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The Financial Wealth of Corporations

The Financial Wealth of Corporations »

Source: The Financial Wealth of Corporations

Volume/Issue: 2016/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Hashimoto , and Noriaki Kinoshita

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2016

ISBN: 9781484395073

Keywords: Nonfinancial corporation, financial balance sheet, net financial wealth, balance sheet, equity, debt, balance sheets, stock, General, Methodology for Collecting

This paper analyzes the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector’s financial balance sheets using data available from the OECD. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP—a frequently use...

The Financial Wealth of Corporations

The Financial Wealth of Corporations »

Volume/Issue: 2016/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Hashimoto , and Noriaki Kinoshita

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484395073.001

ISBN: 9781484395073

Keywords: Nonfinancial corporation, financial balance sheet, net financial wealth, balance sheet, equity, debt, balance sheets, stock, General, Methodology for Collecting

This paper analyzes the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector’s financial balance sheets using data available from the OECD. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP—a frequently use...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354138.084

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Considerations for Pension Reform

Considerations for Pension Reform »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reforms should (1) contribute to fiscal consolidation efforts, (2) address equity issues, and (3) support economic growth. The objective of public pensions is to provide retirement income security wi...

Historical Trends in Public Pension Expenditures

Historical Trends in Public Pension Expenditures »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

This chapter analyzes historical trends in public pension spending in advanced and emerging market economies. These trends must be observed against the backdrop of gradual population aging. During 1970–2010...

The Outlook for Public Pension Spending

The Outlook for Public Pension Spending »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Population aging will accelerate markedly in advanced and emerging market economies over the coming decades and will put additional pressure on age-related spending for years to come. This chapter presents p...

Overview

Overview »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

This volume examines the outlook for pension spending over the coming decades, and options for reform. In advanced economies major rationalization of public spending, including on pensions, will in many case...

Overview of the Current Pension Landscape

Overview of the Current Pension Landscape »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension systems vary widely across advanced and emerging market economies. Differences include (but are not limited to) the respective roles of the public and private sectors in ensuring retirement income; w...

Pension Reform Options

Pension Reform Options »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

The risks associated with enacted reforms and the need for fiscal consolidation reinforce the importance of identifying additional measures to contain pension spending. The magnitude of the projected baselin...

Recent Pension Reform Initiatives

Recent Pension Reform Initiatives »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Many countries have initiated significant pension reform over the past decade. In advanced economies these reforms have been mainly of a parametric nature, involving future increases in the legal retirement...

Summary and Concluding Comments

Summary and Concluding Comments »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Summary of Issues and Policy Recommendations The need for pension reform varies across countries. Table 8.1 provides guidance on the need for reform and the main risks to the project...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066380.084

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

I Overview

I Overview »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

Exchange rate surveillance has always been at the core of the IMF’s responsibilities. Throughout its existence, the Fund has striven to strengthen its framework for assessing exchange rates, adapting it to u...

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The macroeconomic balance approach to exchange rate assessments consists of three steps. First, an equilibrium relationship between current account balances and a set of fundamentals is estimated with panel...

III Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Approach

III Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The reduced-form equilibrium real exchange rate (ERER) approach to exchange rate assessment consists of three steps. First, panel regression techniques are used to estimate an equilibrium relationship betwee...

IV External Sustainability

IV External Sustainability »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The external sustainability (ES) approach, not previously used in Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER) assessments, complements the two other methodologies by focusing on the relati...

V Conclusions

V Conclusions »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

This paper has presented three alternative methodologies to help gauge the consistency of current account balances and real effective exchange rates with their underlying fundamentals. While assessments of e...

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061613.054

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Gestión de gobierno y desarrollo sostenible

Gestión de gobierno y desarrollo sostenible »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

Las deficiencias en la gestión de gobierno plantean una serie de obstáculos para el desarrollo humano 52 . Cuando existe corrupción, los recursos presupuestarios se asignan a progr...

Introducción

Introducción »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

Uno de los retos a los que debe hacer frente la comunidad internacional es alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible. El desarrollo sostenible tiene tres pilares: el desarrollo económico, el desarrollo social y la p...

La política fiscal y la sostenibilidad del medio ambiente

La política fiscal y la sostenibilidad del medio ambiente »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

Tanto en los países desarrollados como en desarrollo, la política fiscal desempeña una función importante para garantizar que la utilización de los recursos naturales sea sostenible y se proteja al medio amb...

Política fiscal, desarrollo humano y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio

Política fiscal, desarrollo humano y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

El gasto público en educación y atención de la salud y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio La política del gasto público determinará en forma clave la medida en que los países pu...

Política fiscal y crecimiento

Política fiscal y crecimiento »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

Crecimiento económico, desarrollo sostenible y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio El crecimiento económico es esencial para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible y mejorar los resul...

Tareas pendientes

Tareas pendientes »

Source: Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781589061613

Son muchos los problemas económicos, sociales y ambientales que surgen cuando se establece como objetivo alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible, y no existe una panacea para resolverlos todos. Un desarrollo acele...

Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061590.054

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Fiscal Policy and Growth

Fiscal Policy and Growth »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Economic Growth, Sustainable Development, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Economic growth is essential for sustainable development and improving social outcomes....

Fiscal Policy for a Sustainable Environment

Fiscal Policy for a Sustainable Environment »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

In both developed and developing countries, fiscal policy has an important role to play in assuring sustainable use of natural resources and safeguarding the environment. This applies to both the tax and spe...

Fiscal Policy, Human Development, and the MDGs

Fiscal Policy, Human Development, and the MDGs »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Public Spending on Education and Health Care and the MDGs Government expenditure policy will have a key role in determining whether countries meet the MDGs. In many countries, the go...

Governance and Sustainable Development

Governance and Sustainable Development »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

Poor governance poses a number of obstacles to human development. 52 Corruption results in the allocation of budgetary resources for unproductive programs and inefficiencies in pu...

Introduction

Introduction »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

One of the challenges facing the international community is to achieve sustainable development. Sustainable development has three pillars— economic development, social development, and environmental protecti...

Moving Forward

Moving Forward »

Source: Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2002

ISBN: 9781589061590

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure

There are many economic, social, and environmental challenges along the path to sustainable development, and there is no panacea to address them all. Rather, accelerated development will require progress in...