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Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe
			: Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375402.086

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Economic activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, albeit at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. Domestic demand, supported by stronger employment and wages, remains the main engin...

Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , Ruud A. Mooij , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513563831.001

ISBN: 9781513563831

Keywords: Corporate income tax, BEPS, tax avoidance, international taxation, tax, tax rates, tax rate, tax bases, tax base, Business Taxes and Subsidies

International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS'). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for adva...

Austria
			: Selected Issues

Austria : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/252

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 August 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506785.002

ISBN: 9781475506785

Keywords: subsidiaries, banking, banking system, banks ? loan, banking sector

The Austrian authorities introduced new supervisory guidance aiming at constraining the funding model of the three largest Austrian banks' subsidiaries. The guidance introduced the concept of Loan-to-Local-Stable-F...

Bank Funding Structures and Risk
			: Evidence From the Global Financial Crisis

Bank Funding Structures and Risk : Evidence From the Global Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2012/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pablo Federico , and Francisco Vazquez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933142.001

ISBN: 9781463933142

Keywords: pre-crisis, bank failure, bank liquidity, global financial crisis, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Bank Liquidity Creation, Basel Iii, Macro-prudential Regulations,

This paper analyzes the evolution of bank funding structures in the run up to the global financial crisis and studies the implications for financial stability, exploiting a bank-level dataset that covers about 11,0...

Surges

Surges »

Volume/Issue: 2012/22

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahvash Qureshi , Atish Ghosh , Juan Zalduendo , and Jun Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931841.001

ISBN: 9781463931841

Keywords: surges, emerging market economies, net capital flows, net capital, exchange rate, capital flow,

This paper examines why surges in capital flows to emerging market economies (EMEs) occur, and what determines the allocation of capital across countries during such surge episodes. We use two different methodologi...

Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard
			: Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis

Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard : Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2011/177

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Concha Verdugo Yepes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462312306.001

ISBN: 9781462312306

Keywords: Terrorist Financing, Compliance, AML/CFT International Standard, international cooperation, terrorist, terrorism, Economics of Regulation, International Law, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper assesses countries' compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) international standard during the period 2004 to 2011. We find that overall compliance is...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350048.043

ISBN: 9781616350048

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

The End of An Era? the Medium- and Long-Term Effects of the Global Crisison Growth in Low-Income Countries

The End of An Era? the Medium- and Long-Term Effects of the Global Crisison Growth in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2010/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chris Papageorgiou , Andrew Berg , Catherine Pattillo , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205363.001

ISBN: 9781455205363

Keywords: Global financial crisis, low-income countries, medium- and long-term growth, impulse response functions, growth spells, panel growth regressions, terms of trade, pre-crisis, post-crisis growth, exchange rate regime

This paper investigates the medium- and long-term growth effects of the global financial crises on Low-Income Countries (LICs). Using several methodological approaches, including impulse response function analysis,...

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Government Finance Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068629.043

ISBN: 9781589068629

Keywords: liabilities, taxes, financial assets, loans, financial derivatives, interest, local governments, benefits, salaries, public debt

Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (nati...

Competition and Firm Productivity
			: Evidence from Firm-Level Data

Competition and Firm Productivity : Evidence from Firm-Level Data »

Volume/Issue: 2010/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marc Schiffbauer , and Sandra Ospina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982114.001

ISBN: 9781451982114

Keywords: regulation, entry costs, survey, correlation, instrumental variables, heteroscedasticity, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper presents empirical evidence on the impact of competition on firm productivity. Using firm-level observations from the World Bank Enterprise Survey database, we find a positive and robust causal relations...

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform
			: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform : The Experience of Europe and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2010/75

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adam Leive

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982183.001

ISBN: 9781451982183

Keywords: Health care reform, public health expenditure, primary care, health systems, health insurance, public health, fee-for-service, National Government Expenditures and Health, Health: General,

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Governance Practices At Financial Regulatory and Supervisory Agencies

Governance Practices At Financial Regulatory and Supervisory Agencies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alicia Novoa , and Steven Seelig

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872828.001

ISBN: 9781451872828

Keywords: Regulatory governance, financial sector supervisors, banking, bank supervisors, supervisory agencies

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of financial supervisory agencies in IMF member countries conducted in 2007. Responses were received from 140 financial sector supervisors in 103 countries. A majority...

Commodity Price Volatility, Cyclical Fluctuations, and Convergence
			: What is Ahead for Inflation in Emerging Europe?

Commodity Price Volatility, Cyclical Fluctuations, and Convergence : What is Ahead for Inflation in Emerging Europe? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/41

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Edda Zoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871890.001

ISBN: 9781451871890

Keywords: Price Convergence, price inflation, price level, inflation response,

This paper assesses the role of international commodity prices, cyclical fluctuations, and convergence in driving inflation in 18 European emerging economies. Country specific VARs and panel estimates indicate that...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

One-Size-Fits-One
			: Tailor-Made Fiscal Responses to Capital Flows

One-Size-Fits-One : Tailor-Made Fiscal Responses to Capital Flows »

Volume/Issue: 2008/269

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daria Zakharova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871272.001

ISBN: 9781451871272

Keywords: Micro-Fiscal Measures., excessive capital inflows, account deficits, micro-fiscal measures,

This paper surveys policy responses in recent years to capital inflows in a diverse group of countries that are represented by the Netherlands at the IMF Executive Board. Based on the findings from cross-country em...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067523.041

ISBN: 9781589067523

Keywords: claims, liabilities, loans, banking, interest, debt, financial derivatives, money market, debt securities, portfolio investment

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

International Financial Statistics, July 2008

International Financial Statistics, July 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964165.041

ISBN: 9781451964165

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

International Financial Statistics, June 2008

International Financial Statistics, June 2008 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451964097.041

ISBN: 9781451964097

Keywords: claims, liabilities, financial derivatives, debt, debt securities, portfolio investment, equity securities, loans, payments, interest

International Financial Statistics provides a complete library of continuously updated international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. The monthly print edition contains over 1,000 pa...

Informality and Bank Credit
			: Evidence from Firm-Level Data

Informality and Bank Credit : Evidence from Firm-Level Data »

Volume/Issue: 2008/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Junko Koeda , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869552.001

ISBN: 9781451869552

Keywords: informality, business environment, Transition countries, dummy variable, working capital, survey, probability,

The paper relies on a firm-level data on transition economies to examine the relationship between informality and bank credit. We find evidence that informality is robustly and significantly associated with lower a...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066564.044

ISBN: 9781589066564

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Effect of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs on Expectations
			: The Case of Transition Economies

Effect of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs on Expectations : The Case of Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2007/261

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868241.001

ISBN: 9781451868241

Keywords: inflation, survey, surveys, probability, statistically significant effect

We analyze the effect of IMF programs on economic agents' expectations about the economy in transitional countries using survey data from the Central and Eastern Eurobarometer poll, an annual general public survey...

Impact of Intra-European Trade Agreements, 1990-2005
			: Policy Implications for the Western Balkans and Ukraine

Impact of Intra-European Trade Agreements, 1990-2005 : Policy Implications for the Western Balkans and Ukraine »

Volume/Issue: 2007/126

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zhaogang Qiao , and Johannes Herderschee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866902.001

ISBN: 9781451866902

Keywords: Gravity Model, Customs Union, Currency Union, customs, trade agreement,

The paper provides quantitative estimates of the impact of the European trade agreements on trade flows. It applies both static and dynamic panel estimation techniques. The results are useful to policymakers becaus...

Informality and Regulations
			: What Drives Firm Growth?

Informality and Regulations : What Drives Firm Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2007/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , and Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866766.001

ISBN: 9781451866766

Keywords: Firm growth, informality, business environment, Transition countries, regulatory burden, survey, organized crime, correlation, standard errors,

The paper relies on a rich firm-level data set on transition economies to examine the role of informality as an important channel through which regulatory and other policy constraints affect firm growth. We find th...

Central Bank Autonomy
			: Lessons from Global Trends

Central Bank Autonomy : Lessons from Global Trends »

Volume/Issue: 2007/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bernard Laurens , Martin Sommer , Marco Arnone , and Jean-François Segalotto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866520.001

ISBN: 9781451866520

Keywords: political autonomy, economic autonomy, central bank, monetary fund,

We calculate indexes of central bank autonomy (CBA) for 163 central banks as of end-2003, and comparable indexes for a subgroup of 68 central banks as of the end of the 1980s. The results confirm strong improvement...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065789.044

ISBN: 9781589065789

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

The Design and Implementation of Deposit Insurance Systems

The Design and Implementation of Deposit Insurance Systems »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Hoelscher , Michael Taylor , and Ulrich Klueh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065031.084

ISBN: 9781589065031

Keywords: Deposit insurance, insurance system, banking, insurance systems, deposit insurance systems

This paper describes recently established deposit insurance systems, identifying emerging trends. In line with previous IMF work on the subject, it argues against the development of "best practices" applicable to a...

New Evidence on Fiscal Adjustment and Growth in Transition Economies

New Evidence on Fiscal Adjustment and Growth in Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2006/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Simone , and Alex Segura-Ubiergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865042.001

ISBN: 9781451865042

Keywords: growth, fiscal balance, transition countries, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Models with Panel Data, Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General,

This paper analyzes the relationship between fiscal adjustment and real GDP growth in a panel of 26 transition economies during 1992-2001. Unlike most previous studies using cross-country regressions, the paper fin...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930375.042

ISBN: 9781451930375

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, free trade, oil exporting countries, trade data, merchandise exports, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2006

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065772.041

ISBN: 9781589065772

Keywords: claims, liabilities, debt, loans, deposit money, deposit money banks, interest, financial derivatives, debt securities, portfolio investment

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Summary Proceedings of the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors

Summary Proceedings of the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors »

Series: Summary Proceedings

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065116.015

ISBN: 9781589065116

Keywords: debt sustainability, oil prices, balance of payments, young people, world economy

The speeches made by officials attending the IMF-World Bank Annual Meetings are published in this volume, along with the press communiqués issued by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Develo...

IMF-Supported Programs
			: Recent Staff Research

IMF-Supported Programs : Recent Staff Research »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Alessandro Rebucci , and Ashoka Mody

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063617.072

ISBN: 9781589063617

Keywords: International Monetary Fund, current account, capital flows, private capital, private capital flows, conditionality

Research work by the IMF's staff on the effectiveness of the country programs the organization supports, which has long been carried out, has intensified in recent years. IMF analysts have sought to 'open up the bl...

Fiscal Policy and Financial Development

Fiscal Policy and Financial Development »

Volume/Issue: 2006/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Hauner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862867.001

ISBN: 9781451862867

Keywords: Bank efficiency, bank profitability, financial development, public sector, banking, banking sector, bank credit, bank borrowing, National Budget, Deficit

We examine the effects of public sector borrowing from the domestic banking system on financial development in middle-income countries. While these countries' external debt has been falling, the share of bank credi...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064607.044

ISBN: 9781589064607

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Financial Sector Conditionality
			: Is Tougher Better?

Financial Sector Conditionality : Is Tougher Better? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/230

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roger Kronenberg , and Alessandro Giustiniani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862492.001

ISBN: 9781451862492

Keywords: financial sectors, banking, banking sector, structural conditionality, banking sector reform, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, Financial Economics,

The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at IMF conditionality in the banking sector. Our analysis shows that while such conditionality became more stringent following the Asian crisis, compliance has remaine...

Foreign Direct Investment in Southeastern Europe
			: How (and How Much) Can Policies Help?

Foreign Direct Investment in Southeastern Europe : How (and How Much) Can Policies Help? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elina Ribakova , Balázs Horváth , Dimitri Demekas , and Yi Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861297.001

ISBN: 9781451861297

Keywords: Southeastern Europe, fdi, direct investment, host country, foreign investment, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Models with Panel Data, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Performance and Prospects,

Gravity factors explain a large part of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in Southeastern Europe-a region not comprehensively covered before in econometric studies-but hostcountry policies also matter. Key ar...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063822.044

ISBN: 9781589063822

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Currency Bloc Formation as a Dynamic Process Based on Trade Network Externalities

Currency Bloc Formation as a Dynamic Process Based on Trade Network Externalities »

Volume/Issue: 2004/222

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875294.001

ISBN: 9781451875294

Keywords: Currency blocs, trade network externalities, stochastic and dynamic games, path dependency, equation, intermediate goods, probability, average trade, network externalities, Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies

The recent experience of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) has stimulated the debate over currency union and reinforced the incentive for the emergence of currency blocs in other regions of the world....

Can the IMF's Medium-Term Growth Projections Be Improved?

Can the IMF's Medium-Term Growth Projections Be Improved? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo , and Catia Batista

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874488.001

ISBN: 9781451874488

Keywords: Model estimation, forecasting, growth, inflation, statistic, terms of trade, inflation rates, Model Construction and Estimation, Forecasting and Other Model Applications, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General

Numerous reports have noted that the IMF's medium-term growth projections are overly optimistic, raising questions as to how these can be improved. To this end, we estimate a growth model and examine its out-of-sam...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2004 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063815.041

ISBN: 9781589063815

Keywords: oil exporting, industrial countries, oil exporting countries

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2003

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2003 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062689.044

ISBN: 9781589062689

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, direct investment, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Trade Liberalization Strategies
			: What Could South Eastern Europe Learn From Cefta and Bfta?

Trade Liberalization Strategies : What Could South Eastern Europe Learn From Cefta and Bfta? »

Volume/Issue: 2003/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Antonis Adam , James McHugh , and Theodora Kosma

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875799.001

ISBN: 9781451875799

Keywords: Trade liberalization, gravity models, stability pact, CEFTA, BFTA, trade area, free trade, free trade area, regional trade, portfolio choice

This paper explores the effectiveness of the Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA) and the Baltic Free Trade Area (BFTA). Estimates from a gravity model and bilateral trade data support the view that both CEFTA...

Early Birds, Late Risers, and Sleeping Beauties
			: Bank Credit Growth to the Private Sector in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans

Early Birds, Late Risers, and Sleeping Beauties : Bank Credit Growth to the Private Sector in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans »

Volume/Issue: 2003/213

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ivanna Hollar , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874969.001

ISBN: 9781451874969

Keywords: financial developments, capital inflows, bank credit, banking, capital mobility, bank loans, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

Following a period of privatization and restructuring, commercial banks in Central and Eastern Europe and, more recently, in the Balkans have rapidly expanded their lending to the private sector. This paper describ...

Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries
			: Bridging the Great Divide

Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries : Bridging the Great Divide »

Volume/Issue: 2003/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gianni De Nicolo , Sami Geadah , and Dmitriy Rozhkov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874570.001

ISBN: 9781451874570

Keywords: Financial development, banking, credit risk, banking system, banking sector, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Republic of,

This paper documents the great divide in the level of financial development between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 countries and the more advanced economies in transition, in particular those of Cen...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062184.012

ISBN: 9781589062184

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2003 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly But Unevenly

The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly But Unevenly »

Volume/Issue: 2003/185

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shang-Jin Wei , and Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859430.001

ISBN: 9781451859430

Keywords: WTO, gravity, special and differential treatment, industrial country, industrial countries, free trade area, free trade, trade liberalization,

This paper furnishes robust evidence that the GATT/WTO has had a powerful and positive impact on trade. The impact has, however, been uneven. GATT/WTO membership for industrial countries has been associated with a...

Availability of Financial Soundness Indicators

Availability of Financial Soundness Indicators »

Volume/Issue: 2003/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Graham Slack

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847888.001

ISBN: 9781451847888

Keywords: dissemination, compilation guide, capital adequacy, banking, banking crises, crisis countries, competitiveness, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

Because the wave of financial crises in recent years has spurred analysts' and policymakers' interest in monitoring the vulnerabilities of financial systems, the need for supporting data has increased. This paper p...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

What Moves Capital to Transition Economies?

What Moves Capital to Transition Economies? »

Volume/Issue: 2002/64

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nada Mora , Ratna Sahay , Jeronimo Zettelmeyer , and Pietro Garibaldi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848571.001

ISBN: 9781451848571

Keywords: portfolio investment, direct investment, investment flows, investment restrictions, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: General, Comparative Economic Systems: General,

Between 1991 and 1999, capital flows to 25 transition economies in Europe and the former Soviet Union differed widely in terms of overall levels and the share and composition of private flows. With some exceptions...

Cost and Effectiveness of Banking Sector Restructuring in Transition Economies

Cost and Effectiveness of Banking Sector Restructuring in Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2001/157

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Edda Zoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857498.001

ISBN: 9781451857498

Keywords: transition countries, fiscal costs of banking crises, banking, banking sector, banking sector problems, bonds, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: General, National Budget, Deficit

The paper analyses the cost and effectiveness of bank restructuring policies in 11 transition countries during 1991-98. It argues that country-specific banking sector features, the size of bad loans inherited from...

Transition Economies
			: How Appropriate is the Size and Scope of Government?

Transition Economies : How Appropriate is the Size and Scope of Government? »

Volume/Issue: 2001/55

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847628.001

ISBN: 9781451847628

Keywords: reform, size of government, public spending, expenditure, expenditures, government spending, public expenditures, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Planning, Coordination, and Reform,

This paper assesses changes in the size and scope of government in 24 transition economies. Whereas these governments have retrenched in terms of public expenditures in relation to GDP, as well as public employment...

Corruption, Structural Reforms, and Economic Performance in the Transition Economies

Corruption, Structural Reforms, and Economic Performance in the Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2000/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): George Abed , and Hamid Davoodi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855371.001

ISBN: 9781451855371

Keywords: structural reforms, inflation, exchange rate regime, macroeconomic performance, wage inflation

Recent studies have highlighted the adverse impact of corruption on economic performance. This paper advances the hypothesis that corruption is largely a symptom of underlying weaknesses in public policies and inst...

Institutions Matter in Transition, But so do Policies

Institutions Matter in Transition, But so do Policies »

Volume/Issue: 2000/70

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849141.001

ISBN: 9781451849141

Keywords: Transition, growth, stabilization, reforms, institutions, transition countries, equation, economic liberalization, survey, Economic Reform,

This paper analyzes the importance of developing market-enhancing institutions for restoring economic growth in transition economies during 1991–98. The paper’s main finding is that the development of...

Finance & Development, September 2000

Finance & Development, September 2000 »

Volume/Issue: 37/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451952308.022

ISBN: 9781451952308

Keywords: inflation, monetary fund, monetary policy, inflation targeting

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1999 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758187.044

ISBN: 9781557758187

Keywords: payments, liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, bonds, debt securities, financial derivatives, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Disinflation in Transition
			: 1993-97

Disinflation in Transition : 1993-97 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Doyle , and Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757975.084

ISBN: 9781557757975

Keywords: inflation, monetary fund, moderate inflation, central bank, inflation stabilization

The latest in a series of papers published by the International Monetary Fund on economies in transition examines the experience of disinflation in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltics, Russia, and other countri...

Price Liberalization, Money Growth, and Inflation During the Transition to a Market Economy

Price Liberalization, Money Growth, and Inflation During the Transition to a Market Economy »

Volume/Issue: 1999/76

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Hernández-Catá

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849851.001

ISBN: 9781451849851

Keywords: Liberalization, Price Decontrol, Money, Transition, price liberalization, transition countries, monetary expansion, economic liberalization

This paper examines the influence of economic liberalization and monetary growth on inflation during the transition from central plan to market. It concludes that price decontrol had a substantial, one-time effect...

Impact of EMU on Selected Non-European Union Countries

Impact of EMU on Selected Non-European Union Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , Robert Feldman , Klaus-Stefan Enders , Karim Nashashibi , Peter Allum , Heliodoro Temprano-Arroyo , Roger Nord , and Robert Kahn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 February 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757784.084

ISBN: 9781557757784

Keywords: capital inflows, capital markets, credit rating, international capital markets, international capital

In the Summer of 1998, the Executive Board discussed a set of three papers prepared by the staff that focused on the likey impact of EMU on selected non-EU countries. In recognition of the contribution these papers...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Recent Economic Developments

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1998/82

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451825985.002

ISBN: 9781451825985

Keywords: foreign exchange, transition economies, balance of payments, banking, national bank, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

This paper reviews economic developments in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia during 1994-98. In 1994-95, the authorities reasserted control over monetary policy, stabilized the exchange rate, and undertook...

From Transition to Market
			: Evidence and Growth Prospects

From Transition to Market : Evidence and Growth Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 1998/52

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Stanley Fischer , and Carlos Végh Gramont

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847222.001

ISBN: 9781451847222

Keywords: transition, growth, inflation, transition economies, per capita income, exchange rate regime, gross capital formation

This paper presents evidence on the behavior of output and inflation in the transition economies during 1992–95. A regression analysis explores the differences in output performance across the transition eco...

How Far Is Eastern Europe from Brussels?

How Far Is Eastern Europe from Brussels? »

Volume/Issue: 1998/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Carlos Végh Gramont , and Stanley Fischer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847352.001

ISBN: 9781451847352

Keywords: transition, convergence, per capita income, transition economies, growth rate, growth rates, gdp per capita

The current destination of Central and Eastern European countries—explicitly for some, implicitly for all—is Brussels. The concept of the distance from Brussels is multi-dimensional. One simple measur...

The Nonmonetary Determinants of Inflation
			: A Panel Data Study

The Nonmonetary Determinants of Inflation : A Panel Data Study »

Volume/Issue: 1998/23

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844016.001

ISBN: 9781451844016

Keywords: panel data, central bank, monetary policy, relative price, government securities

This paper explains inflation performance in a sample of industrial and transition economies by looking at policymakers’ incentives to inflate the economy, and the perceived costs of disinflation. It finds a...

Instruments of Monetary Management
			: Issues and Country Experiences

Instruments of Monetary Management : Issues and Country Experiences »

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755988.071

ISBN: 9781557755988

Keywords: central bank, reserve requirements, credit, foreign exchange, reserve requirement

Many countries have reformed their monetary instruments over the last few years. Edited by Tomas J.T. Balino and Lorena M. Zamalloa, this volume deals with the design, implementation, and coordination of major mone...

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
			: Recent Economic Developments

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1997/45

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 July 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451825978.002

ISBN: 9781451825978

Keywords: employment, national bank, monetary fund, unemployed, income from employment, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of,

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Liberalization and the Behavior of Output During the Transition From Plan to Market

Liberalization and the Behavior of Output During the Transition From Plan to Market »

Volume/Issue: 1997/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Hernández-Catá

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969979.001

ISBN: 9781451969979

Keywords: Output, Liberalization, Transition, equation, equations, dummy variables, economic liberalization, full liberalization

This paper deals with liberalization and the evolution of output during the transition from plan to market. It explains why strong liberalization leads to a comparatively steep fall in output early in the transitio...

IMF Staff papers
			: Volume 44 No. 4

IMF Staff papers : Volume 44 No. 4 »

Volume: 44

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930962.024

ISBN: 9781451930962

Keywords: dummy variables, international monetary fund, capital stock, output growth, exchange rate

This paper deals with liberalization and the evolution of output during the transition from plan to market. It explains why strong liberalization leads to a comparatively steep fall in output early in the transitio...

Bank-By-Bank Credit Ceilings
			: Issues and Experiences

Bank-By-Bank Credit Ceilings : Issues and Experiences »

Volume/Issue: 1996/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mitra Farahbaksh , and Gabriel Sensenbrenner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848373.001

ISBN: 9781451848373

Keywords: monetary control, banking, reserve requirements, central bank, monetary fund

Many central banks have abandoned credit ceilings in favor of monetary control frameworks based on indirect instruments. In the long run, ceilings limited competition, hampered the development of a money market, an...

Stabilization and Growth in Transition Economies
			: The Early Experience

Stabilization and Growth in Transition Economies : The Early Experience »

Volume/Issue: 1996/31

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stanley Fischer , Carlos Végh Gramont , and Ratna Sahay

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451980042.001

ISBN: 9781451980042

Keywords: high inflation, inflation stabilization, monetary fund, inflation rates

This paper analyzes the growth and stabilization experience in 26 transition economies in eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Mongolia for the period 1989-1994. Inflation rates have declined significantly...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942651.012

ISBN: 9781451942651

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, direct investment, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...