrowers' Currency Mismatches »

Volume/Issue: 2003/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Armando Méndez Morales , and Maria del Mar Cacha

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875195.001

ISBN: 9781451875195

Keywords: Prudential regulation, provisions, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange rate depreciation, foreign exchange position, currency risk, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

Bank borrowers' currency mismatches often result from unhedged foreign currency borrowing in economies where there is significant dollarization, exposing the financial sector to disguised credit risk. In the absenc...

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062672.042

ISBN: 9781589062672

Keywords: industrial countries, partner country, partner countries, international investment

The Direction of Trade Statistics yearbook gives seven years of data for about 184 countries and two sets of world and area summaries: world and area trade as seen by the reporting countries and as seen by the part...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2002

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061835.041

ISBN: 9781589061835

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, deposit money, deposit money banks, debt securities, financial derivatives, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits
			: The Case of Central and West African Countries

The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits : The Case of Central and West African Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/79

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philippe Beaugrand , Montfort Mlachila , and Boileau Loko

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850215.001

ISBN: 9781451850215

Keywords: budget deficit financing, public debt, debt management, central bank, National Budget, Deficit, And Debt, macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, And General Outlook,

The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central...

Will the Emergence of the Euro Affect World Commodity Prices?

Will the Emergence of the Euro Affect World Commodity Prices? »

Volume/Issue: 2000/208

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hong Liang , and John Cuddington

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874693.001

ISBN: 9781451874693

Keywords: volatility, exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate volatility

This study provides evidence that episodes of internal stability of exchange rates among the 11 Euro countries during 1957-98 were associated with periods of lower real commodity price volatility. These stabilizing...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2000 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451958621.041

ISBN: 9781451958621

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, deposit money, deposit money banks, debt securities, financial derivatives, equity securities, portfolio investment, loans

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Alivio de la deuda para los países de bajo ingreso
			:  Iniciativa reforzada para los países pobres muy endeudados

Alivio de la deuda para los países de bajo ingreso : Iniciativa reforzada para los países pobres muy endeudados »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Anthony Boote , and Kamau Thugge

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 March 2000

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757241.054

ISBN: 9781557757241

Este folleto describe la iniciativa que emprendieron el FMI y el Banco Mundial en 1996 para abordar de manera integral la carga global de la deuda de determinados países pobres muy endeudados (PPME) que estaban ap...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Dominance Testing of Social Sector Expenditures and Taxes in Africa

Dominance Testing of Social Sector Expenditures and Taxes in Africa »

Volume/Issue: 1999/172

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Sahn , and Stephen Younger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858556.001

ISBN: 9781451858556

Keywords: Taxes, health, income distribution, expenditure, expenditures, survey, per, surveys

This paper examines the progressivity of social sector expenditures and taxes in eight sub-Saharan African countries. It uses dominance tests to determine whether health and education expenditures redistribute reso...

The ESAF at Ten Years
			: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries

The ESAF at Ten Years : Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756930.051

ISBN: 9781557756930

Keywords: inflation, monetary fund, transition economies, structural adjustment, terms of trade

For over 10 years, the IMF has supported adjustment and reform programs in many of its low-income members through two facilities established specifically for that purpose - the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facili...

An Analysis of External Debt and Capital Flight in the Severely Indebted Low Income Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

An Analysis of External Debt and Capital Flight in the Severely Indebted Low Income Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 1997/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Simeon Ajayi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451961119.001

ISBN: 9781451961119

Keywords: external debt, debt, debt overhang, debt service, debt burden

The general objective of this study is to analyze the external debt and debt burdens of the severely indebted sub-Saharan African countries, estimate the magnitude of capital flight from them, and relate the estima...

Worldwide Military Spending, 1990-1995

Worldwide Military Spending, 1990-1995 »

Volume/Issue: 1996/64

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jerald Schiff , Benedict Clements , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848519.001

ISBN: 9781451848519

Keywords: military spending, military, military expenditures, military expenditure, arms

The decline in military spending that began in the mid-1980s continued through 1995, and this decline was widespread both geographically and by level of development. Cuts in military spending appear to have potenti...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942712.012

ISBN: 9781451942712

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment, foreign exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

IMF Survey
			: Volume 25 1996

IMF Survey : Volume 25 1996 »

Volume/Issue: 25/1

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451937442.023

ISBN: 9781451937442

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, monetary union, current account deficit, central bank

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs
			: Revisiting Some Methodological Issues

The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs : Revisiting Some Methodological Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1995/92

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Susan Schadler , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , and Mauro Mecagni

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451951486.001

ISBN: 9781451951486

Keywords: equation, debt service, standard errors, external debt, statistics

This paper examines whether ESAF-supported programs during 1986-91 had significant independent effects on growth, inflation and the external debt service ratio. Econometric estimates of the Generalized Evaluation E...

Four Decades of Fund Arrangements
			: Macroeconomic Stylized Facts Before the Adjustment Programs

Four Decades of Fund Arrangements : Macroeconomic Stylized Facts Before the Adjustment Programs »

Volume/Issue: 1995/74

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Julio Santaella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849530.001

ISBN: 9781451849530

Keywords: balance of payments, external debt, export markets, current account, debt crisis

This paper analyzes the initial conditions before Fund financial arrangements are adopted. Evidence from 324 Fund arrangements in 78 developing countries during 1973-91 indicates that there are important difference...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942651.012

ISBN: 9781451942651

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, direct investment, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Foreign Exchange Risk Regulation
			: Issues for Industrial and Developing Countries

Foreign Exchange Risk Regulation : Issues for Industrial and Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1994/141

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philipp Hartmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451928129.001

ISBN: 9781451928129

Keywords: foreign exchange, banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, capital adequacy

Capital adequacy regulations or quantity restrictions on bank portfolios put forward by the Basle Committee on Banking Supervision have virtually become an international standard of prudential regulation. Recent pr...

A Guide to Direction of Trade Statistics

A Guide to Direction of Trade Statistics »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451948431.071

ISBN: 9781451948431

Keywords: statistics, time series, partner country, partner countries, customs

This handbook issued by the IMF is primarily intended for users of the IMF's direction of trade database. The guide describes the collection, compilation, and dessemination of statistics on exports and imports by p...

Helping the Poor
			: the IMF's New Facilities for Structural Adjustment

Helping the Poor : the IMF's New Facilities for Structural Adjustment »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): Joslin Landell-Mills

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750211.038

ISBN: 9781557750211

Keywords: balance of payments, domestic savings, current account deficit, debt service payments, agricultural exports

This paper discusses the IMF's New Facilities for Structural Adjustment (SAF) for helping the poor. The first arrangement supported by the SAF was approved by the IMF's Executive Board in August 1986. By the end of...

External debt
			: Definition, Statistical Coverage and Methodology

External debt : Definition, Statistical Coverage and Methodology »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9789264130395.071

ISBN: 9789264130395

Keywords: debt, external debt, payments, liabilities, interest

This book is intended to provide the user of debt statistics with a comparative description fo the statistics collected by the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization f...

Finance & Development, December 1975

Finance & Development, December 1975 »

Volume/Issue: 12/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1975

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353230.022

ISBN: 9781616353230

Keywords: balance of payments, oil prices, oil facility, trade negotiations

This paper reviews the 1975 Annual Meetings of the Boards of Governors of the IMF and the World Bank that were held in Washington, D.C., from September 1-5. The paper highlights that three separate but related them...