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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Supervisory Roles in Loan Loss Provisioning in Countries Implementing IFRS

Supervisory Roles in Loan Loss Provisioning in Countries Implementing IFRS »

Volume/Issue: 2014/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ellen Gaston , and In Song

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 November 2015

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513590479.001

ISBN: 9781513590479

Keywords: Supervisory role, loan loss provisioning, IFRS implementation, banking, capital adequacy, banking supervision, bank for international settlements, bank supervisors, General, Government Policy and Regulation

Countries implementing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for loan loss provisioning by banks have been guided by two different approaches: International Accounting Standards (IAS) 39 and Basel stan...

Cross-Country Experience in Reducing Net Foreign Liabilities
			: Lessons for New Zealand

Cross-Country Experience in Reducing Net Foreign Liabilities : Lessons for New Zealand »

Volume/Issue: 2014/62

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Werner Schule , and Yan Sun

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475516388.001

ISBN: 9781475516388

Keywords: Net foreign liabilities, Current account balance, Public savings, foreign liabilities, foreign assets, international investment, financial integration, external indebtedness, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper studies the dynamics of net foreign liabilities across a number of countries. Our historical analysis suggests that an orderly reduction in a country's net foreign liabilities has mostly occurred when th...

An Integrated Framework for Financial Positions and Flowson a From-Whom-To-Whom Basis
			: Concepts, Status, and Prospects

An Integrated Framework for Financial Positions and Flowson a From-Whom-To-Whom Basis : Concepts, Status, and Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 2012/57

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Segismundo Fassler , Manik Shrestha , and Reimund Mink

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463937751.001

ISBN: 9781463937751

Keywords: financial flows, financial accounts, balance sheet approach, financial instruments, central bank, financial assets, financial corporations, monetary fund, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating

The global crisis of 2008 highlighted the need to understand financial interconnectedness among the various sectors of an economy and between them and their counterparties in the rest of the world. However, applica...

How Risky Are Banks' Risk Weighted Assets? Evidence From the Financial Crisis

How Risky Are Banks' Risk Weighted Assets? Evidence From the Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2012/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sonali Das , and Amadou Sy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933791.001

ISBN: 9781463933791

Keywords: crisis, regulation, risk weighted assets, Basel III, banking, return on assets, dummy variables, standard errors, independent variables, Financial Institutions and Services: General

We study how investors account for the riskiness of banks' risk-weighted assets (RWA) by examining the determinants of stock returns and market measures of risk. We find that banks with higher RWA had lower stock r...

Financial Cycles
			: What? How? When?

Financial Cycles : What? How? When? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/76

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Terrones , Ayhan Kose , and Stijn Claessens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455227037.001

ISBN: 9781455227037

Keywords: credit cycles, asset busts, crunches, house prices, financial cycles, financial crises, financial markets, equity markets, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of financial cycles using a large database covering 21 advanced countries over the period 1960:1-2007:4. Specifically, we analyze cycles in credit, house prices, and equ...

Macroeconomic Patterns and Monetary Policy in the Run-up to Asset Price Busts

Macroeconomic Patterns and Monetary Policy in the Run-up to Asset Price Busts »

Volume/Issue: 2009/252

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alasdair Scott , Pau Rabanal , and Prakash Kannan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873993.001

ISBN: 9781451873993

Keywords: inflation, monetary fund, monetary conditions, central bank

We find that inflation, output and the stance of monetary policy do not typically display unusual behavior ahead of asset price busts. By contrast, credit, shares of investment in GDP, current account deficits, and...

Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies

Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zvi Wiener , and Dan Galai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872576.001

ISBN: 9781451872576

Keywords: credit spread, currency mismatch, Merton&;amp;#x2019;s model, correlation, bond, present value, probability,

The paper shows how-in a Merton-type model with bankruptcy-the currency composition of debt changes the risk profile of a company raising a given amount of financing, and thus affects the cost of debt. Foreign curr...

Medium-Term Budgetary Frameworks - Lessons for Austria from International Experience

Medium-Term Budgetary Frameworks - Lessons for Austria from International Experience »

Volume/Issue: 2008/163

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erik Lundback

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870213.001

ISBN: 9781451870213

Keywords: Fiscal Frameworks, mtbf, expenditure, expenditures, fiscal policies,

The Austrian government is about to introduce a new fiscal management framework. The first step is to introduce a medium-term budgetary framework, including an expenditure rule. The paper focuses on this first step...

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2007

International Financial Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: International Financial Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066557.041

ISBN: 9781589066557

Keywords: banking, banking institutions, national bank, ports, bonds, foreign exchange, deposit rate, money market, banknotes, government finance

The International Financial Statistics Yearbook, usually published in September, contains available annual data covering 12 years for countries appearing in the monthly issues of IFS. The IFS service is the standar...

Austria
			: Selected Issues

Austria : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2007/143

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451802382.002

ISBN: 9781451802382

Keywords: fiscal policies, fiscal responsibility, fiscal management, fiscal framework

This Selected Issues paper focuses on the medium-term budgetary framework (MTBF) for Austria. Austria is part of a trend among many countries to consider some form of MTBF. This paper describes the proposed framewo...

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.21 noviembre 2006

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.21 noviembre 2006 »

Volume/Issue: 35/22

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944457.023

ISBN: 9781451944457

El Boletín del FMI aborda de manera específica el trabajo del FMI y los grandes temas macroeconómicos y financieros internacionales y ofrece análisis sobre la evolución en los distintos países y regiones y en el mu...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 14

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 14 »

Volume/Issue: 34/14

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938760.023

ISBN: 9781451938760

Keywords: tax treaties, international monetary fund, tax policy, public sector

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 13

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 13 »

Volume/Issue: 34/13

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938715.023

ISBN: 9781451938715

Keywords: international monetary fund, regional cooperation, global integration, global economy

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 09

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 09 »

Volume/Issue: 34/9

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938548.023

ISBN: 9781451938548

Keywords: international monetary fund, development economics, central bank, atomic energy

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Neglected Heterogeneity and Dynamics in Cross-Country Savings Regressions

Neglected Heterogeneity and Dynamics in Cross-Country Savings Regressions »

Volume/Issue: 1999/128

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855036.001

ISBN: 9781451855036

Keywords: Saving behavior, OECD, cross-country studies, panel data models, slope heterogeneity, dynamics, Ricardian effect, time series, mean group, correlation

This paper examines the extent to which conclusions of cross-country studies of private savings are robust to allowing for the possible heterogeneity of savings behavior across countries and the inclusion of dynami...

Orderly and Effective Insolvency Procedures

Orderly and Effective Insolvency Procedures »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758200.071

ISBN: 9781557758200

Keywords: insolvency, creditors, creditor, insolvency law, court

Written by IMF's Legal Department, this book outlines the key issues involved in designing and implementing orderly and effective insolvency procedures, which play a critical role in fostering growth and competitiv...

The Long-Run Relationship Between Real Exchange Rates and Real Interest Rate Differentials
			: A Panel Study

The Long-Run Relationship Between Real Exchange Rates and Real Interest Rate Differentials : A Panel Study »

Volume/Issue: 1999/37

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jun Nagayasu , and Ronald MacDonald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845556.001

ISBN: 9781451845556

Keywords: Real exchange rates, real interest rates, panel cointegration, cointegration, exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rate

This paper empirically examines the long-run relationship between real exchange rates and real interest rate differentials over the recent floating exchange rate period, using a panel cointegration method, with dat...

Increasing Dependency Ratios, Pensions, and Tax Smoothing

Increasing Dependency Ratios, Pensions, and Tax Smoothing »

Volume/Issue: 1998/129

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vito Tanzi , and Efraim Sadka

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451934861.001

ISBN: 9781451934861

Keywords: Dependency ratios, a pay-as-you-go, defined-benefit pension, fully funded, defined-contribution pension, tax smoothing, real exchange rate risk, pension, pension fund, pension program

The implication of increasing dependency ratios for pay-as-you-go, defined-benefit pension programs are examined. Modifications aimed at smoothing contributions while maintaining benefits intact are analyzed for bo...

A Primeron the IMF's Information Notice System

A Primeron the IMF's Information Notice System »

Volume/Issue: 1997/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alessandro Zanello

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960020.001

ISBN: 9781451960020

Keywords: Effective exchange rates, reer, exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, effective exchange rate, export markets

This paper describes the methodology and the data used to compute nominal and real effective exchange rate indices in the International Monetary Fund’s Information Notice System (INS). In particular, it high...

Coordinated Portfolio investment Survey
			: Survey Guide

Coordinated Portfolio investment Survey : Survey Guide »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455216567.071

ISBN: 9781455216567

Keywords: survey, portfolio investment, bonds, equity securities, statistics

This paper presents a coordinated portfolio investment survey guide provided to assist national compilers in the conduct of the Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, conducted under the auspices of the IMF with...

Key Questions in Considering a Value-Added Tax for Central and Eastern European Countries

Key Questions in Considering a Value-Added Tax for Central and Eastern European Countries »

Volume/Issue: 1991/69

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sijbren Cnossen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960631.001

ISBN: 9781451960631

Keywords: vat, credit, purchases, registration, prices

In the course of introducing a market-oriented tax system, most Central and Eastern European countries are actively considering the merits of a value-added tax (VAT). This paper examines a wide range of social, eco...

Finance & Development, March 1966

Finance & Development, March 1966 »

Volume/Issue: 3/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1966

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352813.022

ISBN: 9781616352813

Keywords: population growth, world population, birth, family planning, birth rate

This paper analyzes how increasing population will impact the lives of people in the world in 2000. It underscores that in 2000, there will be more people, many living in crowded towns, suffering from even greater...