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Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S.

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S. »

Volume/Issue: 2017/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Xu , and Kaiji Gong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484326008.001

ISBN: 9781484326008

Keywords: Western Hemisphere, Asia and Pacific, United States, Chinese Import Competition, R&D Expenditures, Reallocation, R&D Expenditures, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Labor Market Interactions

We analyze the impact of rising import competition from China on U.S. innovative activities. Using Compustat data, we find that import competition induces R&D expenditures to be reallocated towards more productive...

Multi-Country Report
			: Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/153

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303719.002

ISBN: 9781484303719

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Europe, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mali, Middle East, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sub-Saharan Africa

This report reviews the IMF's effort to build fiscal capacity in fragile states. It presents case studies on IMF technical assistance (TA) and capacity development in the fiscal area, provided by its Fiscal Affairs...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 January 2017

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523256.069

ISBN: 9781475523256

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies in participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of t...

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity
			: Crossing the Tipping Point

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity : Crossing the Tipping Point »

Volume/Issue: 2016/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vitor Gaspar , Laura Jaramillo , and Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558142.001

ISBN: 9781475558142

Keywords: Nigeria, Political economy, Income taxes, Taxation, Tax evasion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tax administration, Spain, Western Hemisphere, China

An empirical finding by Gaspar, Jaramillo and Wingender (2016) shows that once countries cross a tax-to-GDP threshold of around 12¾ percent, real GDP per capita increases sharply and in a sustained manner over the...

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Paulo Medas , Veronique Salins , and Jeff Danforth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536065.061

ISBN: 9781475536065

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Canada, Chile, Commodity prices, Malaysia, Natural resources, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Hemisphere, Commodity boom

Resource-rich countries have to manage highly volatile commodity revenues. In periods of revenue booms there is a tendency for large spending scale-ups. When facing large and persistent reductions in commodity pric...

Institutionalizing Countercyclical Investment

Institutionalizing Countercyclical Investment »

Volume/Issue: 2016/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bradley Jones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513512495.001

ISBN: 9781513512495

Keywords: Asset Allocation, Asset Owners, Momentum, Risk Management, asset, investment, risk, returns, Asset Pricing, Government Policy and Regulation

Do portfolio shifts by the world’s largest asset owners respond procyclically to past returns, or countercyclically to valuations? And if countercyclical investment (with both market-stabilizing and return-generati...

Pilot Project on Concentration and Distribution Measures for a Selected Set of Financial Soundness Indicators

Pilot Project on Concentration and Distribution Measures for a Selected Set of Financial Soundness Indicators »

Volume/Issue: 2016/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joseph Crowley , Plapa Koukpamou , Elena Loukoianova , and André Mialou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498337014.001

ISBN: 9781498337014

Keywords: Financial Soundness Indicators, Concentration and Distribution Measures, institutions, data, pilot project, confidentiality, information, General, All Countries, Fiscal Crisis,

This paper reports the main findings of a pilot project launched in July 2014 by the IMF’s Statistics Department to test augmenting the IMF’s financial soundness indicators (FSIs) with concentration and distributio...

The Financial Wealth of Corporations

The Financial Wealth of Corporations »

Volume/Issue: 2016/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Hashimoto , and Noriaki Kinoshita

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484395073.001

ISBN: 9781484395073

Keywords: Nonfinancial corporation, financial balance sheet, net financial wealth, balance sheet, equity, debt, balance sheets, stock, General, Methodology for Collecting

This paper analyzes the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector’s financial balance sheets using data available from the OECD. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP—a frequently use...

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind »

Volume/Issue: 2016/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lars Svensson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314787.001

ISBN: 9781498314787

Keywords: macroprudential policy, unemployment, unemployment rate, debt, marginal cost, benchmark, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), All Countries

“Leaning against the wind” (LAW) with a higher monetary policy interest rate may have benefits in terms of lower real debt growth and associated lower probability of a financial crisis but has costs in terms of hig...

Non-Linear Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Emerging Markets

Non-Linear Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesca Caselli , and Agustin Roitman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513578262.001

ISBN: 9781513578262

Keywords: Non-Linearities, exchange rate, depreciation, inflation targeting, exchange rate movements, Models with Panel Data, General, All Countries,, Exchange rate pass-through, Foreign exchange

This paper estimates exchange rate pass-through to consumer prices in emerging markets focusing on non-linearities and asymmetries. We document non-linearities and asymmetries in the transmission of exchange rate f...

Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

Rethinking Financial Deepening
			: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets

Rethinking Financial Deepening : Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Martin Cihak , Papa N'Diaye , Adolfo Barajas , Diana Ayala Pena , Ran Bi , Yuan Gao , Annette Kyobe , Lam Nguyen , Christian Saborowski , Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Reza Yousefi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312615.006

ISBN: 9781498312615

Keywords: Economic growth, Emerging markets, Financial stability, financial development, financial deepening, financial inclusion, finance, General, Government Policy and Regulation, Estabilidad financiera; Crecimiento económico; Desarrollo del mercado de capitales; Acceso a los mercados de capitales; Mercados emergentes

The global financial crisis experience shone a spotlight on the dangers of financial systems that have grown too big too fast. This note reexamines financial deepening, focusing on what emerging markets can learn f...

Fair Weather or Foul? The Macroeconomic Effects of El Niño

Fair Weather or Foul? The Macroeconomic Effects of El Niño »

Volume/Issue: 2015/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , Kamiar Mohaddes , and Mehdi Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475535495.001

ISBN: 9781475535495

Keywords: El Ni&;amp;#x00F1;o weather shocks, oil and non-fuel commodity prices, global macroeconometric modeling, international business cycle, prices, inflation, variables, gdp, trade, Time-Series Models

This paper employs a dynamic multi-country framework to analyze the international macroeconomic transmission of El Niño weather shocks. This framework comprises 21 country/region-specific models, estimated over the...

Finance & Development, March 2015

Finance & Development, March 2015 »

Volume/Issue: 52/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498351942.022

ISBN: 9781498351942

Keywords: Finance and Development, jobs, labor market, unemployment, finance, monetary fund

This chapter discusses the impact of global recession on the working population and looks at the future of work in the global economy from a variety of angles. IMF economist Prakash Loungani leads off with an overv...

Fair Play
			: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation

Fair Play : More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Christian Gonzales , Sonali Jain-Chandra , Kalpana Kochhar , and Monique Newiak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354424.006

ISBN: 9781498354424

Keywords: Labor force participation, Gender equality, Women, female labor force participation, gender equity, legal rights, gender, labor force, female labor, Participación en la fuerza laboral;Mujeres;Igualdad de género;Mercados de trabajo;Reformas del mercado laboral;Aspectos económicos de la familia;Análisis entre países

This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel dat...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014
			: From stabilization to sustainable growth

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014 : From stabilization to sustainable growth »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498315357.011

ISBN: 9781498315357

Keywords: Annual reports, Administrative and Capital budgets, Bilateral surveillance, External training programs, Executive Board, Financial sector surveillance, IMF, IMF Finance, IMF Lending, Fund budget

Seven years after the onset of the global financial crisis, the world still has a way to go to secure a sustainable recovery marked by strong growth that supports rapid job creation and benefits all, International...

Emerging Market Volatility
			: Lessons from The Taper Tantrum

Emerging Market Volatility : Lessons from The Taper Tantrum »

Volume/Issue: 2014/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Vivek Arora , Athanasios Arvanitis , Hamid Faruqee , Papa N'Diaye , and Tommaso Mancini Griffoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498318204.006

ISBN: 9781498318204

Keywords: Monetary policy, Emerging markets, United States, Capital flows, Financial markets, Capital market volatility, Macroprudential Policy, Developed countries, Tapering, unconventional monetary policy

Accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies have spurred increased capital inflows into emerging markets since the global financial crisis. Starting in May 2013, when the Federal Reserve publicly discusse...

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries
			: A Handbook

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries : A Handbook »

Series: Books

Author(s): Jack Calder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475575170.071

ISBN: 9781475575170

Keywords: natural resource, natural resources, natural resource taxes, natural resource taxation, tax authority

This handbook is one of the first of its kind to focus attention on effectively administering revenues from extractive industries. It provides policymakers and officials in developing and emerging market economies...

Monetary Policy in the New Normal

Monetary Policy in the New Normal »

Volume/Issue: 2014/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Karl Habermeier , Tommaso Mancini Griffoli , and Fabian Valencia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475561784.006

ISBN: 9781475561784

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Central bank autonomy, Central bank independence, Central banks, Financial stability, Monetary policy, Macroprudential Policy, inflation, central bank, monetary fund

The proposed SDN would take stock of the current debate on the shape that monetary policy should take after the crisis. It revisits the pros and cons of expanding the objectives of monetary policy, the merits of tu...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484366806.012

ISBN: 9781484366806

Keywords: Exchange rate adjustments, Exchange rate appreciation, Exchange rate assessments, Exchange rate developments, Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate depreciation, Exchange rate guarantees, Exchange rate indicators, Exchange rate indexes, Exchange rate management

This is the 64th issue of the AREAER. It provides a description of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It also provides information on th...

Women, Work, and the Economy
			: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity

Women, Work, and the Economy : Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity »

Volume/Issue: 2013/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , Monique Newiak , Kalpana Kochhar , Stefania Fabrizio , Kangni Kpodar , Philippe Wingender , Benedict Clements , and Gerd Schwartz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566567.006

ISBN: 9781475566567

Keywords: Developed countries, Employment, Emerging markets, Labor markets, Gender equality, Fiscal policy, Women

The proposed SDN discusses the specific macro-critical aspects of women’s participation in the labor market and the constraints that prevent women from developing their full economic potential. Building on e...

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 October 2013

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484362785.011

ISBN: 9781484362785

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows, balance of payments, debt sustainability, management of capital flows, risk management, internal audit

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013 : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515398.011

ISBN: 9781475515398

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

Anchoring Growth
			: The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies

Anchoring Growth : The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Giang Ho , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , and Robert Tchaidze

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616357290.006

ISBN: 9781616357290

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developing countries, Economic growth, Agricultural sector, Fiscal reforms, Manufacturing sector, Labor markets, Labor productivity, Services sector, Total factor productivity

Fostering and sustaining robust economic growth is an imperative across advanced, emerging, and low-income countries alike. Countries will need to focus on supply-side reforms to raise their potential output and an...

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013
			: Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013 : Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World »

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566253.089

ISBN: 9781475566253

Keywords: public debt, government debt, fiscal adjustment, central bank, debt ratios

Continued progress in reducing advanced economy deficits and a gradually improving external environment have lowered short-term fiscal risks, according to this issue, but global prospects nevertheless remain subdue...

Rethinking Macro Policy II
			: Getting Granular

Rethinking Macro Policy II : Getting Granular »

Volume/Issue: 2013/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484363478.006

ISBN: 9781484363478

Keywords: Financial stability, Fiscal consolidation, Central banks and their policies, Central banks, Capital flows, Public debt, Stabilization measures, Fiscal policy, Inflation targeting, Monetary policy

This note explores how the economic thinking about macroeconomic management has evolved since the crisis began. It discusses developments in monetary policy, including unconventional measures; the challenges associ...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354138.084

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Estimating the Costs of Financial Regulation

Estimating the Costs of Financial Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/11

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Andre Santos , and Douglas Elliott

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510089.006

ISBN: 9781475510089

Keywords: Capital markets, Banks, Bank supervision, Bank reforms, Financial institutions, Basel III, Systemically Important Institutions, Financial Regulation, Capital Requirements, Liquidity Requirements

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Two Targets, Two Instruments
			: Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies

Two Targets, Two Instruments : Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2012/1

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , and Marcos Chamon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503623.006

ISBN: 9781475503623

Keywords: Emerging markets, Exchange rate policy, Central banks, Inflation targeting, Foreign exchange intervention, Monetary policy, exchange rate, inflation, central bank, foreign exchange

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Internationalization of Emerging Market Currencies
			: A Balance Between Risks and Rewards

Internationalization of Emerging Market Currencies : A Balance Between Risks and Rewards »

Volume/Issue: 2011/17

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Faisal Ahmed , Shengzu Wang , Isabelle Mateos y Lago , Samar Maziad , Stephanie Segal , Pascal Farahmand , and Udaibir Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926526.006

ISBN: 9781463926526

Keywords: Emerging markets, International monetary system, Currency internationalization, financial markets, international currencies, domestic financial markets, international currency, capital account liberalization,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Treasury Single Account
			: An Essential Tool for Government Cash Management

Treasury Single Account : An Essential Tool for Government Cash Management »

Volume: 11

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Israel Fainboim Yaker , and Sailendra Pattanayak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504699.005

ISBN: 9781475504699

Keywords: treasury single account, TSA, banking arrangement, bank accounts, cash management, liquidity management, treasury management, transaction processing, public financial management, bank

This technical note and manual addresses the following main issues: 1. Discusses the problems of fragmented government banking arrangements and how a treasury single account (TSA) could address them. 2. Explain...

The Effectiveness of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies in Managing Large Inflows

The Effectiveness of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies in Managing Large Inflows »

Volume/Issue: 2011/14

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Karl Habermeier , Annamaria Kokenyne , and Chikako Baba

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463902896.006

ISBN: 9781463902896

Keywords: Emerging markets, Exchange rate appreciation, Cross country analysis, Credit expansion, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Risk management, Macroprudential Policy, financial regulation, macroprudential policies

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Policy Responses to Capital Flows in Emerging Markets

Policy Responses to Capital Flows in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2011/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mahmood Pradhan , Ravi Balakrishnan , Reza Baqir , Geoffrey Heenan , Sylwia Nowak , Ceyda Oner , and Sanjaya Panth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463935122.006

ISBN: 9781463935122

Keywords: Emerging markets, Capital flows, Macroeconomic policies, Macroprudential policies, capital inflows, bond, bond yields, bonds,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth
			: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth : Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926564.006

ISBN: 9781463926564

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Economic growth, Emerging markets, Income distribution, Poverty reduction, sustainable growth, per capita income, external debt, external shocks

This note raises the IMF’s profile on a number of issues related to inequality, unemployment, governance, etc. It builds on earlier empirical work that examined correlations between growth downbreaks/duratio...

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America »

Volume/Issue: 2011/7

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Martin Kaufman , Steven Phillips , Rodrigo Valdes , and Nicolas Eyzaguirre

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926557.006

ISBN: 9781463926557

Keywords: Capital inflows, Latin America, capital controls, prudential tools, current account, capital account restrictions, current account deficits, capital account,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Crisis Management and Resolution
			: Early Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Crisis Management and Resolution : Early Lessons from the Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2011/5

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ceyla Pazarbasioglu , Luc Laeven , Oana Nedelescu , Stijn Claessens , Fabian Valencia , Marc Dobler , and Katharine Seal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455286546.006

ISBN: 9781455286546

Keywords: Financial crises, Financial stability, Crisis management, Asset restructuring, Burden sharing, Moral hazard, Stress tests, resolution, too big to fail, financial institutions

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Subsidiaries or Branches
			: Does One Size Fit All?

Subsidiaries or Branches : Does One Size Fit All? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Fiechter , Inci Ötker , Anna Ilyina , Michael Hsu , Andre Santos , and Jay Surti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455288564.006

ISBN: 9781455288564

Keywords: Cross-border banking, Bank regulations, Banks, Financial stability, Financial regulation, Stand-alone subsidiarization, Ringfencing, Subsidiary model, Branch model, Resolution

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced?

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384860.006

ISBN: 9781462384860

Keywords: global imbalances, current account, exchange rates, current account deficits, current account surpluses, exchange rate, current account deficit, Account Balances Be Reduced?,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Revenue Administration
			: Developing a Taxpayer Compliance Program

Revenue Administration : Developing a Taxpayer Compliance Program »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Barrie Russell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462314218.005

ISBN: 9781462314218

Keywords: Risk management, Taxpayer segmentation, compliance program, taxpayers, tax system, taxpayer compliance, compliance strategies, Compliance Model, Effectiveness Measures, Risk Prioritization

This technical note describes the importance of a taxpayer compliance program. Improving tax compliance requires long-term reform efforts, beginning with strengthening the organization and management of the revenue...

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2010/18

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Athanasios Vamvakidis , Francis Vitek , Mwanza Nkusu , Reginald Darius , Alun Thomas , and Edouard Vidon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462357604.004

ISBN: 9781462357604

Keywords: Economic recession, Employment, External shocks, Financial crisis, Cross country analysis, Labor market policy, Labor markets, Korea, Republic of, Mexico, New Zealand

The human cost of the recent global crisis is reflected in its impact on the labor market. Explaining why economies with similar downturns had very different employment trends can help design policies to reduce suc...

Unwinding Financial Sector Interventions
			: Preconditions and Practical Considerations

Unwinding Financial Sector Interventions : Preconditions and Practical Considerations »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Michael Papaioannou , and Udaibir Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069893.072

ISBN: 9781589069893

Keywords: financial sector, financial institutions, fiscal policy, financial stability, financial system

As the financial crisis abates, governments are faced with the challenge of balancing the withdrawal of fiscal support with reestablishing sound public finances and sustainable growth. This volume presents papers f...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455210497.042

ISBN: 9781455210497

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, free trade, world trade, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows

The Direction of Trade Statistics Online service provides data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners. The database includes: total bilateral and multilate...

Reaching the MDGs
			: An Action Plan for Trade

Reaching the MDGs : An Action Plan for Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2010/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Brad McDonald , Rob Gregory , and Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265343.004

ISBN: 9781455265343

Keywords: Exports, Export competitiveness, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Low-income developing countries, International trade, Millennium Development Goals, Trade integration, Tax reforms, Trade policy

The actions proposed here focus on trade integration, substantially increasing exports of the poorest countries and helping them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As the foundation for these ambitions, we e...

Fiscal Space

Fiscal Space »

Volume/Issue: 2010/11

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , Jun Kim , and Mahvash Qureshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455228010.004

ISBN: 9781455228010

Keywords: Developed countries, Debt management, Public debt, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, debt dynamics, debt, interest, primary balance

In this note, the authors reexamine the issue of debt sustainability in a large group of advanced economies. Their hypothesis is that, when debt is in a moderate range, its dynamics are sustainable in the sense tha...

Redesigning the Contours of the Future Financial System

Redesigning the Contours of the Future Financial System »

Volume/Issue: 2010/10

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Laura Kodres , and Aditya Narain

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462388882.004

ISBN: 9781462388882

Keywords: Bank supervision, Banks, Financial instruments, Financial institutions, Risk management, Multilateral surveillance, Nonbank financial sector, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fund role, Crises

This paper explores the private- and public-sector responses to the crisis and some of the probable outcomes. Aside from improved supervision of individual institutions, greater emphasis needs to be put on financia...

Government Cash Management
			: Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies

Government Cash Management : Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462318254.005

ISBN: 9781462318254

Keywords: government cash management, cash management, debt management, financial policies, central bank, debt, cash flow

This technical note describes the interaction of government cash management with other financial policies. The note offers guidance on policy, institutional, and practical issues for governments looking to develop...

Reconstructing the World Economy

Reconstructing the World Economy »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Il SaKong , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069770.072

ISBN: 9781589069770

Keywords: inflation, current account, financial system, central bank, monetary policy

This volume presents papers from a conference organized by the Korea Development Institute and the IMF. The purpose of this high-level conference was for policymakers and academics from the Asian region and from G-...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455214624.042

ISBN: 9781455214624

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Tax Administration in Small Economies

Tax Administration in Small Economies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455273416.005

ISBN: 9781455273416

Keywords: tax administration, organization structure, small and micro economies, organizational models, tax administrations, taxpayers, taxes, fiscal affairs

This technical note analyzes tax administration in small economies. Choosing the right organization structure is a key component of any program of tax administration reform and modernization. It creates a solid pla...

Trade and the Crisis
			: Protect or Recover

Trade and the Crisis : Protect or Recover »

Volume/Issue: 2010/07

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Mika Saito , Christian Henn , Rob Gregory , and Brad McDonald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455251216.004

ISBN: 9781455251216

Keywords: Protectionism, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Trade restrictions, Trade policy, Unemployment, World Trade Organization, Transparency, WTO, trade flows, world trade

The pace of trade reforms waned from the mid-2000s as protectionist sentiment began to increase. With the onset of the global financial crisis, reform progress not only halted but began to reverse. As we show in th...

Revenue Administration
			: Taxpayer Audit--Use of Indirect Methods

Revenue Administration : Taxpayer Audit--Use of Indirect Methods »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455238101.005

ISBN: 9781455238101

Keywords: taxpayer audit, tax audit methods, indirect methods, indirect audit methods, taxpayers, financial affairs, auditors, taxable income, tax liabilities

This technical note examines the use of indirect methods in a taxpayer audit. Indirect methods involve the determination of tax liabilities through an analysis of a taxpayer's financial affairs utilizing informatio...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2010 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930092.042

ISBN: 9781451930092

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, partner country, trading partners, partner countries, merchandise exports, trade flows, world trade

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Petroleum Product Subsidies
			: Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise

Petroleum Product Subsidies : Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Piotrowski , David Coady , Justin Tyson , Rolando Ossowski , Robert Gillingham , and Shamsuddin Tareq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455239108.004

ISBN: 9781455239108

Keywords: Commodity price fluctuations, Oil exporting countries, Oil product prices, Oil subsidies, Price stabilization, Fiscal reforms, Governance, Taxes, Subsidies, Petroleum products

Petroleum product subsidies have again started to increase with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that reforming the policy framework for settin...

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2010/03

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455224982.004

ISBN: 9781455224982

Keywords: Bank credit, Bank regulations, Bank supervision, Central bank role, Economic policy, Economic stabilization, Financial crisis, Financial intermediation, Fiscal policy, Inflation targeting

The great moderation lulled macroeconomists and policymakers alike in the belief that we knew how to conduct macroeconomic policy. The crisis clearly forces us to question that assessment. In this paper, we review...

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2010/02

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Thomas Laryea

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384846.004

ISBN: 9781462384846

Keywords: Corporate sector, Corporate governance, Debt strategy, Debt restructuring, Debt restructuring, Bankruptcy, Banking sector, Bank restructuring, Asset management, Financial crisis

This paper starts from a discussion of the economic case for moderated government intervention in debt restructuring in the nonfinancial corporate sector. It then draws on lessons from past crises to explain three...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960044.042

ISBN: 9781451960044

Keywords: export earnings, trade data, free trade, balance of payments, trading partners, partner country, world trade, partner countries, trade flows, merchandise exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies
			: Targeting Emerging Economies

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067967.084

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies

Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/27

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Vladimir Klyuev , Phil De Imus , and Krishna Srinivasan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462382828.004

ISBN: 9781462382828

Keywords: Credit controls, Credit easing, quantitative easing, liquidity, monetary policy, central banks, central bank, balance sheets, interest, financial institutions

...

The State of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor
			: November 2009

The State of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor : November 2009 »

Volume/Issue: 2009/25

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462349531.004

ISBN: 9781462349531

Keywords: Fiscal sustainability, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest, deficit

...

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Christian Beddies , Marie-Helene Le Manchec , and Bergljot Barkbu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 September 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068117.084

ISBN: 9781589068117

Keywords: debt sustainability, public debt, debt service, debt relief, domestic debt, debt-service, current account, debt burden, debt dynamics, debt ratio

Low-income countries continue to face significant challenges in meeting their vast development needs while maintaining a sustainable debt position, even after many of these countries have benefited from substantial...

Transition to Accrual Accounting

Transition to Accrual Accounting »

Volume: 09

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Abdul Khan , and Stephen Mayes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462371730.005

ISBN: 9781462371730

Keywords: Government accounting, goverment accounting, accural accounting, cash accounting, GFSM 2001, goverment financial reporting, IPSASB, accounting standards, budget classification, chart of accounts

This technical note and manual addresses the following main questions: 1. What is accrual accounting? 2. What are the reasons for moving from cash to accrual accounting? 3. What are the differences between accrual...

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068506.084

ISBN: 9781589068506

Keywords: Budgets, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Financial institutions, Public finance, Pension funds, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fiscal stability, financial sector, deposit insurance

The economic and financial crisis is affecting the fiscal accounts of virtually every country. Public sector support for the financial system, fiscal stimulus and the automatic stabilizers, as well as the revenue d...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960006.042

ISBN: 9781451960006

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

The State of Public Finances
			: A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor

The State of Public Finances : A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor »

Volume/Issue: 2009/21

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Mark Horton , and Manmohan Kumar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455257270.004

ISBN: 9781455257270

Keywords: Emerging markets, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, fiscal sustainability, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest

...

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis
			: Challenges and Policy Options

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis : Challenges and Policy Options »

Volume/Issue: 2009/17

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Brondolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462339440.004

ISBN: 9781462339440

Keywords: Financial crisis, Corporate sector, Collection of taxes, Fiscal policy, Tax collection, Tax administration, Tax revenues, Value added tax, taxpayers, tax agencies

The global financial and economic crisis presents major challenges for tax agencies. With the economic downturn, tax agencies are encountering emerging compliance problems and greater demands for taxpayer support i...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959987.042

ISBN: 9781451959987

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Addressing Information Gaps

Addressing Information Gaps »

Volume/Issue: 2009/06

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Christian Mulder , Phil De Imus , L. Psalida , Jeanne Gobat , R. Johnston , Mangal Goswami , and Francisco Vazquez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455294602.004

ISBN: 9781455294602

Keywords: Credit risk, Data analysis, Data quality assessment framework, Capital markets, Financial sector, Financial institutions, Financial instruments, Financial crisis, Economic models, Economic indicators

...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2009 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959901.042

ISBN: 9781451959901

Keywords: oil exporting, european union, oil exporting countries, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet, merchandise exports, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Gauging Risks for Deflation

Gauging Risks for Deflation »

Volume/Issue: 2009/01

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jörg Decressin , and Douglas Laxton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067295.004

ISBN: 9781589067295

Keywords: Fiscal policy, monetary policy, interest rates, exchange rate, central banks, central bank

...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930283.042

ISBN: 9781451930283

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Tax Amnesties
			: Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067363.058

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly,June 2008 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930252.042

ISBN: 9781451930252

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066380.084

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960143.042

ISBN: 9781451960143

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, merchandise exports, exporting countries, total exports, exporting country, internet, trade flows, oil exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066670.058

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

What is the impact on trade in sub-Saharan Africa of the recent rapid growth in China and other Asian countries, and the associated commodity price boom? This paper looks at how trading patterns (both destinations...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960105.042

ISBN: 9781451960105

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2007

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, June 2007 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960068.042

ISBN: 9781451960068

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066182.058

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

This primer explains why macroeconomists need to be concerned with issues of health policy and elaborates the essential information that a macroeconomist should know in providing inputs to discussions on health sec...

Country Insurance
			: The Role of Domestic Policies

Country Insurance : The Role of Domestic Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Torbjorn Becker , Jonathan Ostry , Romain Ranciere , and Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066076.084

ISBN: 9781589066076

Keywords: Insurance supervision, Insurance legislation, Insurance regulations, bonds, international reserves, domestic currency, currency crises, international financial

...

Investissement public et partenariats public-privé

Investissement public et partenariats public-privé »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Gerd Schwartz , Richard Hemming , and Bernardin Akitoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2007

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065444.051

ISBN: 9781589065444

Keywords: public debt, fiscal targets, public finance, fiscal risk

Over the past three decades, public spending on infrastructure, as a share of GDP, has been on the decline worldwide. Although the link between infrastructure investment and economic growth is not yet fully underst...

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066038.054

ISBN: 9781589066038

Este folleto (que actualiza las Directrices de 1995 para el ajuste fiscal) presenta el enfoque del FMI con respecto al ajuste fiscal, y se centra en la importancia de la solidez de las finanzas públicas para promov...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, December 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930399.042

ISBN: 9781451930399

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

La integración de los países pobres en el sistema de comercio mundial

La integración de los países pobres en el sistema de comercio mundial »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 October 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065352.051

ISBN: 9781589065352

Cada vez más, los esfuerzos por liberalizar el comercio mundial se centran en el fortalecimiento de los vínculos entre las políticas comerciales y las estrategias de desarrollo de los países de bajo ingreso. No obs...

Transición hacia un tipo de cambio flexible ¿Cómo, cuándo y a qué ritmo?
			:

Transición hacia un tipo de cambio flexible ¿Cómo, cuándo y a qué ritmo? : »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Rupa Duttagupta , Cem Karacadag , and Gilda Fernandez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 October 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065406.051

ISBN: 9781589065406

Un número creciente de países están adoptando regímenes de tipo de cambio flexible porque la flexibilidad ofrece mayor protección frente a shocks externos y una mayor independencia monetaria. Otros países han atrav...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, September 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930375.042

ISBN: 9781451930375

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, free trade, oil exporting countries, trade data, merchandise exports, exporting countries, exporting country, total exports, internet

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Adopter un taux de change flexible Comment, quand et dans quels délais?
			: How, When, and How Fast?

Adopter un taux de change flexible Comment, quand et dans quels délais? : How, When, and How Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Cem Karacadag , Gilda Fernandez , and Rupa Duttagupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2006

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065390.051

ISBN: 9781589065390

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, foreign currency, foreign exchange market, monetary policy, exchange rate flexibility, exchange rate risk, exchange rate regime, flexible exchange rate

A growing number of countries are adopting flexible exchange rate regimes because flexibility offers more protection against external shocks and greater monetary independence. Other countries have made the transiti...

What is the International Monetary Fund?

What is the International Monetary Fund? »

Series: EXR Pamphlets

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065338.052

ISBN: 9781589065338

Keywords: IMF, Fund role, balance of payments, debt relief, central bank, world trade, debt reduction

An introductory guide to the IMF, its history, and its role in the international financial system. Explains for a general audience the IMF's lending policies, how decisions are made, and where the money comes from....

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065130.054

ISBN: 9781589065130

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, fiscal adjustment, expenditure, public expenditure, aggregate demand

The pamphlet (which updates the 1995 Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustment) presents the IMF's approach to fiscal adjustment, and focuses on the role that sound government finances play in promoting macroeconomic stabil...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly. June 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly. June 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930344.042

ISBN: 9781451930344

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Budget System Reform in Emerging Economies
			: The Challenges and the Reform Agenda

Budget System Reform in Emerging Economies : The Challenges and the Reform Agenda »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jack Diamond

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064744.084

ISBN: 9781589064744

Keywords: Budgetary reforms, Public finance, Government accounting, budget management, accrual accounting, performance budgeting, budget systems, budget system

With increasing frequency, the IMF has assisted middle-income countries, especially emerging economies, in adopting the types of budget reforms that have been introduced in many Organization for Economic Cooperatio...

Integrating Poor Countries into the World Trading System

Integrating Poor Countries into the World Trading System »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064454.051

ISBN: 9781589064454

Keywords: Developing countries, Trade policy, Trade relations, trade liberalization, export earnings, trade facilitation, multilateral trade, export markets

Efforts to liberalize world trade are increasingly focusing on strengthening the links between low-income countries' trade policies and their development strategies. However, although greater trade openness promise...

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2006

Direction of Trade Statistics Quarterly, March 2006 »

Series: Direction of Trade Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451930320.042

ISBN: 9781451930320

Keywords: industrial countries, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, partner countries, world trade, exporting countries, merchandise exports, partner country, trading partners, total exports

This publication provides data on the country and area distribution of countries exports and imports as reported by themselves or by their partners. The quarterly issues cover data for the most recent six quarters...

Access to Trade Finance in Times of Crisis

Access to Trade Finance in Times of Crisis »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Jian-Ye Wang , and Márcio Ronci

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 February 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064041.072

ISBN: 9781589064041

Keywords: Trade, export credit, export credit agencies, debt, credit lines, exporters

Trade finance has long been an important component of international financial flows. Firms in emerging market economies, in particular, rely heavily on bank-financed trade credits to support their export and import...

Moving to a Flexible Exchange Rate
			: How, When, and How Fast?

Moving to a Flexible Exchange Rate : How, When, and How Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Rupa Duttagupta , Cem Karacadag , and Gilda Fernandez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064768.051

ISBN: 9781589064768

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, foreign currency, foreign exchange market

A growing number of countries are adopting flexible exchange rate regimes because flexibility offers more protection against external shocks and greater monetary independence. Other countries have made the transiti...

Preserving Financial Stability

Preserving Financial Stability »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Garry Schinasi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063563.051

ISBN: 9781589063563

Keywords: Financial risk, Financial stability, financial stability, financial system, financial institutions, financial markets, financial services

Spurred by advances in information and computer technologies, financial liberalization and innovation took off inthe late 1970s. Although the changes in financial markets have been beneficial overall, our understan...

Vanishing Contagion?

Vanishing Contagion? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Tatiana Didier , and Sergio Schmukler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946062.003

ISBN: 9781451946062

Keywords: Economic integration, Financial crisis, Emerging markets, crises, international integration, international transmission of shocks, contagion, investors, mutual funds, emerging market

While a number of emerging market crises were characterized by widespread contagion during the 1990s, more recent crises (notably, in Argentina) have been mostly contained within national borders. This has led some...