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Republic of Uzbekistan
			: 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release and Staff Report

Republic of Uzbekistan : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release and Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2019/129

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314442.002

ISBN: 9781498314442

Keywords: External sector, Real sector, Economic growth, External debt, Economic indicators, ISCR, CR, CBU, Proj, percent of GDP

Given its bulging working-age population, creating more and better jobs is the country's overarching priority. Uzbekistan has already implemented a first wave of important economic reforms, including foreign exchan...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Technical Assistance Report-Fiscal Transparency Evaluation Update

Republic of Uzbekistan : Technical Assistance Report-Fiscal Transparency Evaluation Update »

Volume/Issue: 2019/116

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312721.002

ISBN: 9781498312721

Keywords: Fiscal policy, Bank soundness, Risk management, Budget estimates, Fiscal transparency, medium-term, GFS, good level, performance information, basic level

The IMF conducted a fiscal transparency evaluation (FTE) for Uzbekistan in June 2018. The FTE found that Uzbekistan met at least the basic standard of practice in 16 of the 36 principles defined in the IMF Fiscal T...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Fiscal Transparency Evaluation

Republic of Uzbekistan : Fiscal Transparency Evaluation »

Volume/Issue: 2019/117

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312745.002

ISBN: 9781498312745

Keywords: Financial soundness indicators, Fiscal policy, Financial statistics, Social security funds, Financial statements, off-budget, tax expenditure, medium-term, statistical report, budget balance

Uzbekistan is embarking on a comprehensive reform program to strengthen public financial management and fiscal transparency. Wide-ranging reforms to improve the coverage, reliability, quality, and accessibility of...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Strengthening Fiscal Transparency

Republic of Uzbekistan : Strengthening Fiscal Transparency »

Volume/Issue: 2019/118

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312769.002

ISBN: 9781498312769

Keywords: Financial statements, Fiscal policy, Budget estimates, Budget execution, Foreign currency exposure, GFS, budget balance, government sector, SOEs, policy purpose

Uzbekistan is embarking on a comprehensive reform program to strengthen public financial management and fiscal transparency. Wide-ranging reforms to improve the coverage, reliability, quality and accessibility of f...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Technical Assistance Report-Report on the External Sector Statistics Mission (November 20-December 1, 2017)

Republic of Uzbekistan : Technical Assistance Report-Report on the External Sector Statistics Mission (November 20-December 1, 2017) »

Volume/Issue: 2018/326

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484385289.002

ISBN: 9781484385289

Keywords: Middle East, Uzbekistan

At the request of the Republic of Uzbekistan authorities for technical assistance (TA) on external sector statistics (ESS), and with the support of the Middle East and Central Asia Department (MCD) of the Internati...

Building Resilient Banking Sectors in the Caucasus and Central Asia

Building Resilient Banking Sectors in the Caucasus and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2018/8

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mercedes Vera Martin , Tarak Jardak , Robert Tchaidze , Juan Trevino , and Helen Wagner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484360774.087

ISBN: 9781484360774

Keywords: Central Asia and the Caucasus, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Middle East, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Economic conditions

External shocks since 2014-lower oil prices and slower growth in key trading partners-have put financial sectors, mainly banks, in the eight Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) countries under increased stress.  E...

Opening Up in the Caucasus and Central Asia
			: Policy Frameworks to Support Regional and Global Integration

Opening Up in the Caucasus and Central Asia : Policy Frameworks to Support Regional and Global Integration »

Volume/Issue: 2018/7

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Peter Kunzel , Phil De Imus , Edward Gemayel , Risto Herrala , Alexei Kireyev , and Farid Talishli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484358177.087

ISBN: 9781484358177

Keywords: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Economic integration, Economic integration, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Middle East, Tajikistan, Trade liberalization

The Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) countries are at an important juncture in their economic transition. Following significant economic progress during the 2000s, recent external shocks have revealed the underlying...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Uzbekistan

Republic of Uzbekistan : 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Uzbekistan »

Volume/Issue: 2018/117

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 May 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484354896.002

ISBN: 9781484354896

Keywords: Article IV consultation reports, Spillovers, Fiscal policy, Fiscal transparency, Monetary policy, Inflation targeting, Exchange rate policy, Financial stability, Fiscal reforms, Sustainable development

This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that Uzbekistan's external position remains strong. External shocks, which began in 2014, lowered exports, commodity prices, and remittances and contributed to a decline...

A Growth-Friendly Path for Building Fiscal Buffers in the Caucuses and Central Asia

A Growth-Friendly Path for Building Fiscal Buffers in the Caucuses and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2018/6

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Edward Gemayel , Lorraine Ocampos , Matteo Ghilardi , and James Aylward

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484337165.087

ISBN: 9781484337165

Keywords: Growth acceleration, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen, Republic of, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan

Since 2014, large and persistent external shocks have hit the CCA region, particularly a slump in global commodity prices and slower growth in its key economic partners. Fiscal accommodation, along with currency ad...

Public Wage Bills in the Middle East and Central Asia

Public Wage Bills in the Middle East and Central Asia »

Volume: 18

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Natalia Tamirisa , and Christoph Duenwald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336731.087

ISBN: 9781484336731

Keywords: Public sector, Public sector wages, Public employment, Public expenditure management, Public expenditures reform, Public services, Public employment systems, Public sector; Public sector wages; Public employment; Public expenditure management; Public expenditures reform; Public services; Public employment systems

Analysis of policies for managing public sector wage bills in the Middle East and Central Asia region. While some work has been done recently at the Fund on issues related to government employment and compensation,...

The Spillover Effects of Russia's Economic Slowdown on Neighboring Countries

The Spillover Effects of Russia's Economic Slowdown on Neighboring Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2016/03

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Ara Stepanyan , Agustin Roitman , Gohar Minasyan , Dragana Ostojic , and Natan Epstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475541434.062

ISBN: 9781475541434

Keywords: Economic growth, Europe, External shocks, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Middle East, Regional shocks, Moldova, Inflation, Russian Federation

In the face of sharply lower oil prices and geopolitical tensions and sanctions, economic activity in Russia decelerated in late 2014, resulting in negative spillovers on Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) a...

The Spillover Effects of Russia's Economic Slowdown on Neighboring Countries

The Spillover Effects of Russia's Economic Slowdown on Neighboring Countries »

Volume: 15

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Ara Stepanyan , Agustin Roitman , Gohar Minasyan , Dragana Ostojic , and Natan Epstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513571348.087

ISBN: 9781513571348

Keywords: External shocks, Russian Federation, Economic growth, Negative spillovers, Regional shocks, Central Asia and the Caucasus, Central and Eastern Europe, Baltics, Regional trade, Remittances

In the face of sharply lower oil prices and geopolitical tensions and sanctions, economic activity in Russia decelerated in late 2014, resulting in negative spillovers on Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) a...

How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia?

How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sami Ben Naceur , Amr Hosny , and Gregory Hadjian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513507279.001

ISBN: 9781513507279

Keywords: financial dollarization, financial development, de-dollarization, exchange, exchange rate, currency, inflation, deposits, General,

Dollarization rates in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) region are among the highest in the world, with adverse consequences for macroeconomic stability, monetary policy transmission, and financial sector develo...

Joining the Club? Procyclicality of Private Capital Inflows in Low Income Developing Countries

Joining the Club? Procyclicality of Private Capital Inflows in Low Income Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/163

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juliana Araujo , Antonio David , Carlos van Hombeeck , and Chris Papageorgiou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513508146.001

ISBN: 9781513508146

Keywords: Cyclicality, Emerging Markets, capital inflows, private capital, international capital, developing countries, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Emerging Markets.,

Using a newly developed dataset this paper examines the cyclicality of private capital inflows to low-income developing countries (LIDCs) over the period 1990-2012. The empirical analysis shows that capital inflows...

Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in the Caucasus and Central Asia

Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in the Caucasus and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2015/87

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Raja Almarzoqi , and Sami Ben Naceur

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484342817.001

ISBN: 9781484342817

Keywords: Interest margins, Operating costs, Market power, Macroeconomic policies, bank, interest, banks, risk, credit, General,

In this paper, we use a bank-level panel dataset to investigate the determinants of bank interest margins in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) over the period 1998-2013. We apply the dealership model of Ho and Sa...

Non-FDI Capital Inflows in Low-Income Developing Countries
			: Catching the Wave?

Non-FDI Capital Inflows in Low-Income Developing Countries : Catching the Wave? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/86

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juliana Araujo , Antonio David , Carlos van Hombeeck , and Chris Papageorgiou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484341087.001

ISBN: 9781484341087

Keywords: Gross Capital Flows, Surges, Low-Income Countries, markets, monetary fund, private capital, General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

Low-income countries (LIDCs) are typically characterized by intermittent and very modest access to private external funding sources. Motivated by recent developments in private flows to LIDCs this paper makes two c...

Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries

Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Maria Albino-War , Svetlana Cerovic , Francesco Grigoli , Juan Flores , Javier Kapsoli , Haonan Qu , Yahia Said , Bahrom Shukurov , Martin Sommer , and SeokHyun Yoon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2014

Language: Arabic

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314954.006

ISBN: 9781498314954

Keywords: Public investment, Middle East and Central Asia, North Africa, Central Asia and the Caucasus, Expenditure efficiency, Infrastructure, Transportation, Oil exporting countries, Public investment efficiency, natural resources

Over the past decade, rising oil prices have translated into high levels of public investment in most MENA and CCA oil exporters. This has prompted questions about the efficiency of public investment in generating...

Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries

Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Maria Albino-War , Svetlana Cerovic , Francesco Grigoli , Juan Flores , Javier Kapsoli , Haonan Qu , Yahia Said , Bahrom Shukurov , Martin Sommer , and SeokHyun Yoon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498311397.006

ISBN: 9781498311397

Keywords: Central Asia and the Caucasus, Expenditure efficiency, Somalia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Public investment, Natural resources, Morocco, North Africa

Over the past decade, rising oil prices have translated into high levels of public investment in most MENA and CCA oil exporters. This has prompted questions about the efficiency of public investment in generating...

Deposit Insurance Database

Deposit Insurance Database »

Volume/Issue: 2014/118

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Asli Demirgüç-Kunt , Edward Kane , and Luc Laeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354479.001

ISBN: 9781498354479

Keywords: banking, deposit insurance scheme, deposit guarantee, banking crisis, General,

This paper provides a comprehensive, global database of deposit insurance arrangements as of 2013. We extend our earlier dataset by including recent adopters of deposit insurance and information on the use of gover...

The Caucasus and Central Asia
			: Transitioning to Emerging Markets

The Caucasus and Central Asia : Transitioning to Emerging Markets »

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484305140.087

ISBN: 9781484305140

Keywords: Energy sector, Emerging markets, Financial sector, Economic growth, Bank supervision, Political economy, Fiscal reforms, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy, Middle East and Central Asia

The countries in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) have recorded significant macroeconomic achievements since independence. These countries have grown more rapidly--on average by 7 percent over 1996-2011--than th...

The Caucasus and Central Asia: Transitioning to Emerging Markets

The Caucasus and Central Asia: Transitioning to Emerging Markets »

Volume: 14

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2014

Language: Russian

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498349581.087

ISBN: 9781498349581

Keywords: Transition economies, Middle East and Central Asia, Economic growth, Fiscal policy, Energy sector, Fiscal reforms, Financial sector, Bank supervision, Monetary policy, Emerging markets

The countries in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) have recorded significant macroeconomic achievements since independence. These countries have grown more rapidly--on average by 7 percent over 1996-2011--than th...

Uzbekistan
			: 2012 Article IV Consultation

Uzbekistan : 2012 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/278

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484321614.002

ISBN: 9781484321614

Keywords: current account, external debt, public debt, debt sustainability, central bank

This paper discusses 2012 Article IV Consultation of Republic of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan has been experiencing strong momentum in economic growth supported by sustained public investment and increased prices for com...

Global Food Price Inflation and Policy Responses in Central Asia

Global Food Price Inflation and Policy Responses in Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2012/86

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502497.001

ISBN: 9781475502497

Keywords: central bank, monetary fund, price stability, Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: Forecasting and Simulation, Kyrgyzstan, Food Price Shocks, Policy Responses,

This paper examines the implications of elevated global food prices for inflation in select Central Asian economies - Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The findings suggest that global fo...

Treasury Bills and/Or Central Bank Bills for Absorbing Surplus Liquidity
			: The Main Considerations

Treasury Bills and/Or Central Bank Bills for Absorbing Surplus Liquidity : The Main Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2012/40

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Obert Nyawata

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933838.001

ISBN: 9781463933838

Keywords: consolidated public sector, central bank, government securities, debt management, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: Public Policy,

This paper discusses the challenging question of whether central banks should use treasury bills or central bank bills for draining excess liquidity in the banking system. While recognizing that there are practical...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2008

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2008 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067462.012

ISBN: 9781589067462

Keywords: Exchange rates, Trade, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, foreign exchange market, foreign investment, foreign exchange position, foreign currencies, multiple currency practices

Published since 1950, this authoritative, annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for all 185 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and the...

Determinants of Non-oil Growth in the CFA-Zone Oil Producing Countries
			: How do they Differ?

Determinants of Non-oil Growth in the CFA-Zone Oil Producing Countries : How do they Differ? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexandra Tabova , and Carol Baker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463921996.001

ISBN: 9781463921996

Keywords: real exchange rate, exchange rate, exporters, oil exporters, Intertemporal Choice and Growth: General, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Non-oil growth in the CFA oil exporting countries has been lackluster despite their great natural resource wealth. In this paper we study the key determinants of non-oil growth and explore to what extent these coun...

Russian Federation; Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation

Russian Federation; Staff Report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2011/294

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463904852.002

ISBN: 9781463904852

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, external debt, current account, central bank

The reports highlights that, even though the Russian economy has started reviving from the crisis, growth has been moderate and inflation high. Executive Directors have advised that the focus should be on reducing...

Labor Market Regulations in Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries
			: A New Panel Database

Labor Market Regulations in Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries : A New Panel Database »

Volume/Issue: 2011/154

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Schindler , and Mariya Aleksynska

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455290673.001

ISBN: 9781455290673

Keywords: unemployment benefit systems, gross replacement rate, benefit coverage, advance notice, severance payment, employment, labor market, unemployment benefits, social security, employment legislation

This paper documents a new database of labor market regulations during 1980-2005 in 91 countries, including low-, middle- and high-income countries, and contains information on unemployment insurance systems, minim...

Evidence on Productivity, Comparative Advantage, and Networks in the Export Performance of Firms

Evidence on Productivity, Comparative Advantage, and Networks in the Export Performance of Firms »

Volume/Issue: 2011/77

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luca Ricci , and Federico Trionfetti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455227020.001

ISBN: 9781455227020

Keywords: Heckscher-Ohlin, new-new trade theory, firms&;amp;#x2019; export probability, networks, probability, international trade, survey, Neoclassical Models of Trade, Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

This paper tests the effect of comparative advantage, size, and networking on the firm probability of exporting. The closest theoretical framework is the one of Bernard, Redding, and Schott (2007), with firm hetero...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2010, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2010, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069527.086

ISBN: 9781589069527

Keywords: oil exporters, exporters, oil importers, gas exporters, banking

The Regional Economic Outlook assesses the near-term outlook for each of the three subregions: the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP) oil exporters, the MENAP oil importers, and the Caucas...

Russian Federation
			: 2010 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion

Russian Federation : 2010 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion »

Volume/Issue: 2010/246

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455206483.002

ISBN: 9781455206483

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, current account, external debt

The Russian economy has improved after the recession, but recovery is fragile. Executive Directors appreciated the pre-crisis policy of taxing and saving oil revenues in a stabilization fund, which had created sign...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2010, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2010, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069206.086

ISBN: 9781589069206

Keywords: oil exporters, exporters, oil importers, balance sheets, bond

The May 2010 Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia reports on the implications for the region of global economic developments and presents key policy challenges and recommendations. A resumption o...

House Price Determinants in Selected Countries of the Former Soviet Union

House Price Determinants in Selected Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Volume/Issue: 2010/104

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vahram Stepanyan , Tigran Poghosyan , and Aidyn Bibolov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455200634.001

ISBN: 9781455200634

Keywords: House prices, pooled mean group estimator, the Former Soviet Union, remittances, statistics, logarithm, data analysis, Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics: Housing Demand

This paper analyses the recent boom-bust cycle in the housing markets of selected Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The analysis is based on a newly constructed database on house prices in the FSU countries. Our...

Coping with the Global Financial Crisis
			: Challenges Facing Low-Income Countries

Coping with the Global Financial Crisis : Challenges Facing Low-Income Countries »

Volume: 10

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Stefania Fabrizio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069299.087

ISBN: 9781589069299

Keywords: External debt, Commodity prices, Economic growth, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Low-income developing countries, external financing, debt sustainability, debt burden, exchange rate

This forthcoming title in the Departmental Paper Series describes the special challenges facing low-income countries as economic growth contracts by an estimated 1.1 percent globally. Coping with the Crisis: Challe...

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform
			: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform : The Experience of Europe and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2010/75

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adam Leive

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982183.001

ISBN: 9781451982183

Keywords: Health care reform, public health expenditure, primary care, health systems, health insurance, public health, fee-for-service, National Government Expenditures and Health, Health: General,

Economic Transition and Health Care Reform: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia...

Growth and Structural Reforms
			: A New Assessment

Growth and Structural Reforms : A New Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2009/284

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lone Engbo Christiansen , Thierry Tressel , and Martin Schindler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874297.001

ISBN: 9781451874297

Keywords: Liberalization, Domestic Finance, Trade: Capital Account, tfp, real gdp, trade reforms, gdp per capita,

This paper presents a simultaneous assessment of the relationship between economic performance and three groups of economic reforms: domestic finance, trade, and the capital account. Among these, domestic financial...

Global Relative Poverty

Global Relative Poverty »

Volume/Issue: 2009/93

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lynge Nielsen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872408.001

ISBN: 9781451872408

Keywords: Relative poverty, global income inequality, poverty line, poverty analysis, official poverty,

The paper provides estimates of global relative poverty trends from 1970 onwards. Relative poverty is shown to have decreased significantly, but at the same time there has been a worsening poverty outcome among up...

Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia
			: What is the Role of Oil?

Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia : What is the Role of Oil? »

Volume/Issue: 2008/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Billmeier , and Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870749.001

ISBN: 9781451870749

Keywords: trade elasticities, current account adjustment, export prices, exporting countries, export volume, oil exports, oil exporters,

The analysis in this paper suggests that import and export volume elasticities are markedly lower in oil-exporting Middle East and Central Asian countries than in non-oil countries in the region. A key implication...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: 2008 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Uzbekistan

Republic of Uzbekistan : 2008 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Uzbekistan »

Volume/Issue: 2008/235

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839852.002

ISBN: 9781451839852

Keywords: debt, budget, public sector, interest, external debt

This 2008 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Uzbek economy has performed well in recent years. The favorable external environment and improvements in macroeconomic policies resulted in high growth rates, l...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper:  Joint Staff Advisory Note

Republic of Uzbekistan : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Joint Staff Advisory Note »

Volume/Issue: 2008/35

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 January 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839845.002

ISBN: 9781451839845

Keywords: inflation, monetary fund, poverty reduction strategy, reform agenda, monetary policy

The Joint Staff Note (JNS) reports that Welfare Improvement Strategy (WIS) showed a commendable effort under the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) in Uzbekistan. They stressed that implementation capacity wit...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Republic of Uzbekistan : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2008/34

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839838.002

ISBN: 9781451839838

Keywords: living standards, social protection, child mortality, maternal mortality, child health

The Welfare Improvement Strategy (WIS) of Uzbekistan has the objective of improving living standards of its people with the help of strong economic policies for all priority areas of development. The report reviews...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2007

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2007 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066786.012

ISBN: 9781589066786

Keywords: Exchange rates, foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, direct investment, forward exchange, foreign currencies, multiple currency practices, foreign investment, exchange control

Only the IMF is officialy responsible for reporting the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade restrictions, and prudential measures of its 185 member countries. This report draws upon information availa...

Firm Heterogeneity and Weak Intellectual Property Rights

Firm Heterogeneity and Weak Intellectual Property Rights »

Volume/Issue: 2007/161

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stanley Watt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867251.001

ISBN: 9781451867251

Keywords: Firm Heterogeneity, Intellectual Property Rights, r &;amp; d, standard errors, equation, outlier, probability,

In weak intellectual property rights (IPR) environments, the imitation of proprietary technology by domestic firms has become a deterrent for foreign investment. Different multinationals may view this deterrent dif...

Rapid Growth in Transition Economies
			: Growth-Accounting Approach

Rapid Growth in Transition Economies : Growth-Accounting Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2007/164

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Garbis Iradian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867282.001

ISBN: 9781451867282

Keywords: Growth, TFP, growth rates, real gdp,

This paper uses the growth-accounting approach to determine the sources of growth in transition economies. The central conclusion is that the estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth for the former Soviet U...

Rapid Growth in the CIS
			: Panel Regression Approach

Rapid Growth in the CIS : Panel Regression Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2007/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Garbis Iradian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867343.001

ISBN: 9781451867343

Keywords: Growth, Structural Reforms, real gdp, per capita income,

This paper analytically explores and empirically tests a number of hypotheses to explain the rapid growth in transition economies. The paper finds that growth in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) has bee...

Republic Of Latvia
			: Detailed Assessment Of Anti-Money Laundering And Combating The Financing Of Terrorism

Republic Of Latvia : Detailed Assessment Of Anti-Money Laundering And Combating The Financing Of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2007/189

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451947014.002

ISBN: 9781451947014

Keywords: terrorist financing, law enforcement, suspicious transactions, criminal law

This paper discusses key findings of the Detailed Assessment on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) for the Republic of Latvia. The assessment reveals that aspects of Latvia's f...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2007, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2007, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066441.083

ISBN: 9781589066441

Keywords: oil exporters, exporters, exporting countries, oil-exporting countries

Strong economic performance across the Middle East and Central Asia is examined against the background of high prices for energy and other commodities. Common economic trends are presented, while prospects and poli...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: 2006 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Uzbekistan

Republic of Uzbekistan : 2006 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Uzbekistan »

Volume/Issue: 2007/133

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839821.002

ISBN: 9781451839821

Keywords: debt, budget, public sector, interest, external debt

The 2006 Article IV Consultation on the Republic of Uzbekistan highlights the economic outlook and policy challenges. The banking system's ability to fulfill its intermediary role has been constrained by limited cr...

Regional Economic Outlook, September 2006, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, September 2006, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065963.086

ISBN: 9781589065963

Keywords: oil exporters, exporting countries, exporters, oil-exporting countries, oil prices

This paper presents the economic outlook for the Middle East and Central Asia for 2006-07. Economic performance in the Middle East and Central Asia region remains strong, despite security problems in some countries...

Beauty Queens and Wallflowers
			: Currency Unions in the Middle East and Central Asia

Beauty Queens and Wallflowers : Currency Unions in the Middle East and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2006/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , and Julian Berengaut

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864861.001

ISBN: 9781451864861

Keywords: Currency Union, Optimum Currency Areas, inflation, monetary union, monetary fund, central bank, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration,

Against the background of the theory of optimum currency areas, the paper analyzes possible sequences for establishing a currency union (CU) in the Middle East and Central Asia region. Between the corner solutions...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2006

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2006 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065697.012

ISBN: 9781589065697

Keywords: Exchange rates, Trade, Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, direct investment, forward exchange

The Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) has been published by the IMF since 1950. It is a unique publication based on a database maintained by the IMF that tracks exchange arra...

The Utilization-Adjusted Output Gap
			: Is the Russian Economy Overheating?

The Utilization-Adjusted Output Gap : Is the Russian Economy Overheating? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nienke Oomes , and Oksana Dynnikova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863284.001

ISBN: 9781451863284

Keywords: Output gap, natural rate, Phillips curve, Russia, survey, surveys, equation, sample size,

This paper estimates the output gap in Russia using a utilization-adjusted production function approach, which we argue is preferable to traditional output gap methods. The approach amounts to (1) using available s...

Quasi-Fiscal Deficits and Energy Conditionality in Selected CIS Countries

Quasi-Fiscal Deficits and Energy Conditionality in Selected CIS Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2006/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tapio Saavalainen , and Joy Mylène Berge

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451863031.001

ISBN: 9781451863031

Keywords: quasi-fiscal deficit, transition, conditionality, electricity, fiscal deficit, fiscal deficits, quasi-fiscal deficits

Quasi-fiscal deficits of public utility companies are common in all member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). They constitute a significant impediment to efficient resource allocation and en...

How Tight Is Too Tight? A Look at Welfare Implications of Distortionary Policies in Uzbekistan

How Tight Is Too Tight? A Look at Welfare Implications of Distortionary Policies in Uzbekistan »

Volume/Issue: 2005/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Grigorian , and Edward Gemayel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862584.001

ISBN: 9781451862584

Keywords: financial sector distortions, transition, foreign exchange, banking, inflation, banking sector, bank accounts, Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General

Since independence in 1991, Uzbekistan has pursued a gradual approach to the transition from planned to market economy. This approach relied heavily on trade controls, directed credit, and large public investments....

Is Russia Still Driving Regional Economic Growth?

Is Russia Still Driving Regional Economic Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/192

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Pani , Etibar Jafarov , and Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862119.001

ISBN: 9781451862119

Keywords: Russia, CIS, real gdp, gdp growth, correlation, growth rates, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

This paper investigates whether the linkages between economic growth in Russia and growth in other countries in the region have weakened over time, particularly following the 1998 Russian crisis. It specifies an ec...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-Joint Staff Advisory Note

Republic of Uzbekistan : Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-Joint Staff Advisory Note »

Volume/Issue: 2005/159

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839807.002

ISBN: 9781451839807

Keywords: poverty reduction strategy, reduction strategy, macroeconomic framework, poverty reduction strategy paper, reform program

This Joint Staff Advisory Note (JSAN) examines Uzbekistan's Interim Welfare Improvement Strategy Paper (I-WISP) for 2005-10. The I-WISP for 2005-10 is the first comprehensive economic and social strategy document p...

Republic of Uzbekistan
			: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Republic of Uzbekistan : Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2005/160

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839814.002

ISBN: 9781451839814

Keywords: living standards, health care, social protection, social security, disabled

This paper reviews Uzbekistan's Interim Welfare Improvement Strategy Paper (I-WISP). I-WISP defines the main directions and measures aimed at improving living standards and reducing poverty among the population of...

Regional Trade Integration and WTO Accession
			: Which Is the Right Sequencing? An Application to the CIS

Regional Trade Integration and WTO Accession : Which Is the Right Sequencing? An Application to the CIS »

Volume/Issue: 2005/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrizia Tumbarello

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861136.001

ISBN: 9781451861136

Keywords: Regional trade integration, CIS, WTO, customs, customs union, regional trade, trade agreements, tariff rates, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: Forecasting and Simulation, Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: International Trade

This paper analyzes the appropriate sequencing between accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) customs union and whether the latter facilitat...

Who is Still Haunted by the Specter of Communism? Explaining Relative Output Contractions Under Transition

Who is Still Haunted by the Specter of Communism? Explaining Relative Output Contractions Under Transition »

Volume/Issue: 2005/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , and Julian Berengaut

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860870.001

ISBN: 9781451860870

Keywords: Commonwealth of Independent States, CIS, transition economies, instrumental variable, transition countries, statistic, Comparative Studies of Countries, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: General, Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving

The paper analyzes the initial output decline in transition economies by estimating a crosssection model stressing two major factors-conflicts and the legacies of the Soviet period. We link the Soviet legacies in p...

Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption in the Baltic and CIS Countries
			: The Role of the IMF

Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption in the Baltic and CIS Countries : The Role of the IMF »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759443.051

ISBN: 9781557759443

Keywords: banking, bribes, fighting corruption, improving governance, foreign exchange

Drawing on recent examples of corruption in the Baltics and former Soviet Union, this pamphlet analyzes the links between governance and corruption, and emphasizes the high economic cost that corruption exacts. The...

Central Bank Governance
			: A Survey of Boards and Management

Central Bank Governance : A Survey of Boards and Management »

Volume/Issue: 2004/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): JoAnne Morris , and Tonny Lybek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875416.001

ISBN: 9781451875416

Keywords: central bank, inflation, reserve bank, Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: General, International, or Comparative,

This paper identifies issues to consider when designing the structure, size, and composition of the governing boards and management of a central bank. While central bank autonomy and accountability are generally ac...

Analysis of Recent Growth in Low-Income CIS Countries

Analysis of Recent Growth in Low-Income CIS Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2004/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elena Loukoianova , and Anna Unigovskaya

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451857061.001

ISBN: 9781451857061

Keywords: growth, recovery, output, CIS-7, tfp, gdp growth, real gdp, growth accounting, total factor productivity

This paper analyzes factors that determine recent economic growth in the low-income countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.2 The main findings are as follows: (1) productivity gains in export-oriented...

The Low-Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
			: Progress and Challenges in Transition

The Low-Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States : Progress and Challenges in Transition »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Sarosh Sattar , and Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063211.072

ISBN: 9781589063211

Keywords: debt, external debt, expenditures, current account, transition economies

The CIS-7 Initiative was launched in 2002 and endorsed by ministers from the CIS-7 and donor countries, with the objective of promoting poverty reduction, economic growth, and debt sustainability among the seven po...

IMF Macroeconomic Research on Low-Income Countries

IMF Macroeconomic Research on Low-Income Countries »

Series: Miscellaneous Publication (Other)

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062733.073

ISBN: 9781589062733

Keywords: monetary fund, paper, inflation, money demand, transition economies

Summarizes the for ward-looking analytical work program on macroeconomic issues related to the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper approach. The program is evolving through a process that began with a technical worksh...

FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries

FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972849.003

ISBN: 9781451972849

Keywords: Former Soviet Union, Montenegro, Transition economies, Investment climate, FDI, Regional issues, investment, capital flows, direct investment,

In view of disappointing levels of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), this paper examines capital flows into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries and investigates the main impediments to a mo...

Why Does Fdi Go Where it Goes? New Evidence From the Transition Economies

Why Does Fdi Go Where it Goes? New Evidence From the Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2003/228

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Kinoshita , and Nauro Campos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875461.001

ISBN: 9781451875461

Keywords: fdi, market size, foreign investors, host country, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Models with Panel Data, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Performance and Prospects,

This paper examines the importance of agglomeration economies and institutions vis-a-vis initial conditions and factor endowments in explaining the locational choice of foreign investors. Using a unique panel data...

Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries
			: Bridging the Great Divide

Financial Development in the CIS-7 Countries : Bridging the Great Divide »

Volume/Issue: 2003/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gianni De Nicolo , Sami Geadah , and Dmitriy Rozhkov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874570.001

ISBN: 9781451874570

Keywords: Financial development, banking, credit risk, banking system, banking sector, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Republic of,

This paper documents the great divide in the level of financial development between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 7 countries and the more advanced economies in transition, in particular those of Cen...

Of Openess and Distance
			: Trade Developments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1993-2002

Of Openess and Distance : Trade Developments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1993-2002 »

Volume/Issue: 2003/207

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874679.001

ISBN: 9781451874679

Keywords: Commonwealth of Independent States, CIS, trade openness, statistics, statistic, transition economies, equation, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade: Forecasting and Simulation, Economic History: Transport

This paper analyzes developments in the structure of trade in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) during the transition decade, and finds that it changed less than in other transition economies. Trade open...

Priorities for Further Fiscal Reforms in the Commonwealth of Independent States

Priorities for Further Fiscal Reforms in the Commonwealth of Independent States »

Volume/Issue: 2003/209

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Henri Lorie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874778.001

ISBN: 9781451874778

Keywords: expenditure, expenditures, tax administration, state budget, government expenditure, Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue: General, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General, National Budget

Building on the substantial progress made in establishing fiscal systems consistent with market economies, the paper identifies priorities for further fiscal structural reforms among the Commonwealth of Independent...

Reforming Tax Systems
			: Experience of the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Reforming Tax Systems : Experience of the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Volume/Issue: 2003/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vahram Stepanyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858655.001

ISBN: 9781451858655

Keywords: tax administration, tax systems, tax reform, tax system, Taxation and Subsidies: Other, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Republic of,

Starting in the early 1990s, the Baltics, Russia, and other (BRO) countries of the former Soviet Union initiated tax reforms that varied widely at the later stages. Recently, some of the BRO countries, basing decis...

Nominal Anchors in the CIS

Nominal Anchors in the CIS »

Volume/Issue: 2003/179

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Keller , and Thomas Richardson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859058.001

ISBN: 9781451859058

Keywords: inflation, inflation targeting, money supply, price stability, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Moldova, Republic of, Kyrgyzstan,

Monetary policy has become increasingly important in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as fiscal adjustment and structural reforms have taken root. Inflation has been brought down to rel...

The Impact of External Indebtednesson Poverty in Low-Income Countries

The Impact of External Indebtednesson Poverty in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/61

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kadima Kalonji , Boileau Loko , Raj Nallari , and Montfort Mlachila

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848199.001

ISBN: 9781451848199

Keywords: Growth, mortality rate, life expectancy, debt service, infant mortality, International Lending and Debt Problems, Welfare and Poverty, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics, Growth and Fluctuations,

This paper explores the relationship between external debt and poverty. A number of observers have argued that high external indebtedness is a major cause of poverty. Using the first-differenced general method of m...

Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries

Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/13

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Clinton Shiells , John Dodsworth , and Paul Mathieu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968958.003

ISBN: 9781451968958

Keywords: Energy sector, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Former Soviet Union, Transition economies, Regional issues, oil products, crude oil, natural gas

This paper explores from a regional perspective the distorted nature of trade in energy products within the CIS countries. The persistence of pricing distortions, barter arrangements, and discriminatory access to p...

The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia

The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2001/169

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gonzalo Pastor , and Tatiana Damjanovic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858341.001

ISBN: 9781451858341

Keywords: Russian financial crisis, external debt issues, exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, external debt, exchange rate flexibility, Studies of Particular Policy Episodes, Kyrgyzstan,

This paper reviews the economic conditions in central Asia at the time of the Russian financial crisis of August 1998; the channels by which the crisis was transmitted to the central Asian region; and the policy re...

A Primeron Mineral Taxation

A Primeron Mineral Taxation »

Volume/Issue: 2001/139

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Thomas Baunsgaard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856040.001

ISBN: 9781451856040

Keywords: mineral tax, mining and petroleum, mineral extraction, rate of return, tax system, fiscal stability, tax rate,

The paper discusses options available to tax mineral extraction projects particularly in developing countries. A desirable government share of the economic rent generated from mineral extraction can be achieved thr...

Institutional Reform in Transition Economies
			: How Far Have they Come

Institutional Reform in Transition Economies : How Far Have they Come »

Volume/Issue: 2001/114

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Beatrice Weder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853797.001

ISBN: 9781451853797

Keywords: Institutions, transition economies, institutional quality, institutional conditions, accession countries, Comparative Studies of Countries, Transition Countries,

This paper examines how institutional conditions in transition economies compare with those in the rest of the world using various indicators of governance. The focus is on the countries in Central and Eastern Euro...

The Imf and the Ruble Area, 1991-1993

The Imf and the Ruble Area, 1991-1993 »

Volume/Issue: 2001/101

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Odling-Smee , and Gonzalo Pastor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451852516.001

ISBN: 9781451852516

Keywords: ruble area, central banks, central bank, monetary union, foreign exchange, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

This paper summarizes the IMF advice on the ruble area as it was presented to the national authorities in Russia, the Baltic countries, and other states of the former Soviet Union in 1991-93. In the course of doing...

Transition Economies
			: How Appropriate is the Size and Scope of Government?

Transition Economies : How Appropriate is the Size and Scope of Government? »

Volume/Issue: 2001/55

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451847628.001

ISBN: 9781451847628

Keywords: reform, size of government, public spending, expenditure, expenditures, government spending, public expenditures, Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Planning, Coordination, and Reform,

This paper assesses changes in the size and scope of government in 24 transition economies. Whereas these governments have retrenched in terms of public expenditures in relation to GDP, as well as public employment...

Will the Emergence of the Euro Affect World Commodity Prices?

Will the Emergence of the Euro Affect World Commodity Prices? »

Volume/Issue: 2000/208

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hong Liang , and John Cuddington

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874693.001

ISBN: 9781451874693

Keywords: volatility, exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate volatility

This study provides evidence that episodes of internal stability of exchange rates among the 11 Euro countries during 1957-98 were associated with periods of lower real commodity price volatility. These stabilizing...

Fiscal Reform Over Ten Years of Transition

Fiscal Reform Over Ten Years of Transition »

Volume/Issue: 2000/113

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): George Tsibouris , and Vito Tanzi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853698.001

ISBN: 9781451853698

Keywords: fiscal reform, transition, tax system, tax revenue, tax administrations, tax policy, tax policy reform, Economic Reform,

This paper analyzes fiscal reforms in transition economies during the decade leading up to 1998. The paper argues that macroeconomic stabilization, price liberalization and privatization—the core reforms vis...

Growth Experience in Transition Countries, 90-98

Growth Experience in Transition Countries, 90-98 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 April 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758033.084

ISBN: 9781557758033

Keywords: transition economies, privatization, price liberalization, transition countries, export growth

This study, another in the series focusing on special issues in transition, reviews the experience of output decline and recovery in the 25 countries of eastern and central Europe and the Baltics, Russia, and other...

Uzbekistan
			: Recent Economic Developments

Uzbekistan : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 2000/36

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839791.002

ISBN: 9781451839791

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, official exchange rate, exchange rates, trading partners

The paper analyzes economic developments and policies over the past couple of years, with emphasis on the period since mid-1998. It assesses consequences for the economy of several external shocks and provides an o...

Compliance with IMF Program Indicators and Growth in Transition Economies

Compliance with IMF Program Indicators and Growth in Transition Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2000/47

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anna Unigovskaya , and Valerie Mercer-Blackman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846638.001

ISBN: 9781451846638

Keywords: structural benchmark, transition and growth, initial conditions, transition countries, price liberalization, external shocks

This paper makes use of the IMF’s Database for Monitoring Fund Arrangements (MONA) to investigate whether transition countries that more successfully implement the conditionality of IMF programs tend to show...

Welfare Effects of Uzbekistan's Foreign Exchange Regime

Welfare Effects of Uzbekistan's Foreign Exchange Regime »

Volume/Issue: 2000/61

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848168.001

ISBN: 9781451848168

Keywords: Welfare Analysis, Quasi-Fiscal Operations, exchange rates, exchange rate, foreign trade, multiple exchange rate

In addition to transferring about 16 percent of GDP from exporters to importers, Uzbekistan’s quasi-fiscal multiple exchange rate regime generates identifiable welfare losses of 2-8 percent of GDP on import...

Current Account and External Sustainability in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Current Account and External Sustainability in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Donal McGettigan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758262.084

ISBN: 9781557758262

Keywords: current account, debt, debt service, external debt, deficits

Large current account imbalances have been recorded in the Baltics, Russia, and other countries of the former Soviet Union since their independence. Are these current account positions sustainable, reflecting the s...

The Transition Economies After Ten Years

The Transition Economies After Ten Years »

Volume/Issue: 2000/30

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stanley Fischer , and Ratna Sahay

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844900.001

ISBN: 9781451844900

Keywords: inflation, inflation rates, transition period, price liberalization

This paper summarizes the macroeconomic performance of the transition economies. We first review the initial conditions confronting these economies, the reform strategy that was proposed, and the associated controv...

The Great Contractions in Russia, the Baltics and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union
			: A View From the Supply Side

The Great Contractions in Russia, the Baltics and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union : A View From the Supply Side »

Volume/Issue: 2000/32

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451845105.001

ISBN: 9781451845105

Keywords: Output, transition, growth, electricity, real gdp, tfp, electricity consumption, growth rates

The output contractions during the initial transition stages in the Baltics and in Russia and the other CIS countries are examined across several dimensions, and the reliability of the available official statistics...

IMF Survey
			: Volume 29, Issue 22

IMF Survey : Volume 29, Issue 22 »

Volume/Issue: 29/22

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451925647.023

ISBN: 9781451925647

Keywords: transition countries, transition economies, current account, current account deficits, external debt

Following are edited excerpts from IMF Managing Director Horst Köhler’s remarks, as prepared for delivery at the conference “Completing Transition: The Main Challenges,” held in Vienna,...

Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption in the Baltic and CIS Countries
			: The Role of the IMF

Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption in the Baltic and CIS Countries : The Role of the IMF »

Volume/Issue: 2000/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Emine Gürgen , and Thomas Wolf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451841626.001

ISBN: 9781451841626

Keywords: Governance, transition, Baltic, CIS, IMF, banking, transition economies, banking system, bank supervision, trade liberalization

This paper examines the indirect role the IMF plays in combating corruption in the Baltic and CIS countries by promoting structural reforms that help improve economic governance and thus reduce opportunities for re...

Economic Reforms in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

Economic Reforms in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758255.084

ISBN: 9781557758255

Keywords: inflation, central bank, monetary fund, banking, monetary policy

This occasional paper provides an overview of the economic reform experiences of the Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union since their independence at the turn of the decade. The choice of countries refle...

Transforming Financial Systems in the Baltics, Russia and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Transforming Financial Systems in the Baltics, Russia and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Series: Books

Author(s): Robert Price , Malcolm Knight , and Arne Petersen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 May 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757982.071

ISBN: 9781557757982

Keywords: central bank, foreign exchange, banking, national bank, monetary policy

In 1991, the Baltics, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union set out on the road to establishing market economies by lieberalizing prices, dismantling the instruments of central planning, and initiat...

The Evolution of Output in Transition Economies
			: Explaining the Differences

The Evolution of Output in Transition Economies : Explaining the Differences »

Volume/Issue: 1999/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Jeronimo Zettelmeyer , Eduardo Borensztein , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451849448.001

ISBN: 9781451849448

Keywords: transition economies, growth, output decline, recovery, structural reforms, output growth, correlation, equation, internal liberalization

What are the relative roles of macroeconomic variables, structural policies, and initial conditions in explaining the time path of output in transition and the large observed differences in output performance acros...

Macroeconomic Developments in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, 1992-97

Macroeconomic Developments in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, 1992-97 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Luis Valdivieso

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757807.084

ISBN: 9781557757807

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, current account, exchange rates, external debt

This paper discusses the significant overall progress with macro stabilization of these transition countries during 1992-1997. While average inflation declined steadily since 1992, output fell significantly for man...

Central Bank Autonomy, and Inflation and Output Performance in the Baltic States, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, 1995-1997

Central Bank Autonomy, and Inflation and Output Performance in the Baltic States, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, 1995-1997 »

Volume/Issue: 1999/4

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tonny Lybek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451842029.001

ISBN: 9781451842029

Keywords: Central bank independence, transition economies, central bank, inflation, monetary policy, central banks, monetary fund

A higher degree of de jure autonomy and accountability of the central banks of the Baltic states, Russia, and other countries of the former Soviet Union appears to be positively correlated with lower average inflat...

Uzbekistan
			: Recent Economic Developments

Uzbekistan : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1998/116

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451839784.002

ISBN: 9781451839784

Keywords: transition economies, transition countries, foreign exchange, current account balance, import substitution

This paper reviews economic developments in the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1992-97. It compares growth in Uzbekistan with that of other transition economies and seeks to shed light on why Uzbekistan has suffered...

Output Decline and Recovery in Uzbekistan
			: Past Performance and Future Prospects

Output Decline and Recovery in Uzbekistan : Past Performance and Future Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 1998/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jeronimo Zettelmeyer , and Günther Taube

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855357.001

ISBN: 9781451855357

Keywords: Transition, Growth, Output, Sustainability, inflation, transition economies, transition countries, foreign exchange, external liberalization

What explains Uzbekistan’s unusually mild “transformational recession” and its moderate recovery during 1996-97? We examine potential biases in output measurement, the role of “special f...

Recovery and Growth in Transition Economies 1990-97
			: A Stylized Regression Analysis

Recovery and Growth in Transition Economies 1990-97 : A Stylized Regression Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 1998/141

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451928365.001

ISBN: 9781451928365

Keywords: Transition and growth, reforms, sustainable growth, initial conditions of transition, transition economies, equation, transition countries, equations, price liberalization

This paper analyzes the determinants of growth in 25 transition economies during 1990–97. The paper’s main finding is that macroeconomic stabilization, structural reform, and reduction of government e...

The Uzbek Growth Puzzle

The Uzbek Growth Puzzle »

Volume/Issue: 1998/133

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jeronimo Zettelmeyer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451855463.001

ISBN: 9781451855463

Keywords: Transition, Growth, Output, Public Investment, Cotton, Energy, transition economy, transition economies, capital expenditure, transition countries

After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan’s output fell less than in any other former Soviet Republic, and growth turned positive in 1996/97. Given the country’s hesitant and idiosyncratic ap...

External Borrowing in the Baltics, Russia, and Other States of the Former Soviet Union
			: The Transition to a Market Economy

External Borrowing in the Baltics, Russia, and Other States of the Former Soviet Union : The Transition to a Market Economy »

Volume/Issue: 1998/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): John Odling-Smee , and Basil Zavoiceo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972610.003

ISBN: 9781451972610

Keywords: Baltics, External financing, External debt, Former Soviet Union, Montenegro, Russian Federation, Transition economies, Russia, CIS, debt

The external debt of many countries of the Baltics, Russia, and the former Soviet Union has been growing rapidly in recent years and has played an important part in the transition process. However, it is vital to s...

Central Bank Reforms in the Baltics, Russia, and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Central Bank Reforms in the Baltics, Russia, and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Malcolm Knight

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 February 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756985.084

ISBN: 9781557756985

Keywords: central bank, foreign exchange, banking, national bank, interbank market

Since 1991, the 15 countries under review - have to varying degrees, been pursuing reforms whose broad objectives have been to achieve market-based determination of interest rates and exchange rates, manage banking...