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Petroleum Product Subsidies
			: Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise

Petroleum Product Subsidies : Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Piotrowski , David Coady , Justin Tyson , Rolando Ossowski , Robert Gillingham , and Shamsuddin Tareq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455239108.004

ISBN: 9781455239108

Keywords: Commodity price fluctuations, Oil exporting countries, Oil product prices, Oil subsidies, Price stabilization, Fiscal reforms, Governance, Taxes, Subsidies, Petroleum products

Petroleum product subsidies have again started to increase with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that reforming the policy framework for settin...

What Transparency Can Do When Incentives Fail
			: An Analysis of Rent Capture

What Transparency Can Do When Incentives Fail : An Analysis of Rent Capture »

Volume/Issue: 2006/146

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elisabeth Paul , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864069.001

ISBN: 9781451864069

Keywords: incentives, wages, budget constraint, wage, fiscal transparency, fiscal management,

This paper analyzes the pervasiveness and persistence of rent seeking, misgovernance, and public sector inefficiency in many developing and transition economies. We formalize evidence from country experiences and e...

Sudden Stops and IMF-Supported Programs

Sudden Stops and IMF-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2006/101

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Barry Eichengreen , Poonam Gupta , and Ashoka Mody

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863611.001

ISBN: 9781451863611

Keywords: IMF-supported programs, current account, currency crises, current account balance, capital inflows, International Economic Order, International Lending and Debt Problems, Imf - Supported Programs,

Could a high-access, quick-disbursing "insurance facility" in the IMF help to reduce the incidence of sharp interruptions in capital flows ("sudden stops")? We contribute to the debate around this question by analy...

Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services

Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services »

Volume/Issue: 2000/116

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erwin Tiongson , Hamid Davoodi , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853926.001

ISBN: 9781451853926

Keywords: public provision, infant mortality, child mortality, births, public health

Government intervention to correct market failures is often accompanied by government failures and corruption. This is no more evident than in social sectors that are characterized by significant market failures an...

El FMI y la pobreza
			:  Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas

El FMI y la pobreza : Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757869.054

ISBN: 9781557757869

El FMI hace cada vez más hincapié en un "crecimiento de alta calidad" - es decir, un crecimiento que sea sostenible, que esté acompañado de saldos internos y externos apropiados, que respete el medio ambiente y qu...

Le FMI et la pauvreté
			: Département des finances publiques

Le FMI et la pauvreté : Département des finances publiques »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757852.054

ISBN: 9781557757852

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures, military expenditures, capital expenditures, public expenditure, total expenditures, health expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

The IMF and The Poor

The IMF and The Poor »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Calvin McDonald , Benedict Clements , and Christian Schiller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757456.054

ISBN: 9781557757456

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

IMF and the Environment

IMF and the Environment »

Series: Other Statistical Electronic Products

Author(s): Ved Gandhi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757371.038

ISBN: 9781557757371

Keywords: environment, environmental issues, environmental degradation, environmental problems, environmental policies

In recent years, observers have called on the IMF to pay closer attention to certain issues that do not fall directly within its mandate, such as the environment. This booklet reviews IMF's approach to environmenta...

Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Liam Ebrill , Sanjeev Gupta , Anthony Pellechio , Jerald Schiff , George Abed , Ronald McMorran , and Marijn Verhoeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757173.084

ISBN: 9781557757173

Keywords: Developing countries, expenditure, tax administration, tax revenue, wage, expenditures

The reform of fiscal policies and institutions lies at the heart of structural adjustment in developing countries. Although the immediate aim of such reform is to reduce fiscal imbalances to achieve macroeconomic s...

Do Government Wage Cuts Close Budget Deficits? a Conceptual Framework for Developing Countries and Transition Economies

Do Government Wage Cuts Close Budget Deficits? a Conceptual Framework for Developing Countries and Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 1996/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451922554.001

ISBN: 9781451922554

Keywords: wages, wage, tax evasion, tax collectors, tax collector

Real wage declines have been common in the public sector in many countries over substantial periods of time. In several cases, such wage reductions have coincided with a decline in the efficiency of the public sect...

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries
			: Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries : Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): F. Rozwadowski , Siddharth Tiwari , David Robinson , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753366.084

ISBN: 9781557753366

Keywords: current account, export prices, export volume, external debt, terms of trade

This paper evaluates progress made under ESAF-supported programs in attaining external viability, restoring economic growth, and implementing structural reforms. Performance is evaluated for 19 countries that enter...

Money Versus Credit in the Determination of Output for Small Open Economies

Money Versus Credit in the Determination of Output for Small Open Economies »

Volume/Issue: 1989/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451956030.001

ISBN: 9781451956030

Keywords: monetary policy, money supply, aggregate demand, real output, price level

It is well known that in a small open economy where there is perfect substitutability between domestic and foreign assets and costless portfolio adjustment, the monetary authorities cannot control the money supply,...