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Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe
			: Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375402.086

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Economic activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, albeit at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. Domestic demand, supported by stronger employment and wages, remains the main engin...

Macroprudential Policies in Southeastern Europe

Macroprudential Policies in Southeastern Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2016/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dilyana Dimova , Piyabha Kongsamut , and Jérôme Vandenbussche

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498342872.001

ISBN: 9781498342872

Keywords: Credit Growth, Macroprudential Policies, Southeastern Europe, reserve, currency, instruments, domestic credit, Government Policy and Regulation,, Serbia, Romania

This paper presents a detailed account of the rich set of macroprudential measures taken in four Southeastern European countries—Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia—during their synchronized boom and bust cycles...

Global Value Chains and the Exchange Rate Elasticity of Exports

Global Value Chains and the Exchange Rate Elasticity of Exports »

Volume/Issue: 2015/252

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Swarnali Ahmed , Maximiliano Appendino , and Michele Ruta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513531793.001

ISBN: 9781513531793

Keywords: Real Exchange Rate, Global Value Chains, exports, exchange, value, elasticity, trade, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, All Countries,

This paper analyzes how the formation of Global Value Chains (GVCs) has affected the exchange rate elasticity of exports. Using a panel framework covering 46 countries over the period 1996-2012, we first find some...

Regional Economic Issues, November 2015, Europe

Regional Economic Issues, November 2015, Europe »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513528731.086

ISBN: 9781513528731

Keywords: taxes, expenditure, revenue, tax, budget

The key policy challenges facing countries in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe remain broadly unchanged, among them supporting domestic demand, addressing financial crisis legacies, rebuilding buffers agai...

Exports in a Tariff-Free Environment
			: What Structural Reforms Matter? Evidence from the European Union Single Market

Exports in a Tariff-Free Environment : What Structural Reforms Matter? Evidence from the European Union Single Market »

Volume/Issue: 2015/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jesmin Rahman , Ara Stepanyan , Jessie Yang , and Li Zeng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 August 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513552170.001

ISBN: 9781513552170

Keywords: Export integration, structural reform, supply chain, new member states, environment, trade, incentives, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

How do countries enhance their exports of goods in a largely tariff-free environment? Our investigation of export performance of new member states in the European Union single market, which provides a natural contr...

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Volume/Issue: 2015/167

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luis Catão , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513523507.001

ISBN: 9781513523507

Keywords: Country Risk, Interest Rate Spread, Haircut, market, debt, default, interest, interest rate, International Lending and Debt Problems, General

We re-assess the view that sovereigns with a history of default are charged only a small and/or short-lived premium on the interest rate warranted by observed fundamentals. Our reassessment uses a metric of such a...

Can Foreign Exchange Intervention Stem Exchange Rate Pressures from Global Capital Flow Shocks?

Can Foreign Exchange Intervention Stem Exchange Rate Pressures from Global Capital Flow Shocks? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/159

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Gustavo Adler , and Irineu de Carvalho Filho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513585840.001

ISBN: 9781513585840

Keywords: exchange rate, gross capital flows, exchange, market, General,

Many emerging market economies have relied on foreign exchange intervention (FXI) in response to gross capital inflows. In this paper, we study whether FXI has been an effective tool to dampen the effects of these...

What Slice of the Pie? The Corporate Bond Market Boom in Emerging Economies

What Slice of the Pie? The Corporate Bond Market Boom in Emerging Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2015/148

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Diana Ayala Pena , Milan Nedeljkovic , and Christian Saborowski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513579757.001

ISBN: 9781513579757

Keywords: bond, markets, debt, market, General, General, General,

This paper studies the determinants of shifts in debt composition among EM non-financial corporates. We show that institutions and macro fundamentals create an enabling environment for bond market development. Duri...

Central and Eastern Europe
			: New Member States (NMS) Policy Forum, 2014, Selected Issues Paper

Central and Eastern Europe : New Member States (NMS) Policy Forum, 2014, Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2015/98

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484321393.002

ISBN: 9781484321393

Keywords: currency, inflation, exchange rate, peg, currencies

...

Central and Eastern Europe
			: New Member States (NMS) Policy Forum, 2014, Staff Report on Cluster Consultations-Common Policy Frameworks and Challenges

Central and Eastern Europe : New Member States (NMS) Policy Forum, 2014, Staff Report on Cluster Consultations-Common Policy Frameworks and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2015/97

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475564457.002

ISBN: 9781475564457

Keywords: banking union, pension, market, currency, monetary fund

KEY ISSUES 2014 marked the tenth anniversary of accession to the EU of the first group of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. The first NMS Policy Forum was launched in the fall of 2014 as a platform for...

Global Monetary Tightening
			: Emerging Markets Debt Dynamics and Fiscal Crises

Global Monetary Tightening : Emerging Markets Debt Dynamics and Fiscal Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2014/215

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Julio Escolano , Christina Kolerus , and Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475584691.001

ISBN: 9781475584691

Keywords: Debt dynamics, sovereign debt crisis, unconventional, debt, bond, interest, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), International Lending and Debt Problems

This paper finds that tightening global financial conditions can worsen emerging economies' public debt dynamics through an increasing interest rate-growth differential, particularly if coupled with high global ris...

Gross Private Capital Flows to Emerging Markets
			: Can the Global Financial Cycle Be Tamed?

Gross Private Capital Flows to Emerging Markets : Can the Global Financial Cycle Be Tamed? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/196

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erlend Nier , Tahsin Saadi Sedik , and Tomas Mondino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498351867.001

ISBN: 9781498351867

Keywords: Global financial cycles, Emerging Market Economies, capital inflows, private capital, capital controls, Other, Portfolio Choice,

This paper assesses empirically the key drivers of private capital flows to a large sample of emerging market economies in the last decade. It analyzes the effect of the global financial cycle, measured by the VIX,...

Are Non-Euro Area EU Countries Importing Low Inflation from the Euro Area?

Are Non-Euro Area EU Countries Importing Low Inflation from the Euro Area? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/191

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Plamen Iossifov , and Jiri Podpiera

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484300527.001

ISBN: 9781484300527

Keywords: monetary policy, inflationary expectations, monetary fund

The synchronized disinflation across Europe since end-2011 raises the question of whether non-euro area EU countries are affected by the undershooting of the euro area inflation target. To shed light on this issue,...

Regulating Capital Flows at Both Ends
			: Does it Work?

Regulating Capital Flows at Both Ends : Does it Work? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/188

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Mahvash Qureshi , and Naotaka Sugawara

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498358743.001

ISBN: 9781498358743

Keywords: cross-boder bank flows, prudential measures, bond, capital inflow, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

This paper examines whether cross-border capital flows can be regulated by imposing capital account restrictions (CARs) in both source and recipient countries, as was originally advocated by John Maynard Keynes and...

Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities »

Volume/Issue: 2014/155

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stijn Claessens , Swati Ghosh , and Roxana Mihet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498319546.001

ISBN: 9781498319546

Keywords: Macropudential policies, Effectiveness, Banking vulnerabilities, banking, financial institutions, reserve requirements, banking system, financial cycles, Government Policy and Regulation, Government Policy and Regulation,

Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-know...

Fiscal Rules and the Procyclicality of Fiscal Policy in the Developing World

Fiscal Rules and the Procyclicality of Fiscal Policy in the Developing World »

Volume/Issue: 2014/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elva Bova , Nathalie Carcenac , and Martine Guerguil

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498305525.001

ISBN: 9781498305525

Keywords: fiscal policty, cyclicality, developing economies, fiscal rule, budget balance, fiscal institutions, Structure and Scope of Government, Deficit, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper documents the spread of fiscal rules in the developing world and investigates the relation between fiscal rules and procyclical fiscal policy. We find that, since the early 2000s, developing countries ou...

Structural Balance Targeting and Output Gap Uncertainty

Structural Balance Targeting and Output Gap Uncertainty »

Volume/Issue: 2014/107

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugen Tereanu , Anita Tuladhar , and Alejandro Simone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498305167.001

ISBN: 9781498305167

Keywords: structural balance, cyclically adjusted balance, budget year, budget preparation, fiscal effort, structural fiscal, General,

Potential output estimation plays a crucial role in conducting fiscal policy based on structural balances. Difficulties in estimating potential output could lead to an erroneous policy stance with a consequent impa...

Comparing the Performance of Logit and Probit Early Warning Systems for Currency Crises in Emerging Market Economies

Comparing the Performance of Logit and Probit Early Warning Systems for Currency Crises in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2014/65

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fabio Comelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484355282.001

ISBN: 9781484355282

Keywords: out-of-sample performance, currency crisis, crisis episodes, global financial crisis, General, out-of-sample performance.,

We compare how logit (fixed effects) and probit early warning systems (EWS) predict insample and out-of-sample currency crises in emerging markets (EMs). We look at episodes of currency crises that took place in 29...

Austria
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking Sector

Austria : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking Sector »

Volume/Issue: 2014/16

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484377000.002

ISBN: 9781484377000

Keywords: banking, banking system, interbank market

This Technical Note discusses key results of stress testing of the banking sector in Austria. The Austrian banking system is in a recovery phase following the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Stress testing resul...

Global Spillovers into Domestic Bond Markets in Emerging Market Economies

Global Spillovers into Domestic Bond Markets in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/264

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laura Jaramillo , and Anke Weber

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484328446.001

ISBN: 9781484328446

Keywords: Emerging Market Economies, Fiscal Deficit, Global Spillovers, bond, bond yields, domestic bond, sovereign bond, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

While fiscal conditions remain healthier than in advanced economies, emerging economies continue to be exposed to negative spillovers if global conditions were to become less favorable. This paper finds that domest...

The Driving Force behind the Boom and Bust in Construction in Europe

The Driving Force behind the Boom and Bust in Construction in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2013/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yan Sun , Pritha Mitra , and Alejandro Simone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 August 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484392485.001

ISBN: 9781484392485

Keywords: Construction, Business Cycle, Error-correction, European Growth, expenditure, stock market, capital expenditure, stock market index, Europe: 1913-71,

This paper studies the factors behind pro-cyclical but widely varying construction shares (as a percent of GDP) across countries, with a strong focus on European countries. Using a dataset covering 48 countries (in...

The Macroprudential Framework
			: Policy Responsiveness and Institutional Arrangements

The Macroprudential Framework : Policy Responsiveness and Institutional Arrangements »

Volume/Issue: 2013/166

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Cheng Lim , Ivo Krznar , Fabian Lipinsky , Akira Otani , and Xiaoyong Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 July 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484377819.001

ISBN: 9781484377819

Keywords: macroprudential, institutions, instruments, interest rate, mortgage, central bank, reserve requirement, reserve requirements, mortgage loans, Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper gauges if, and how, institutional arrangements are correlated with the use of macroprudential policy instruments. Using data from 39 countries, the paper evaluates policy response time in various types o...

Bank Funding in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe Post Lehman
			: A 'New Normal'?

Bank Funding in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe Post Lehman : A 'New Normal'? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/148

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gregorio Impavido , Heinz Rudolph , and Luigi Ruggerone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484391082.001

ISBN: 9781484391082

Keywords: Global Regulatory Agenda, Bank Funding, Deleveraging, subsidiaries, capital inflows, capital market, capital markets, domestic capital, Government Policy and Regulation,

CESEE banks are reducing foreign funding sources in response to reduced external imbalances, reduced ability to tap international savings, banking group own strategies, initiatives by some regulators, and consisten...

Comparing Parametric and Non-parametric Early Warning Systems for Currency Crises in Emerging Market Economies

Comparing Parametric and Non-parametric Early Warning Systems for Currency Crises in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/134

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fabio Comelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484300589.001

ISBN: 9781484300589

Keywords: emerging markets., foreign exchange reserves, exchange reserves, exchange rate

The purpose of this paper is to compare in-sample and out-of-sample performances of three parametric and non-parametric early warning systems (EWS) for currency crises in emerging market economies (EMs). The parame...

Non-Performing Loans in CESEE
			: Determinants and Impact on Macroeconomic Performance

Non-Performing Loans in CESEE : Determinants and Impact on Macroeconomic Performance »

Volume/Issue: 2013/72

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nir Klein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318522.001

ISBN: 9781484318522

Keywords: Macrofinancial linkages, credit growth, feedback effects, inflation, banking, banking system, return on equity, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, feedback effects.,

The paper investigates the non-performing loans (NPLs) in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE) in the period of 1998–2011. The paper finds that the level of NPLs can be attributed to both macroe...

European Union
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Technical Note on Deposit Insurance

European Union : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Technical Note on Deposit Insurance »

Volume/Issue: 2013/66

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475542646.002

ISBN: 9781475542646

Keywords: deposit insurance, banking, deposit guarantee, deposit guarantee schemes, banking union

This article is an overview of existing deposit insurance in the European Union. There are various national deposit schemes that form the source of insurance. The schemes come up with various coverage, contribution...

Growth Forecast Errors and  Fiscal Multipliers

Growth Forecast Errors and Fiscal Multipliers »

Volume/Issue: 2013/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , and Daniel Leigh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475576443.001

ISBN: 9781475576443

Keywords: government expenditure, output fluctuations, fiscal consolidation, fiscal multipliers, growth forecast, fiscal balance, General, General, Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits

This paper investigates the relation between growth forecast errors and planned fiscal consolidation during the crisis. We find that, in advanced economies, stronger planned fiscal consolidation has been associated...

Spring Forward or Fall Back? The Post-Crisis Recovery of Firms

Spring Forward or Fall Back? The Post-Crisis Recovery of Firms »

Volume/Issue: 2012/292

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Leandro Medina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524734.001

ISBN: 9781475524734

Keywords: firm resilience, recovery, leverage, corporate performance, short-term debt, pre-crisis, competitiveness, recessions, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis, General

This paper studies corporate performance in the aftermath of the global crisis by examining 6,581 manufacturing firms in 48 developed and developing countries in 2010, identifying factors of resilience as well as v...

The Role of Risk and Information for International Capital Flows
			: New Evidence from the SDDS

The Role of Risk and Information for International Capital Flows : New Evidence from the SDDS »

Volume/Issue: 2012/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Hashimoto , and Konstantin Wacker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475568660.001

ISBN: 9781475568660

Keywords: determinants of capital flows, information, panel data, risk, SDDS, FDI, portfolio investment, spatial econometrics, direct investment, Models with Panel Data,

In this paper we investigate whether better information about the macroeconomic environment of an economy has a positive impact on its capital inflows, namely portfolio and foreign direct investment (FDI). The purp...

Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World
			: Evidence from a New Dataset

Education Attainment in Public Administration Around the World : Evidence from a New Dataset »

Volume/Issue: 2012/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Herbert Lui , Marc Quintyn , and Frederik Toscani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510669.001

ISBN: 9781475510669

Keywords: Education Attainment, Public Administration, State Capacity, government effectiveness, education attainments, educational attainment, General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

The paper provides a detailed description of a novel dataset on education attainment in public administrations covering the period 1981-2011 for 178 countries. The dataset uses information extracted from CVs for ov...

The Pre-Crisis Capital Flow Surge to Emerging Europe
			: Did Countercyclical Fiscal Policy Make a Difference?

The Pre-Crisis Capital Flow Surge to Emerging Europe : Did Countercyclical Fiscal Policy Make a Difference? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/222

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ruben Atoyan , Dustin Smith , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510270.001

ISBN: 9781475510270

Keywords: absorption boom, capital inflows, private capital inflows, private capital, Model Evaluation and Selection,

A push-pull-brake model of capital flows is used to study the effects of fiscal policy changes on private capital flows to emerging Europe during 2000-07. In the model, countercyclical fiscal policy has two opposin...

How Emerging Europe Came Through the 2008/09 Crisis
			: An Account by the Staff of the IMF's European Department

How Emerging Europe Came Through the 2008/09 Crisis : An Account by the Staff of the IMF's European Department »

Series: Books

Author(s): Bas Bakker , and Christoph Klingen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353810.071

ISBN: 9781616353810

Keywords: capital inflows, public finances, fiscal policy, public debt, capital adequacy

Emerging Europe was particularly hard hit by the global financial crisis, but a concerted effort by local policymakers and the international community staved off impending financial meltdown and laid the foundation...

Bond Yields in Emerging Economies
			: It Matters What State You Are In

Bond Yields in Emerging Economies : It Matters What State You Are In »

Volume/Issue: 2012/198

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laura Jaramillo , and Anke Weber

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505481.001

ISBN: 9781475505481

Keywords: Emerging Market Economies, Fiscal Deficit, bond, bond yields, domestic bond, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

While many studies have looked into the determinants of yields on externally issued sovereign bonds of emerging economies, analysis of domestically issued bonds has hitherto been limited, despite their growing rele...

Policies for Macrofinancial Stability
			: How to Deal with Credit Booms

Policies for Macrofinancial Stability : How to Deal with Credit Booms »

Volume/Issue: 2012/6

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Bas Bakker , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Luc Laeven , Jérôme Vandenbussche , Deniz Igan , and Hui Tong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504743.006

ISBN: 9781475504743

Keywords: Credit booms, Credit expansion, Business cycles, Financial stability, Monetary policy, Fiscal policy, macroprudential regulation, macroeconomic policy, banking, credit boom

This note explores the costs and benefits of different policy options to reduce the risks associated with credit booms, drawing upon several country experiences and the findings from econometric analysis....

Local Governments' Fiscal Balance, Privatization, and Banking Sector Reform in Transition Countries

Local Governments' Fiscal Balance, Privatization, and Banking Sector Reform in Transition Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2012/146

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504118.001

ISBN: 9781475504118

Keywords: Soft budget constraints, Transition, fiscal autonomy, budget constraints, fiscal discipline, State and Local Borrowing,

Several transition economies have undertaken fiscal decentralization reforms over the past two decades along with liberalization, privatization, and stabilization reforms. Theory predicts that decentralization may...

Fiscal Consolidation in Southeastern European Countries
			: The Role of Budget Institutions

Fiscal Consolidation in Southeastern European Countries : The Role of Budget Institutions »

Volume/Issue: 2012/113

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Brian Olden , Duncan Last , Sami Yläoutinen , and Carla Sateriale

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503340.001

ISBN: 9781475503340

Keywords: Southeastern Europe, Budget Institutions, budget process, fiscal objectives, fiscal performance, public finances, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General, National Budget

This paper assesses the relative strengths and weaknesses of fiscal institutions in ten Southeastern European countries, using recent benchmarking methodologies developed by FAD. The assessment evaluates each count...

The Volatility Trap
			: Precautionary Saving, Investment, and Aggregate Risk

The Volatility Trap : Precautionary Saving, Investment, and Aggregate Risk »

Volume/Issue: 2012/134

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reda Cherif , and Fuad Hasanov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503869.001

ISBN: 9781475503869

Keywords: Volatility, risk, precautionary saving, buffer-stock, growth, investment rate, standard deviation, nonlinear relationship, correlation, statistics

We study the effects of permanent and temporary income shocks on precautionary saving and investment in a "store-or-sow" model of growth. High volatility of permanent shocks results in high precautionary saving in...

Financial Regulation and the Current Account

Financial Regulation and the Current Account »

Volume/Issue: 2012/98

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tomasz Wieladek , and Sergi Lanau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502886.001

ISBN: 9781475502886

Keywords: financial regulation, panel VAR, capital account, capital account openness, current account deficit, current account imbalances, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper examines the relationship between financial regulation and the current account in an intertemporal model of the current account where financial regulation affects the current account through liquidity co...

Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets
			: Determinants and Spillovers

Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets : Determinants and Spillovers »

Volume/Issue: 2012/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reinout De Bock , and Alexander Demyanets

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502237.001

ISBN: 9781475502237

Keywords: Macro-financial linkages, Nonperforming loans, Exchange rate, Panel regressions, capital inflows, net capital flows, exchange rates, Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, International Finance: General

This paper assesses the vulnerability of emerging markets and their banks to aggregate shocks. We find significant links between banks' asset quality, credit and macroeconomic aggregates. Lower economic growth, an...

Labor Market Flexibility and Unemployment
			: New Empirical Evidence of Static and Dynamic Effects

Labor Market Flexibility and Unemployment : New Empirical Evidence of Static and Dynamic Effects »

Volume/Issue: 2012/64

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lorenzo E. Bernal-Verdugo , Davide Furceri , and Dominique Guillaume

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938413.001

ISBN: 9781463938413

Keywords: Labor market, flexibility, reforms, labor market flexibility, labor market institutions, unemployment outcomes, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment and Investment: Other

The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between labor market flexibility and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 97 countries from 1985 to 2008, the results of the paper suggest that improvements i...

Coincident Indicators of Capital Flows

Coincident Indicators of Capital Flows »

Volume/Issue: 2012/55

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Malika Pant , and Yanliang Miao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463937737.001

ISBN: 9781463937737

Keywords: Coincident Indicators, Capital Tracker, net capital flows, net capital, capital inflows, International Finance Forecasting and Simulation,

Capital flows data from Balance of Payments statistics often lag 3-6 months, which renders timely surveillance and policy deliberation difficult. To address the tension, we propose two coincident composite indicato...

A Partial Race to the Bottom
			: Corporate Tax Developments in Emerging and Developing Economies

A Partial Race to the Bottom : Corporate Tax Developments in Emerging and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2012/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Junhyung Park , Sukhmani Bedi , S. M. Ali Abbas , and Alexander Klemm

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933135.001

ISBN: 9781463933135

Keywords: Effective Tax Rates, Corporate Income Tax, Special Economic Zones, Low-Income Countries, Developing Economies, tax rate, tax competition, corporate tax, tax revenues, Business Taxes and Subsidies including sales and value-added (VAT),

This paper assembles a new dataset on corporate income tax regimes in 50 emerging and developing economies over 1996-2007 and analyzes their impact on corporate tax revenues and domestic and foreign investment. It...

Are Rating Agencies Powerful? An Investigation Into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings

Are Rating Agencies Powerful? An Investigation Into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings »

Volume/Issue: 2012/23

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Kiff , Sylwia Nowak , and Liliana Schumacher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931858.001

ISBN: 9781463931858

Keywords: Sovereign ratings, rating agencies, credit ratings, asian crisis, emerging markets, An Investigation into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings, Financial Institutions and Services: General, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation,

We find that Credit Rating Agencies (CRA)'s opinions have an impact in the cost of funding of sovereign issuers and consequently ratings are a concern for financial stability. While ratings produced by the major CR...

Bank Funding Structures and Risk
			: Evidence From the Global Financial Crisis

Bank Funding Structures and Risk : Evidence From the Global Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2012/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pablo Federico , and Francisco Vazquez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933142.001

ISBN: 9781463933142

Keywords: pre-crisis, bank failure, bank liquidity, global financial crisis, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Bank Liquidity Creation, Basel Iii, Macro-prudential Regulations,

This paper analyzes the evolution of bank funding structures in the run up to the global financial crisis and studies the implications for financial stability, exploiting a bank-level dataset that covers about 11,0...

Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth

Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2012/12

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931179.001

ISBN: 9781463931179

Keywords: Growth, resource curse, volatility, gdp per capita, growth rate, tfp, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper studies the impact of the level and volatility of the commodity terms of trade on economic growth, as well as on the three main growth channels: total factor productivity, physical capital accumulation,...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe
			: Navigating Stormy Waters

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Europe : Navigating Stormy Waters »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351281.086

ISBN: 9781616351281

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal consolidation, labor market, domestic demand, unemployment

Following a strong showing in early 2011, the economies across Europe now face the prospect of a pronounced slowdown, as global growth has softened, risk aversion has risen, and strains in Europe's sovereign debt a...

International Reserve Adequacy in Central America

International Reserve Adequacy in Central America »

Volume/Issue: 2011/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kristin Magnussen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455268443.001

ISBN: 9781455268443

Keywords: Foreign reserves, balance of payments crises, financial dollarization, international reserves, external debt, exchange rate, emerging markets, current account, International Finance Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

Countries' absolute and relative international reserves adequacy has recently attracted considerable attention. The analysis has however concentrated on the largest and most advanced economies. We apply various met...

Sectoral Composition of Foreign Direct Investment and External Vulnerability in Eastern Europe

Sectoral Composition of Foreign Direct Investment and External Vulnerability in Eastern Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2011/123

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Kinoshita

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455263400.001

ISBN: 9781455263400

Keywords: Central Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, external vulnerability, fdi, investment, direct investment, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Economywide Country Studies: Europe,

In the run up to the global crisis, countries in Central Eastern and Southeastern Europe attracted large capital inflows and some of them built up large external imbalances. This paper investigates whether these im...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2011, Europe
			: Strengthening the Recovery

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2011, Europe : Strengthening the Recovery »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350635.086

ISBN: 9781616350635

Keywords: current account, public finances, current account deficits, public debt, current account balances

The May 2011 Regional Economic Outlook: Europe anticipates that recovery in the region will solidify, with recoveries in advanced and emerging Europe likely to be mutually reinforcing. Advanced Europe continues to...

A Fiscal Indicator for Assessing First and Second Pillar Pension Reforms

A Fiscal Indicator for Assessing First and Second Pillar Pension Reforms »

Volume/Issue: 2011/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mauricio Soto , Frank Eich , and Benedict Clements

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926571.006

ISBN: 9781463926571

Keywords: Fiscal policy, explicit and implicit government debt, pension obligations and reforms, population aging, pension, budget balance, pension reforms, public finances, pension obligations,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Reconsidering the Role of Food Prices in Inflation

Reconsidering the Role of Food Prices in Inflation »

Volume/Issue: 2011/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): James Walsh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455227082.001

ISBN: 9781455227082

Keywords: core inflation, commodity prices food prices, persistence, price inflation, measure of inflation, central bank, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development,

Food prices are generally excluded from measures of inflation most closely watched by policymakers due either to their transitory nature or their higher volatility. However, in lower income countries, food price in...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350048.043

ISBN: 9781616350048

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Capital Flows to EU New Member States
			: Does Sector Destination Matter?

Capital Flows to EU New Member States : Does Sector Destination Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pritha Mitra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455228034.001

ISBN: 9781455228034

Keywords: Crisis, and Slovak Republic., real estate, capital inflows, net capital flows, International Finance: General, Open Economy Macroeconomics, And Slovak Republic,

The recent boom-bust episode in Emerging Europe was largely the product of surges and sudden stops in capital inflows. This paper empirically argues that the sectors into which capital flows determines their impact...

How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?

How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/52

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ethan Ilzetzki , Enrique Mendoza , and Carlos Végh Gramont

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455218028.001

ISBN: 9781455218028

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fiscal multipliers, government expenditure

We contribute to the intense debate on the real effects of fiscal stimuli by showing that the impact of government expenditure shocks depends crucially on key country characteristics, such as the level of developme...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

A New Index of Currency Mismatch and Systemic Risk

A New Index of Currency Mismatch and Systemic Risk »

Volume/Issue: 2010/263

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Romain Ranciere , Aaron Tornell , and Athanasios Vamvakidis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210701.001

ISBN: 9781455210701

Keywords: Currency Mismatch, Emerging Economies, foreign currency, foreign assets, foreign exchange, foreign currencies, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, International Lending and Debt Problems,

This paper constructs a new measure of currency mismatch in the banking sector that controls for bank lending to unhedged borrowers. This measure explicitly takes into account the indirect exchange rate risk that b...

Bankers Without Borders? Implications of Ring-Fencing for European Cross-Border Banks

Bankers Without Borders? Implications of Ring-Fencing for European Cross-Border Banks »

Volume/Issue: 2010/247

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuliya Makarova , Anna Ilyina , Christian Schmieder , and Eugenio Cerutti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209477.001

ISBN: 9781455209477

Keywords: ring-fencing, subsidiaries, banking, capital needs, capital adequacy, banking system, International Lending and Debt Problems, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper presents a stylized analysis of the effects of ring-fencing (i.e., different restrictions on cross-border transfers of excess profits and/or capital between a parent bank and its subsidiaries located in...

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350031.042

ISBN: 9781616350031

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, partner country, trading partners, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

The Direction of Trade Statistics yearbook gives seven years of data for about 184 countries and two sets of world and area summaries: world and area trade as seen by the reporting countries and as seen by the part...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2010, Europe, Building Confidence

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2010, Europe, Building Confidence »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069510.086

ISBN: 9781589069510

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, fiscal consolidation, fiscal policy, capital flows

The recovery in Europe continues, supported by strong policy action to contain sovereign debt problems in the euro area. In advanced Europe, lingering uncertainties and market pressures make for moderate and unequa...

Strategies for Fiscal Consolidation in the Post-Crisis World

Strategies for Fiscal Consolidation in the Post-Crisis World »

Volume: 10

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Cemile Sancak , Jan Gottschalk , S. M. Ali Abbas , Olivier Basdevant , Ricardo Velloso , Fuad Hasanov , Greetje Everaert , Stephanie Eble , and Junhyung Park

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069374.087

ISBN: 9781589069374

Keywords: Developed countries, Fiscal consolidation, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Public debt, government debt, debt ratios, debt ratio, domestic debt

In response to the global financial crisis, governments provided substantial support to the financial and other key sectors. Although this cushioned the adverse effects of the crisis, it is necessary now to articul...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210497.042

ISBN: 9781455210497

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, free trade, world trade, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows

The Direction of Trade Statistics Online service provides data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners. The database includes: total bilateral and multilate...

Sustainable Real Exchange Rates in the New Eu Member States
			: What Did the Great Recession Change?

Sustainable Real Exchange Rates in the New Eu Member States : What Did the Great Recession Change? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/198

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katerina Smídková , Jan Babecky , and Ales Bulir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205288.001

ISBN: 9781455205288

Keywords: new EU member states, sustainable exchange rates, fdi, exchange rate, real exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rates,

The Great Recession affected export and import patterns in our sample countries, and these changes, coupled with a more volatile external environment, have profound impact on our estimates of real exchange rate mis...

World Food Prices and Monetary Policy

World Food Prices and Monetary Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2010/161

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roberto Chang , and Luis Catão

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455201440.001

ISBN: 9781455201440

Keywords: Small Open Economy, DSGE models, inflation, terms of trade, relative price, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

The large swings in world food prices in recent years renew interest in the question of how monetary policy in small open economies should react to such imported price shocks. We examine this issue in a canonical o...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455214624.042

ISBN: 9781455214624

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2010, Europe
			: Fostering Sustainability

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2010, Europe : Fostering Sustainability »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069190.086

ISBN: 9781589069190

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, financial stability, current account, capital flows

This issue of the Regional Economic Outlook for Europe examines the moderate and uneven recovery occurring across the region. The varying speed of recovery in advanced Europe is closely linked to the degree of over...

Determinants of Investment Grade Status in Emerging Markets

Determinants of Investment Grade Status in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2010/117

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laura Jaramillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455200764.001

ISBN: 9781455200764

Keywords: Credit Ratings, Rating Agencies, external public debt, external debt, domestic public debt, private external debt

Emerging market countries seek investment grade status to lower financing costs for the sovereign, expand the pool of potential investors to institutional investors, and allow corporates the possibility of reducing...

The Credit Boom in the EU New Member States
			: Bad Luck or Bad Policies?

The Credit Boom in the EU New Member States : Bad Luck or Bad Policies? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/130

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455201136.001

ISBN: 9781455201136

Keywords: credit boom, sudden stop, global financial crisis, capital inflows, exchange rate, subsidiaries, foreign exchange, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Policy Coordination and Transmission

In the past decade, most of the EU New Member States experienced a severe credit-boom bust cycle. This paper argues that the credit boom-bust cycle was to a large extent the result of factors external to the region...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068629.043

ISBN: 9781589068629

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930092.042

ISBN: 9781451930092

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, partner country, trading partners, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows, world trade

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Competition and Firm Productivity
			: Evidence from Firm-Level Data

Competition and Firm Productivity : Evidence from Firm-Level Data »

Volume/Issue: 2010/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Schiffbauer , and Sandra Ospina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982114.001

ISBN: 9781451982114

Keywords: regulation, entry costs, survey, correlation, instrumental variables, heteroscedasticity, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper presents empirical evidence on the impact of competition on firm productivity. Using firm-level observations from the World Bank Enterprise Survey database, we find a positive and robust causal relations...

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform
			: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform : The Experience of Europe and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2010/75

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adam Leive

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982183.001

ISBN: 9781451982183

Keywords: Health care reform, public health expenditure, primary care, health systems, health insurance, public health, fee-for-service, National Government Expenditures and Health, Health: General,

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia...

Tax Revenue Response to the Business Cycle

Tax Revenue Response to the Business Cycle »

Volume/Issue: 2010/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Cemile Sancak , Jing Xing , and Ricardo Velloso

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982145.001

ISBN: 9781451982145

Keywords: tax revenue forecasting, business cycle, tax revenue efficiency, C-efficiency, VAT elasticity, vat, tax revenue, tax evasion, tax base, tax burden,

This paper examines tax revenue during the business cycle by estimating the relationship between tax revenue efficiency and the output gap. We find a positive and significant relationship between these variables; r...

Inflation Targeting and the Crisis
			: An Empirical Assessment

Inflation Targeting and the Crisis : An Empirical Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2010/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Irineu de Carvalho Filho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963045.001

ISBN: 9781451963045

Keywords: economic crisis, inflation, terms of trade, real interest rates, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, Business Fluctuations, And Cycles, money And Interest Rates,

This paper appraises how countries with inflation targeting fared during the current crisis, with the goal of establishing the stylized facts that will guide and motivate future research. We find that since August...

Inherited or Earned? Performance of Foreign Banks in Central and Eastern Europe

Inherited or Earned? Performance of Foreign Banks in Central and Eastern Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2010/4

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emilia Jurzyk , and Olena Havrylchyk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451961713.001

ISBN: 9781451961713

Keywords: foreign acquisition, propensity score matching, banking, foreign investors, foreign bank, foreign ownership,

Using a combination of propensity score matching and difference-in-difference techniques we investigate the impact of foreign bank ownership on the performance and market power of acquired banks operating in Centra...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960044.042

ISBN: 9781451960044

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Being a Foreigner Among Domestic Banks
			: Asset or Liability?

Being a Foreigner Among Domestic Banks : Asset or Liability? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/273

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Neeltje Horen , and Stijn Claessens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874181.001

ISBN: 9781451874181

Keywords: performance, distance, foreign banks, foreign bank, domestic banks, host country, foreign ownership,

Studying a large number of banks in various countries between 1999 and 2006, we document that foreign banks perform better when from a high income country, when host country competition is limited, and when they ar...

How Does Public External Debt Affect Corporate Borrowing Costs In Emerging Markets?

How Does Public External Debt Affect Corporate Borrowing Costs In Emerging Markets? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/266

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Oya Celasun , and Senay Agca

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874112.001

ISBN: 9781451874112

Keywords: syndicated loans, yield spreads, creditor rights, public external debt, bond, external public debt,

Using data on syndicated loan issuances by emerging market firms, we find that an increase in the external debt of emerging market governments significantly raises the borrowing costs of the domestic corporate sect...

The Global Financial Crisis - Explaining Cross-Country Differences in the Output Impact

The Global Financial Crisis - Explaining Cross-Country Differences in the Output Impact »

Volume/Issue: 2009/280

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): R. Gelos , Robert Rennhack , James Walsh , and Pelin Berkmen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874259.001

ISBN: 9781451874259

Keywords: Global crisis, transmission of shocks, cross-country linkages, current account balance, exchange rate, exchange rates,

We provide one of the first attempts at explaining the differences in the crisis impact across developing countries and emerging markets. Using cross-country regressions to explain the factors driving growth foreca...

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067820.042

ISBN: 9781589067820

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, balance of payments, free trade, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

The Direction of Trade Statistics yearbook gives seven years of data for about 184 countries and two sets of world and area summaries: world and area trade as seen by the reporting countries and as seen by the part...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2009, Europe
			: Securing Recovery

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2009, Europe : Securing Recovery »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068599.086

ISBN: 9781589068599

Keywords: inflation, foreign currency, monetary policy, employment, fiscal policy

Europe's contraction is ending, but the recovery is fragile. Policymakers should look beyond the crisis to secure a durable upswing and address the threats to potential growth from the crisis and the continent's we...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960006.042

ISBN: 9781451960006

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Governance Practices At Financial Regulatory and Supervisory Agencies

Governance Practices At Financial Regulatory and Supervisory Agencies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alicia Novoa , and Steven Seelig

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872828.001

ISBN: 9781451872828

Keywords: Regulatory governance, financial sector supervisors, banking, bank supervisors, supervisory agencies

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of financial supervisory agencies in IMF member countries conducted in 2007. Responses were received from 140 financial sector supervisors in 103 countries. A majority...

Will they Sing the Same Tune? Measuring Convergence in the new European System of Financial Supervisors

Will they Sing the Same Tune? Measuring Convergence in the new European System of Financial Supervisors »

Volume/Issue: 2009/142

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , Donato Masciandaro , and María Nieto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872897.001

ISBN: 9781451872897

Keywords: Financial supervision, EU integration, supervisory architectures and governance, banking, banking supervision, financial regulation, supervisory authorities,

In June 2009 a new financial supervisory framework for the European Union (EU) was endorsed, consisting of a macro- and a micro-prudential pillar. The latter is composed of a Steering Committee, a supranational lay...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959987.042

ISBN: 9781451959987

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2009, Europe 
			: Addressing the Crisis

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2009, Europe : Addressing the Crisis »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068414.086

ISBN: 9781589068414

Keywords: financial sector, bond, fiscal stimulus, fiscal policy, capital inflows

Europe is in a deep recession. Adverse feedback between the financial and real sectors and across borders is likely to delay the recovery and create downside risks. Unprecedented policies have been undertaken to ad...

Coping with the Crisis
			: Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries

Coping with the Crisis : Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2009/08

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Christopher Crowe , Jonathan Ostry , Jun Kim , Marcos Chamon , and Atish Ghosh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462323296.004

ISBN: 9781462323296

Keywords: Emerging markets, exchange rate, fiscal policy, foreign exchange, interest rates, foreign currency

...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959901.042

ISBN: 9781451959901

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067547.042

ISBN: 9781589067547

Keywords: industrial countries, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trading partners, trade data, international investment, trade flows, industrial country, trade growth

The Direction of Trade Statistics yearbook gives seven years of data for about 184 countries and two sets of world and area summaries: world and area trade as seen by the reporting countries and as seen by the part...

Capital Inflows
			: Macroeconomic Implications and Policy Responses

Capital Inflows : Macroeconomic Implications and Policy Responses »

Volume/Issue: 2009/40

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Selim Elekdag , Ayhan Kose , and Roberto Cardarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871883.001

ISBN: 9781451871883

Keywords: crises, sterilization, exchange rate, private capital inflows, private capital,

This paper examines the macroeconomic implications of, and policy responses to surges in private capital inflows across a large group of emerging and advanced economies. In particular, we identify 109 episodes of l...

Forces Driving Inflation in the New EU10 Members

Forces Driving Inflation in the New EU10 Members »

Volume/Issue: 2009/51

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emil Stavrev

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871999.001

ISBN: 9781451871999

Keywords: generalized dynamic factor model, price convergence, price level, relative price, inflation process, inflation dynamics,

The paper analyzes the forces driving inflation in the new EU10 member countries. A significant part of headline inflation in these countries is due to common factors, such as price level convergence and EU integra...

Foreign Banks in the CESE Countries
			: In for a Penny, in for a Pound?

Foreign Banks in the CESE Countries : In for a Penny, in for a Pound? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/54

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Li Ong , and Andrea Maechler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872026.001

ISBN: 9781451872026

Keywords: Contagion, cross-border claims, home, host, local affiliates of foreign banks, claims, bank claims, bank for international settlements, banking sector,

The aim of this paper is to construct a comprehensive and consistent dataset to analyze the potential risks from foreign bank lending, for both the creditor and borrower countries of Central, Eastern and South-East...

The Second Transition
			: Eastern Europe in Perspective

The Second Transition : Eastern Europe in Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2009/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Leigh , Stefania Fabrizio , and Ashoka Mody

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871913.001

ISBN: 9781451871913

Keywords: Growth, Transition, and Financial Integration, exchange rate, real exchange rate, trade openness, exchange rates, exchange rate appreciation,

The countries of Eastern Europe achieved two remarkable transitions in the short period of the last two decades: from plan to market and, then, in the run-up to and entry into the European Union, they rode a wave o...

Inflation Pressures and Monetary Policy Options in Emerging and Developing Countries-A Cross Regional Perspective

Inflation Pressures and Monetary Policy Options in Emerging and Developing Countries-A Cross Regional Perspective »

Volume/Issue: 2009/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , David Vávra , Francisco Vazquez , Luis Jácome , Karl Habermeier , Kotaro Ishi , Alessandro Giustiniani , and Turgut Kisinbay

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871487.001

ISBN: 9781451871487

Keywords: oil price shocks, food price shocks, policy responses, central bank, aggregate demand,

This paper analyzes the monetary policy response to rising inflation in emerging and developing countries associated with the food and oil price shocks in 2007 and the first half of 2008. It reviews inflation devel...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Do Financial Sector Reforms Lead to Financial Development? Evidence from a New Dataset

Do Financial Sector Reforms Lead to Financial Development? Evidence from a New Dataset »

Volume/Issue: 2008/265

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Thierry Tressel , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871234.001

ISBN: 9781451871234

Keywords: Financial development, financial liberalization, property rights, banking, banking reform, banking sector, banking reforms, financial reforms,

This paper studies whether the policies that, over the past decades, liberalized bankingsystems around the world have resulted in deeper credit markets. To measure banking sectorreforms we use a new index that trac...

Macroeconomics of Migration in New Member States

Macroeconomics of Migration in New Member States »

Volume/Issue: 2008/264

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rudolfs Bems , and Philip Schellekens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871227.001

ISBN: 9781451871227

Keywords: international factor movements, convergence, general equilibrium, labor flows, labor market, labor force, labor markets,

This paper examines the macroeconomic impact of migration on income convergence in the EU's New Member States (NMS). The paper focuses on cross-border mobility of labor and examines the implications for policymaker...

One-Size-Fits-One
			: Tailor-Made Fiscal Responses to Capital Flows

One-Size-Fits-One : Tailor-Made Fiscal Responses to Capital Flows »

Volume/Issue: 2008/269

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daria Zakharova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871272.001

ISBN: 9781451871272

Keywords: Micro-Fiscal Measures., excessive capital inflows, account deficits, micro-fiscal measures,

This paper surveys policy responses in recent years to capital inflows in a diverse group of countries that are represented by the Netherlands at the IMF Executive Board. Based on the findings from cross-country em...

Volatility Spillovers and Contagion from Mature to Emerging Stock Markets

Volatility Spillovers and Contagion from Mature to Emerging Stock Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2008/286

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Guglielmo Caporale , Marianne Schulze-Ghattas , John Beirne , and Nicola Spagnolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871449.001

ISBN: 9781451871449

Keywords: Volatility spillovers, Contagion, correlations, stock market, emerging stock markets, financial contagion,

This paper examines volatility spillovers from mature to emerging stock markets and tests for changes in the transmission mechanism-contagion-during turbulences in mature markets. Tri-variate GARCH-BEKK models of r...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2008, Euope
			: Dealing with Shocks

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2008, Euope : Dealing with Shocks »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067608.086

ISBN: 9781589067608

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, labor mobility, mortgage, monetary fund

The confluence of multiple adverse shocks-the turbulence in financial markets, high commodity prices, and the appreciation of the exchange rate-have depressed growth in Europe. At the same time commodity prices inc...