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Norway
			: 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway

Norway : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway »

Volume/Issue: 2019/159

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498319157.002

ISBN: 9781498319157

Keywords: Financial statistics, Fiscal policy, Unemployment, Credit, Gross domestic product, Norges bank, non-oil, percent of GDP, output gap, CFT

While many advanced economies are experiencing slower growth, Norway's output has continued to expand strongly, helped by a robust labor market, positive terms of trade, and some competitiveness gains. Core inflati...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe
			: Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375402.086

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Economic activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, albeit at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. Domestic demand, supported by stronger employment and wages, remains the main engin...

Norway
			: 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway

Norway : 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway »

Volume/Issue: 2018/279

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484377055.002

ISBN: 9781484377055

Keywords: Europe, Norway

Norway is in the midst of a healthy recovery from the 2015-16 oil-driven downturn. After growing by 1.9 percent in 2017, mainland economic activity is expected to accelerate further and to grow by about 21/2 percen...

Norway
			: Selected Issues

Norway : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2018/280

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484377109.002

ISBN: 9781484377109

Keywords: Norway, Europe

Selected Issues...

Counting the Oil Money and the Elderly: Norway's Public Sector Balance Sheet

Counting the Oil Money and the Elderly: Norway's Public Sector Balance Sheet »

Volume/Issue: 2018/190

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ezequiel Cabezon , and Christian Henn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 August 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484370117.001

ISBN: 9781484370117

Keywords: Europe, Norway, Public Sector Balance Sheet, Intertemporal Fiscal Balances, Debt Sustainability, General, Social Security and Public Pensions, General, Governmental Loans and Credits, Norway

Based on a permanent income analysis, Gagnon (2018) has prominently suggested that Norway has saved too much, thereby free-riding on the rest of the world for demand. Our public sector balance sheet analysis comes...

Norway
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report

Norway : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/182

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484306789.002

ISBN: 9781484306789

Keywords: Norway, Europe

The sharp oil price slump in 2014-15 has hurt Norway's oil and gas sector, with spillover effects on supporting industries across the supply chain. Mainland growth fell to its lowest level since the 2008/09 crisis...

Norway
			: Selected Issues

Norway : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2017/181

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484306659.002

ISBN: 9781484306659

Keywords: Europe, Norway

Norway: Selected Issues...

Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust - 2016 Borrowing Agreements with Danmarks Nationalbank, the Norwegian Ministry of Finance Representing the Kingdom of Norway, and the Sveriges Riksbank

Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust - 2016 Borrowing Agreements with Danmarks Nationalbank, the Norwegian Ministry of Finance Representing the Kingdom of Norway, and the Sveriges Riksbank »

Volume/Issue: 2016/067

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345002.007

ISBN: 9781498345002

Keywords: Borrowing agreements, Danmarks Nationalbank, Denmark, Loans, Norway, Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust, Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden, SDR interest rates, Central banks

The Fund, as Trustee of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT or Trust),entered into an amendment of the 2010 borrowing agreement with Danmarks Nationalbank, and new borrowing agreements with the Norwegian M...

Norway
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway

Norway : 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway »

Volume/Issue: 2016/214

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345026.002

ISBN: 9781498345026

Keywords: Article IV consultation reports, Economic growth, Oil prices, Unemployment, Labor markets, Immigration, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Housing, Macroprudential Policy

The paper examines the nature and scale of spillovers to a number of European countries from monetary policies in the euro area and the United States using three different approaches. The analysis focuses on select...

Norway
			: Selected Issues

Norway : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/215

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345705.002

ISBN: 9781498345705

Keywords: Oil sector, Oil prices, Productivity, Private sector, Housing prices, Credit expansion, Macroprudential Policy, Selected Issues Papers, Norway

This paper discusses the oil economy, outlook, and risk for Norway. Growth has continued to slow in the mainland economy. At the start of this year, oil prices had dropped by roughly 60 percent from their peak in J...

United Kingdom
			: Selected Issues

United Kingdom : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/169

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484395370.002

ISBN: 9781484395370

Keywords: trade, exports, gdp, investment, financial sector

This paper aims to provide European Union (EU), while recognizing that the choice of whether to remain in the EU is for U.K. voters to make and that their decisions will reflect both economic and noneconomic factor...

Gender Diversity in Senior Positions and Firm Performance
			: Evidence from Europe

Gender Diversity in Senior Positions and Firm Performance : Evidence from Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2016/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lone Engbo Christiansen , Huidan Lin , Joana Pereira , Petia Topalova , and Rima Turk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513553283.001

ISBN: 9781513553283

Keywords: Gender diversity, senior management, firm performance, gender, women, female intensity, labor force, productivity, General, Economics of Gender

This paper examines the link between gender diversity in senior corporate positions and financial performance of 2 million companies in Europe. We document a positive association between corporate return on assets...

Unlocking Female Employment Potential in Europe
			: Drivers and Benefits

Unlocking Female Employment Potential in Europe : Drivers and Benefits »

Volume: 16

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Lone Engbo Christiansen , Huidan Lin , Joana Pereira , Petia Topalova , and Rima Turk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513562513.087

ISBN: 9781513562513

Keywords: Corporate governance, Gender equality, Labor force participation, Labor force policy, Output growth, women, labor force, gender, participation, labor

With an aging population and declining productivity growth, Europe faces serious challenges to raising its output growth. Adding to these challenges are the various gender gaps in the labor market. Despite signific...

Fiscal Analysis of Resource Industries
			: (FARI Methodology)

Fiscal Analysis of Resource Industries : (FARI Methodology) »

Volume: 16

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Oana Luca , and Diego Mesa Puyo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513575117.005

ISBN: 9781513575117

Keywords: Mining taxation, petroleum taxation, fiscal regime design, tax, instruments, revenue, valuation, cash flows, General, Business Taxes and Subsidies

This manual introduces key concepts and methodology used by the Fiscal Affairs Department (FAD) in its fiscal analysis of resource industries (FARI) framework. Proper evaluation of fiscal regimes for extractive ind...

Macroeconomic Stability in Resource-Rich Countries

Macroeconomic Stability in Resource-Rich Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2016/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elva Bova , Paulo Medas , and Tigran Poghosyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475596465.001

ISBN: 9781475596465

Keywords: resource-rich countries, procyclical fiscal policy, commodity, prices, price, fiscal policy, General, Models with Panel Data, All Countries,, Natural resources

Resource-rich countries face large and persistent shocks, especially coming from volatile commodity prices. Given the severity of the shocks, it would be expected that these countries adopt countercyclical fiscal p...

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind »

Volume/Issue: 2016/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lars Svensson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314787.001

ISBN: 9781498314787

Keywords: macroprudential policy, unemployment, unemployment rate, debt, marginal cost, benchmark, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), All Countries

“Leaning against the wind” (LAW) with a higher monetary policy interest rate may have benefits in terms of lower real debt growth and associated lower probability of a financial crisis but has costs in terms of hig...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

The Nordic Labor Market and Migration

The Nordic Labor Market and Migration »

Volume/Issue: 2015/254

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Giang Ho , and Kazuko Shirono

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513528366.001

ISBN: 9781513528366

Keywords: Nordic countries, migration, labor market, unemployment, Nordic model, labor, labor supply, drivers, Institutions and the Macroeconomy, Labor Force and Employment

The large influx of migrants to Nordic countries in recent years is challenging the adoptability of Nordic labor market institutions while also adding to potential growth. This paper examines the trends, economic d...

News Shocks in Open Economies
			: Evidence from Giant Oil Discoveries

News Shocks in Open Economies : Evidence from Giant Oil Discoveries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/209

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Valerie Ramey , and Liugang Sheng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513543154.001

ISBN: 9781513543154

Keywords: news shocks, current account and business cycles, production, investment, gdp, economy, capital, General, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper explores the effect of news shocks on the current account and other macroeconomic variables using worldwide giant oil discoveries as a directly observable measure of news shocks about future output ? the...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Crisis Management, Bank Resolution, and Financial Sector Safety Nets

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Crisis Management, Bank Resolution, and Financial Sector Safety Nets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/253

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513528298.002

ISBN: 9781513528298

Keywords: bank, financial institutions, capital, safety nets

This Technical Note reviews crisis management, bank resolution, and financial sector safety nets in Norway. Arrangements for crisis management, bank and group resolution, and the financial sector safety nets are we...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Insurance Sector Stress Tests

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Insurance Sector Stress Tests »

Volume/Issue: 2015/255

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513576497.002

ISBN: 9781513576497

Keywords: life insurance, solvency, liability, monetary fund

This Technical Note presents key findings of insurance sector stress tests on Norway. Although the financial condition of insurance companies under Solvency I has generally been sound, insurers face major challenge...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Linkages and Interconnectedness in the Norwegian Financial System

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Linkages and Interconnectedness in the Norwegian Financial System »

Volume/Issue: 2015/256

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513571737.002

ISBN: 9781513571737

Keywords: banks, bank, banking, credit

This Technical Note reviews linkages and interconnectedness in the Norwegian financial system for Norway. Norway's banks have important connections with global financial centers, but regional links are also importa...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note- Macroprudential Policy

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note- Macroprudential Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2015/257

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513531014.002

ISBN: 9781513531014

Keywords: banks, bank, capital, credit, lending

This Technical Note reviews macroprudential policy in Norway. The authorities have taken or announced a wide range of macroprudential measures to address systemic risk. Since the 2008 global financial crisis, the a...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Oversight and Supervision of Financial Market Infrastructure, and Selected Issues in the Payment System

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Oversight and Supervision of Financial Market Infrastructure, and Selected Issues in the Payment System »

Volume/Issue: 2015/254

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513532752.002

ISBN: 9781513532752

Keywords: bank, banks, risk, infrastructure

This Technical Note reviews the oversight and supervisory framework for systemically important Financial Market Infrastructure (FMI) in Norway. Norway has a modern and stable FMI. The assessment results suggest an...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note- Stress Testing the Banking Sector

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note- Stress Testing the Banking Sector »

Volume/Issue: 2015/258

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513586700.002

ISBN: 9781513586700

Keywords: banks, bank, banking, capital, risk

This Technical Note discusses results of banking sector stress tests on Norway. The Norwegian banking sector is generally well prepared to cope with possible external shocks, but imbalances have built up in recent...

Norway
			: 2015 Article IV Consultation - Press Release; Staff Report; Informational Annex; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway

Norway : 2015 Article IV Consultation - Press Release; Staff Report; Informational Annex; and Statement by the Executive Director for Norway »

Volume/Issue: 2015/249

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513582290.002

ISBN: 9781513582290

Keywords: oil prices, exchange, inflation, exchange rate, debt

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Norwegian economy performed well in 2014 despite the sharp fall in oil prices toward the end of the year. Mainland GDP grew at 2.2 percent, with weaker investme...

Norway
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program - Financial System Stability Assessment

Norway : Financial Sector Assessment Program - Financial System Stability Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2015/252

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513522111.002

ISBN: 9781513522111

Keywords: bank, capital, risk

This paper discusses key findings and recommendations of the Financial System Stability Assessment for Norway. Norway's financial system coped well with the global financial crisis and has further increased buffers...

Norway
			: Selected Issues

Norway : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2015/250

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513503165.002

ISBN: 9781513503165

Keywords: oil, gas, oil and gas, oil prices, gas sector

This Selected Issues paper analyzes Norway's economy that has a maturing oil and gas industry. Norway's half century of good fortune from its oil and gas wealth may have peaked. Oil and gas production will continue...

Distribución directa de los ingresos provenientes de recursos naturales
			: ¿vale la pena considerarla?

Distribución directa de los ingresos provenientes de recursos naturales : ¿vale la pena considerarla? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/5

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alex Segura-Ubiergo , and Enrique Flores

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 August 2015

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513592626.006

ISBN: 9781513592626

Keywords: Recursos naturales, Ingreso, Distribución del ingreso, Política fiscal

Algunos académicos han sostenido que la distribución directa a la población de ingresos públicos provenientes de recursos naturales ayudaría a los países ricos en recursos naturales a escapar de la 'maldición de l...

What Really Drives Public Debt
			: A Holistic Approach

What Really Drives Public Debt : A Holistic Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2015/137

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pablo Anaya , and Alex Pienkowski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513591353.001

ISBN: 9781513591353

Keywords: debt, interest, interest rate, General, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects),

This paper presents a novel approach to detail the propagation of shocks to public debt. The modeling technique involves a structural vector auto-regression (SVAR) estimator with an endogenous debt accumulation equ...

Spillovers in the Nordic Countries

Spillovers in the Nordic Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2015/70

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Borislava Mircheva , and Dirk Muir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475554106.001

ISBN: 9781475554106

Keywords: dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, Nordic countries, gdp, demand, consumption, real gdp, investment, Forecasting and Simulation, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments

Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden form a tightly integrated region which has strong ties with the euro area as well as some exposure to Russia. Using the IMF's Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF...

Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries

Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Maria Albino-War , Svetlana Cerovic , Francesco Grigoli , Juan Flores , Javier Kapsoli , Haonan Qu , Yahia Said , Bahrom Shukurov , Martin Sommer , and SeokHyun Yoon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498311397.006

ISBN: 9781498311397

Keywords: Central Asia and the Caucasus, Expenditure efficiency, Somalia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Public investment, Natural resources, Morocco, North Africa

Over the past decade, rising oil prices have translated into high levels of public investment in most MENA and CCA oil exporters. This has prompted questions about the efficiency of public investment in generating...

Determinants of Financial Market Spillovers
			: The Role of Portfolio Diversification, Trade, Home Bias, and Concentration

Determinants of Financial Market Spillovers : The Role of Portfolio Diversification, Trade, Home Bias, and Concentration »

Volume/Issue: 2014/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yoko Shinagawa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498365628.001

ISBN: 9781498365628

Keywords: Financial Spillover, Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS), Home Bias, portfolio investment, financial market, bond, bond markets, International Policy Coordination and Transmission, Portfolio Choice,

This paper defines financial market spillovers as the comovement between two countries' financial markets and analyzes financial market spillovers over the period 2001-12 through four channels: bilateral portfolio...

Norway
			: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

Norway : Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2014/259

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498393867.002

ISBN: 9781498393867

Keywords: oil, gas, fiscal policy, tax system, fiscal stance

A conservative minority government took office in October 2013, ending eight years of Labor party-led governments. No major policy shift has taken place so far, but the government's economic policy platform emphasi...

Norway
			: Selected Issues

Norway : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2014/260

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498374408.002

ISBN: 9781498374408

Keywords: immigration, labor market, labor supply, employment, unemployment

...

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries
			: A Handbook

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries : A Handbook »

Series: Books

Author(s): Jack Calder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475575170.071

ISBN: 9781475575170

Keywords: natural resource, natural resources, natural resource taxes, natural resource taxation, tax authority

This handbook is one of the first of its kind to focus attention on effectively administering revenues from extractive industries. It provides policymakers and officials in developing and emerging market economies...

Direct Distribution of Resource Revenues
			: Worth Considering?

Direct Distribution of Resource Revenues : Worth Considering? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/5

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alex Segura-Ubiergo , and Enrique Flores

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484367209.006

ISBN: 9781484367209

Keywords: Natural resources, Government expenditures and welfare programs, Fiscal policy, resource wealth management, direct redistribution, cash transfers, natural resource, cash transfer, Recursos naturales, Ingreso

Some scholars have argued that direct distribution of natural resource revenues to the population would help resource-rich countries escape the 'resource curse.' This discussion note analyzes whether this proposal...

Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive
			: A review of opportunities and barriers

Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive : A review of opportunities and barriers »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Anja Bundgaard , Carl Dalhammar , Erika Machacek , Kristina Overgaard Zacho , and Arne Remmen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327206

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, European Union, Resource Efficiency, Ecodesign Directive, Energy Efficiency, Product Durability, Legal Standards

The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource effi...

Articles treated with antibacterial agents
			: Outline of a strategy to reduce unjustified use

Articles treated with antibacterial agents : Outline of a strategy to reduce unjustified use »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Lolo Heijkenskjöld

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327244

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Antibacterial Garbage Bags, Antibiotics, Microorganisms, Antibacterial Agents, Nordic Workshop, Nordic Council of Ministers

Do we need antibacterial garbage bags? A wide range of antibacterial consumer articles can be found on the Internet. Mostly there is no information on the antibacterial agents used or on their efficacy. Does this r...

Best Environmental Practices in the Mining Sector in the Barents Region
			: International Conference 23-25 April 2013

Best Environmental Practices in the Mining Sector in the Barents Region : International Conference 23-25 April 2013 »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289326681

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Natural Resources, Strategic Importance, Best Environmental Practices, Environmental Issues, Increase Awareness, Abstracts of the Presentations

The natural resources of the Barents Region are of strategic importance for Europe. One intensively developing sector is mining, which will bring new opportunities to the region, but which will also cause changes i...

Co-ordination of research on working hours and health in the Nordic countries
			: Working hours and Health

Co-ordination of research on working hours and health in the Nordic countries : Working hours and Health »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): J. Axelsson , B. Bjorvatn , A.H. Garde , Å.M. Hansen , M. Härmä , P.U. Hjarsbech , M. Ingre , M.Aa. Jensen , G. Kecklund , H.A. Kolstad , J.A.S. Lie , A. Lowden , D. Matre , S.V. Møller , K. Nabe-Nielsen , S. Pallesen , R. Rugulies , P. Tucker , and H.T. Vistisen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327763

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, National Research Centre, Working Hours, Working Environment, Denmark, Research Projects, Cohorts

This report presents a summary of a workshop entitled Co-ordination of research on working hours and health in the Nordic countries. The workshop was held at the National Research Centre for the Working Environment...

The coexistence of two Ecolabels
			:  - The Nordic Ecolabel and the EU Ecolabel in the Nordic Countries

The coexistence of two Ecolabels : - The Nordic Ecolabel and the EU Ecolabel in the Nordic Countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Ulrik Boe Kjeldsen , Anja Krag , Peter Lange , Kasper Lindgaard , and Maja Tofteng

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327657

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Ecolabels, EU Ecolabel, Regional Ecolabels, DAMVAD, Swan Group, HKP-gruppen

This analysis looks closer at the synergies and positioning between the fee structures and criteria of the two ecolabels, the dissemination and success of the two labels within different product groups and the expe...

Collection & recycling of plastic waste
			: Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems in the Nordic countries

Collection & recycling of plastic waste : Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems in the Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Malin Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen , Anna Fråne , Stefán Gíslason , Søren Løkke , Kari-Anne Lyng , Åsa Stenmarck , and Margareta Wahlström

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289328043

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Plastic Waste, Nordic Countries, Plastic Packaging Waste, Green Growth Initiative, Green Growth the Nordic Way, MSW Sources

The first report from the project "Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems for plastic waste from households and other municipal waste sources" is focused on describing the existing situation when...

Contingency Planning for Animal Diseases
			: Baltic Seminar on "Contingency Planning for the next Decade" held 19 - 20 September 2012 Helsinki, Finland

Contingency Planning for Animal Diseases : Baltic Seminar on "Contingency Planning for the next Decade" held 19 - 20 September 2012 Helsinki, Finland »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Jørgen M. Westergaard

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327114

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Infectious Animal Diseases, Livestock Production, Avian Influenza, Classical Swine Fever, Pre-epidemic Period, Disease Eradication

Outbreaks of infectious animal diseases within the last 10 - 15 years in areas with intensive livestock production have shown how vulnerable the production systems can be when confronted with an outbreak of a highl...

Controlling Emissions from Wood Burning
			: Legislation and Regulations in Nordic Countries to Control Emissions from Residential Wood Burning An examination of Past Experience

Controlling Emissions from Wood Burning : Legislation and Regulations in Nordic Countries to Control Emissions from Residential Wood Burning An examination of Past Experience »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Svante Bodin , and Thomas Levander

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327428

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, ICCI, Arctic Cooperation Program, Black Carbon, Emissions, Nordic Countries, Wood Burning

This report has been produced by the International Cryosphere Climate Initiative (ICCI) under a grant from the Nordic Council of Ministers under its Arctic Cooperation Program, as part of a pilot project to reduce...

Decision-making management procedures
			: Cost - efficiency - democracy in selected procedures in Maritime Spatial Planning

Decision-making management procedures : Cost - efficiency - democracy in selected procedures in Maritime Spatial Planning »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Odma Johannesen , and Hans Lassen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327800

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Marine Natura 2000, Fisheries Management, Single-stringed System, Environmental-fisheries, Study Report, Stakeholder Involvement

This study report analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the procedures which are followed when designating marine Natura 2000 sites and when deciding what fisheries management measures are to be applied. The rep...

Ecosystem Services in Forests
			: How to assess and value them? Nordic Workshop, Oslo, Thursday 13th September 2012 - Conference report

Ecosystem Services in Forests : How to assess and value them? Nordic Workshop, Oslo, Thursday 13th September 2012 - Conference report »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327855

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Ecosystem, Forests, Nordic Council of Ministers, Oslo, Valuation Challenges, Knowledge of Services

A Nordic Workshop on "Ecosystem Services in Forests - how to assess and value them" was held in Oslo Thursday the 13th of September 2012. During the day, 13 presentations were made, and altogether 41 participants h...

Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Marika Bröckl , Julia Illman , Laura Oja , and Iivo Vehviläinen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327176

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Energy Efficiency, Policy Instruments, EU's Directive, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), Energy Audits, Best Practices

Bröckl, Marika; Illman, Julia; Oja, Laura; Vehviläinen,...

Environmental economic research as a tool in the protection of the Baltic Sea
			:  - costs and benefits of reducing eutrophication

Environmental economic research as a tool in the protection of the Baltic Sea : - costs and benefits of reducing eutrophication »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Lassi Ahlvik , Heini Ahtiainen , Janne Artell , Kerstin Blyh , Siv Ericsdotter , Berit Hasler , and Kari Hyytiäinen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289326919

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Ecological Analyses, Economic Analyses, Research Network, Baltic STERN, HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan, Eutrophication

This report reviews the findings of an ecological/economic analyses regarding the on-going and prospective efforts to reduce eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, conducted by Baltic STERN, an international research ne...

EPR systems and new business models
			: Reuse and recycling of textiles in the Nordic region

EPR systems and new business models : Reuse and recycling of textiles in the Nordic region »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Tomas Ekvall , Nikola Kiørboe , Thomas Lindhqvist , Kari-Ann Lyng , David Palm , and Haben Tekie

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327961

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Extended Producer Responsibility, Recycling of Textiles, Reuse of Textiles, Costs and Benefits of EPR-systems, Quantitative Evaluation, Green Growth Initiative

This report is the primary outcome from Part I of the project "An extended producer responsibility (EPR) system and new business models to increase reuse and recycling of textiles in the Nordic region" initiated by...

Equity and spectrum of mitigation commitments in the 2015 agreement

Equity and spectrum of mitigation commitments in the 2015 agreement »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Steffen Kallbekken , Håkon Sælen , and Arild Underdal

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327503

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Academic Literature Review, Mutual Recognition Approach, Principle of Reciprocity, Non-coercive Template of Indicators, Equity Indicators, Mitigation Commitments

To what extent and how can equity be operationalized in a spectrum of mitigation commitments? We approach this question through academic literature review and analysis of Parties submissions and statements. We argu...

Fisheries Management and Global Warming
			: Effects of climate change on fisheries in the Arctic region of the Nordic countries

Fisheries Management and Global Warming : Effects of climate change on fisheries in the Arctic region of the Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Arne Eide , Ann-Christin Ese , and Alf Håkon Hoel

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327299

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, FIMAGLOW, Global Warming, Arctic Fisheries, MaReMA Centre, Norwegian College, Fisheries Science

The FIMAGLOW project is a Nordic project with the aim to study possible drivers and impacts of global warming on Arctic fisheries. Two workshops has been held, serving to identify the relevant set of institutions a...

Global Sustainability & Human Prosperity
			:  - contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals

Global Sustainability & Human Prosperity : - contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Marcus C Öhman , Sarah Cornell , Tim Daw , Thomas Elmqvist , Victor Galaz , Ellika Hermansson Török , Claudia Ituarte-Lima , Fredrik Moberg , Albert Norström , Åsa Persson , Garry Peterson , Johan Rockström , and Maria Schultz

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327701

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, SDG, Social Needs, Environmental Challenges, Stockholm Resilience Centre, MDG, International Agreements

The development of a Post-2015 agenda and Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs, provide a global window of opportunity to address both social needs and environmental challenges together. This discussion paper by the...

Nordic Climate Policy
			: A Case Study on Efficient Policy Measures

Nordic Climate Policy : A Case Study on Efficient Policy Measures »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327558

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, GHG Emissions, Terms of a Good Environment, Climate Policies, World Resources Institute, Story of Climate Policy, International Network

The Nordic countries are often seen as green both in terms of a good environment and being capable of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This report is concerned with the development in GHG emissions over tim...

Nordic Exports of Goods and Exporting Enterprises

Nordic Exports of Goods and Exporting Enterprises »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327275

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Geographical Markets, Nordic Countries, Domestic Employment, Export Market, Statistical Institutes, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)

This report analyses the exports of goods from the Nordic countries and the exporting enterprises in the period 2008 to 2012. The report addresses issues such as: What are the strongholds of the Nordic countries, b...

The Nordic Swan and companies
			:  - Is it worthwhile to acquire the Swan Label?

The Nordic Swan and companies : - Is it worthwhile to acquire the Swan Label? »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Ulrik Boe Kjeldsen , Peter Lange , Kasper Lindgaard , Maja Tofteng , and Morten Wied

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327589

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Swan License, Swan Label, Swan Group, HKP Gruppen, DAMVAD, Åke Thidell

The purpose of the analysis is to study the implications it can have for a company to acquire the Swan License. The analysis takes a broad focus and investigates the follow-ing three themes: The motivation for comp...

Enhancing Ambition through International Cooperative Initiatives

Enhancing Ambition through International Cooperative Initiatives »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Nicolette Bartlett , Nadine Braun , Thomas Day , Yvonne Deng , Sandrine Dixson-Declève , and Niklas Höhne

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327466

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, International Cooperative Initiatives (ICIs), Global Emissions, Warming Limit, National Emission Reduction, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, Public Climate Finance

International Cooperative Initiatives (ICIs) could hold significant promise for closing the global emissions gap between a pathway to a 2°C warming limit and current national emission reduction pledges. This report...

Practical Methods for Assessing Private Climate Finance Flows

Practical Methods for Assessing Private Climate Finance Flows »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Nella Canales Trujillo , Mikko Halonen , Julia Illman , and Shelagh Whitley

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327022

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Climate Finance Commitment, Developing Countries, Climate Action, Three Nordic Case Studies, Mobilising Private Investment, Finance Landscape

In spite of the climate finance commitment by the developed countries to mobilise jointly 100 billion USD per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries from a wide variety of sources, there is no cl...

The land-use sector within the post-2020 climate regime

The land-use sector within the post-2020 climate regime »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Streck Charlotte , Eduard Merger , Charlie Parker , Timm Tennigkeit , and Andreas Wilkes

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327510

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Land-use Sector, Climate Regime, Coherent Vision, Climate Treaty, Integrated Accounting, Climate Focus

The land-use sector serves key environmental and social functions and supports the livelihoods of around a half of the world's population. Despite its importance, however, the climate regime fails to formulate a co...

The Nordic model - challenged but capable of reform

The Nordic model - challenged but capable of reform »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Karsten Albæk , Torben M. Andersen , Rita Asplund , Erling Barth , Bernt Bratsberg , Lars Calmfors , Antti Kauhanen , Jukka Lassila , Niku Määttänen , Mika Maliranta , Oddbjørn Raaum , Knut Røed , Kristine von Simson , Allan Sørensen , Tarmo Valkonen , Pekka Vanhala , and Vesa Vihriälä

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327787

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Welfare Model, Environmental Sustainability, Nordic Supermodel, Global Economic Crisis, Impacts of Global Competition, Population Ageing

The Nordic welfare model has received a lot of positive attention around the world. High standard of living, small income disparities and substantial social mobility looks like a very attractive package. Moreover,...

Northern Lights on TIMSS and PIRLS 2011
			: Differences and similarities in the Nordic countries

Northern Lights on TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 : Differences and similarities in the Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Ragnar F. Ólafsson , Liv Sissel Grønmo , Jan-Eric Gustafsson , Júlíus K. Björnsson , Pekka Kupari , Jan Mejding , Kari Nissinen , Louise Rønberg , Monica Rosén , Sari Sulkunen , and Kajsa Yang Hansen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327725

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Classrooms, School Performance, Policy Variations, Learning Outcomes, TIMSS, PIRLS

How is reading literacy taught in Nordic classrooms, and how is this influenced by the curricula?How can we improve mathematics teaching in Nordic classrooms?What is the relationship between school performance and...

Part-Time Work in the Nordic Region
			: Part-time work, gender and economic distribution in the Nordic countries

Part-Time Work in the Nordic Region : Part-time work, gender and economic distribution in the Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289326858

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Gender Equality, Professor of Labour Economics, Cooperation on Gender Equality, Develop Reports and Arrange Conferences, Aim of the Project, Work Affects the Economic Resources

Gender equality in the labour market is a key topic in the Nordic cooperation on gender equality. The Nordic Council of Ministers has asked NIKK, Nordic Information on Gender, to coordinate the project Part-Time Wo...

Plastic value chains
			: Case: WEEE (Waste Electric and electronic equipment) in the Nordic region

Plastic value chains : Case: WEEE (Waste Electric and electronic equipment) in the Nordic region »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): John Baxter , Malin Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen , Anna Fråne , Søren Løkke , Massimo Pizzol , Malin Stare , and Margareta Wahlstrom

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289328029

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Plastics Recycling, Nordic Electronic Waste, Near-source Treatment, Hazardous Materials, Electronics Producers, Green Growth Initiative

This project identifies thousands of tonnes per annum of potential enhanced plastics recycling from Nordic electronic waste. Plastics recycling does not always feature prominently in waste treatment. Recycling is t...

Reducing Climate Impact from Fisheries
			: A Study of Fisheries Management and Fuel Tax Concessions in the Nordic Countries

Reducing Climate Impact from Fisheries : A Study of Fisheries Management and Fuel Tax Concessions in the Nordic Countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Nguyen Ngoc Duy , Hans Ellefsen , Ola Flaaten , Jónas Hallgrimsson , Cecilia Hammarlund , Øystein Hermansen , John R. Isaksen , Marko Lindroos , Max Nielsen , Anton Paulrud , Fredrik Salenius , Daniel Schütt , and Staffan Waldo

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327831

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Impact from Human Activities, Global Warming, Marine Ecosystems, Economic Performance, Imposing Management Instruments, Efficient Fleets

Few doubt the impact from human activities on global warming and the negative consequences of rising temperatures for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Efficient policy instruments are needed to change the de...

Road to regulation of endocrine disruptors and combination effects

Road to regulation of endocrine disruptors and combination effects »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Birgitte Lindeman , and Karina Petersen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327749

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Endocrine Disruptors, EU Regulations, Combination Effects, Scientific Issues, Regulatory Intervention, Oslo Workshop

Discussions regarding regulation of endocrine disruptors (EDs) and combination effects are ongoing in Europe. Among the central topics of discussion are establishment of criteria for identification of EDs, whether...

Towards a new Nordic textile commitment
			: Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling

Towards a new Nordic textile commitment : Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Maria Elander , Stefán Gíslason , Nikola Kiørboe , Kari-Anne Lyng , and David Palm

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327985

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Textile Commitment, NAG, Voluntary Commitment, Textile Wastes, Waste Management, Green Growth

This report is the primary outcome from Part I of the project "Towards a new Nordic textile commitment - Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling" initiated by the Nordic Waste Group (NAG). The report for Part 2 wi...

Towards a Nordic textile strategy
			: Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of textiles

Towards a Nordic textile strategy : Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of textiles »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Helena Dahlbo , Maria Elander , Stefán Gíslason , Nikola Kiørboe , Kari-Anne Lyng , Katja Moliis , David Palm , Tomas Rydberg , Hanna Salmenperä , and Haben Tekie

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327947

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Textile Strategy, Textile Flows, Sorting Systems, Collection Flows, Contamination Levels, Cost

This report is the primary outcome from Part I of the project "Towards a Nordic textile strategy - Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of textiles" initiated by the Nordic Waste Group (NAG). The report for Par...

Trafficking in Human Beings

Trafficking in Human Beings »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327671

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Reported Cases of Trafficking, Human Trafficking has Increased, Identification of Victims, Russian Cooperation Project, Knowledge About Human Trafficking, International Organized Crime

In the Nordic countries, most of the reported cases of trafficking in human beings today concern women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation, but experiences from Europe indicate that human trafficking has i...

Two approaches to pricing pollution

Two approaches to pricing pollution »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Elina Berghäll , Christina van Breugel , Mattias Enggaard , Jes Erik Jessen , Christopher Sköld , and Ulrika Stavlöt

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327220

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Cap and Trade Method, Pricing Pollution, Average Abatement Cost, Working Group on Environment and Economy (MEG), Working Group for SCP (HKP), Nordic Council of Ministers

In comparison is the commonly used Cap and Trade method with an alternative and novel method for pricing pollution: The aim was to conduct a practical approach to clarify advantages and challenges of the respective...

Wildlife and Infectious Animal Diseases
			: The Proceedings of a Nordic - Baltic seminar on the role of the wildlife as reservoir and /or spread of infectious animal diseases in the coastal areas of countries bordering the Baltic Sea 2 - 3 October 2013, Gdansk, Poland

Wildlife and Infectious Animal Diseases : The Proceedings of a Nordic - Baltic seminar on the role of the wildlife as reservoir and /or spread of infectious animal diseases in the coastal areas of countries bordering the Baltic Sea 2 - 3 October 2013, Gdansk, Poland »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Jørgen M. Westergaard

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2014

ISBN: 9789289327107

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic –; Baltic Seminar, Infectious Animal Diseases, Baltic Sea, Wildlife Populations, Social and Cultural Value, Disease Surveillance and Monitoring Programmes

The Nordic -Baltic seminar on the role of wildlife as reservoir and/or spread of infectious animal diseases in the coastal areas of countries bordering the Baltic Sea was held in Gdansk, Poland from 2-3 October 201...

From Volatility to Stability in Expenditure
			: Stabilization Funds in Resource-Rich Countries

From Volatility to Stability in Expenditure : Stabilization Funds in Resource-Rich Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/43

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Naotaka Sugawara

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 March 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515275.001

ISBN: 9781475515275

Keywords: stabilization fund, fiscal volatility, government expenditure, institution, stabilization, expenditure, public spending, Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary or Stabilization Policy, General, Government Policy,

This paper examines the effect of stabilization funds on the volatility of government expenditure in resource-rich countries. Using a panel data set of 68 resource-rich countries over 1988-2012, the results find th...

Resource Blessing, Revenue Curse? Domestic Revenue Effort in Resource-Rich Countries

Resource Blessing, Revenue Curse? Domestic Revenue Effort in Resource-Rich Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/5

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351178.001

ISBN: 9781484351178

Keywords: resource revenue, taxation, tax effort, fiscal affairs, General, Resource Booms, Government Policy,

This paper uses a newly constructed revenue dataset of 35 resource-rich countries for the period 1992-2009 to analyze the impact of expanding resource revenues on different types of domestic (non resource) tax reve...

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology »

Volume/Issue: 2013/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , Luis Catão , Luca Ricci , Rudolfs Bems , Mitali Das , Julian Di Giovanni , Filiz Unsal , Marola Castillo , Jungjin Lee , Jair Rodriguez , and Mauricio Vargas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484346686.001

ISBN: 9781484346686

Keywords: net foreign assets, current accounts, private credit, reserve currency, current account balances, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Policy Coordination and Transmission,

The External Balance Assessment (EBA) methodology has been developed by the IMF's Research Department as a successor to the CGER methodology for assessing current accounts and exchange rates in a multilaterally con...

International Corporate Governance Spillovers
			: Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

International Corporate Governance Spillovers : Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions »

Volume/Issue: 2013/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Albuquerque , Luis Brandao-Marques , Miguel Ferreira , and Pedro Matos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475518382.001

ISBN: 9781475518382

Keywords: Cross border mergers, acquisitions, governance, governance index, improving governance, outside shareholders, Government Policy and Regulation, Cross border mergers and acquisitions,

We develop and test the hypothesis that foreign direct investment promotes corporate governance spillovers in the host country. Using firm-level data on cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and corporate gov...

Sovereign Wealth Funds
			: Aspects of Governance Structures and Investment Management

Sovereign Wealth Funds : Aspects of Governance Structures and Investment Management »

Volume/Issue: 2013/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abdullah Al-Hassan , Michael Papaioannou , Martin Skancke , and Cheng Chih Sung

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475518610.001

ISBN: 9781475518610

Keywords: governance structure, investment management, macroeconomic coordination, investment strategy, investment strategies, Portfolio Choice,

This paper presents in a systematic (normative) manner the salient features of a SWF‘s governance structure, in relation to its objectives and investment management that can ensure its efficient operation an...

Spillovers to and from the Nordic Economies
			: A Macroeconometric Model Based Analysis

Spillovers to and from the Nordic Economies : A Macroeconometric Model Based Analysis »

Volume/Issue: 2013/225

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francis Vitek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 November 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475514667.001

ISBN: 9781475514667

Keywords: Spillover analysis, Trade linkages, Financial linkages, External risks, Policy coordination, bond, domestic demand, world economy, stock market, financial market

This paper analyzes the transmission of shocks and policies among and across the Nordic economies and the rest of the world. This spillover analysis is based on a pair of estimated structural macroeconometric model...

Procyclical Behavior of Institutional Investors During the Recent Financial Crisis
			: Causes, Impacts, and Challenges

Procyclical Behavior of Institutional Investors During the Recent Financial Crisis : Causes, Impacts, and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2013/193

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Papaioannou , Joonkyu Park , Jukka Pihlman , and Han Hoorn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336083.001

ISBN: 9781484336083

Keywords: long-term investments, institutional investors, procyclicality, financial stability, financial system, financial markets, bonds, bond, Portfolio Choice,

This paper (i) provides evidence on the procyclical investment behavior of major institutional investors during the global financial crisis; (ii) identifies the main factors that could account for such behavior; (i...

Nordic Regional Report
			: Selected Issues

Nordic Regional Report : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/275

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484391556.002

ISBN: 9781484391556

Keywords: banking, banking system, deposit insurance, deposit insurance coverage, banking sector

This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared ri...

Nordic Regional Report
			: 2013 Cluster Consultation

Nordic Regional Report : 2013 Cluster Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/274

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475589511.002

ISBN: 9781475589511

Keywords: banking, banking sector, banking system, banking union

This paper examines 2013 Cluster Consultation-a Nordic Regional IMF staff report. Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden that form the Nordic region share a set of strong economic and social institutions and policies...

Norway
			: 2013 Article IV Consultation

Norway : 2013 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/272

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484340028.002

ISBN: 9781484340028

Keywords: oil, fiscal rule, gas, fiscal policy, fiscal transfer

This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that Norwegian economy has been performing well, with mainland GDP growing steadily. However, the continuing buildup of assets in the sovereign wealth fund and the incre...

Norway
			: Selected Issues

Norway : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/273

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475528862.002

ISBN: 9781475528862

Keywords: oil, fiscal transfer, gas, fiscal rule, fiscal transfers

This paper focuses on Norway's 2013 Article IV Consultation on economic policies to enhance long-term competitiveness. The success of the oil sector has created new competitiveness challenges. The IMF report states...

Age at retirement by educational background in Nordic countries

Age at retirement by educational background in Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326667

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Labour Force, Nordic Countries, Retirement Age, Absent Additional Pension Policy Changes, Educational Level, Field of Study

The labour force in Nordic countries will change over the next few years. Absent additional pension policy changes, a majority of working persons age 50 and older will retire by 2020. Average retirement age varies...

Agriculture and the environment in the Nordic countries
			: Policies for sustainability and green growth

Agriculture and the environment in the Nordic countries : Policies for sustainability and green growth »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Valborg Kvakkestad , Øystein Skutevik , and Anne Strøm Prestvik

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325950

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Agricultural Products, Natural Resources, Fragile Ecosystems, Sustainable Agricultural Practices, Green Growth, Water Pollution

In the future, demand for agricultural products will increase. The agricultural sector must meet the increase in demand without compromising the natural resources of which it depends on and damage fragile ecosystem...

Allergen labelling and use of advisory labelling "May contain traces of [allergen]"

Allergen labelling and use of advisory labelling "May contain traces of [allergen]" »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Siri B. Svinddal

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289324588

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Inspection Campaign, Labelling of Allergens, Advisory Labelling, Accurate Labelling of Allergens, Allergy Safety, Nordic Co-operation

In 2010-2012, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland collaborated in a Nordic inspection campaign about labelling of allergens and use of advisory labelling ("May contain traces of [allergen]"). The background to the...

Balancing protection and prosecution in anti-trafficking policies
			: A comparative analysis of reflection periods and related temporary residence permits for victims of trafficking in the Nordic countries, Belgium and Italy

Balancing protection and prosecution in anti-trafficking policies : A comparative analysis of reflection periods and related temporary residence permits for victims of trafficking in the Nordic countries, Belgium and Italy »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Anette Brunovskis

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289324236

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Trafficking, European Countries, Reflection Period, Victim Protection, Traffickers, Nordic Countries

When victims of trafficking are identified in a country of destination, they are often in a situation marked by lack of clarity. In response to this, most European countries have a so-called reflection period for v...

Baltic Investment Programme
			:  - Twenty Years of Joint Nordic Financial and Technical Assistance to the Three Baltic Countries

Baltic Investment Programme : - Twenty Years of Joint Nordic Financial and Technical Assistance to the Three Baltic Countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Ib Katznelson

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326414

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Baltic Investment Programme, European Union, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, National Investment Banks, Commercial Financial Sector, Economic Growth

The Baltic Investment Programme was first launched for the period 1992-1995. It was then extended for another period, 1995-1998. In 1998 it was decided to let the programme come to a gradual end in 2003, the year b...

Children's Participation and Decision-Making in Medical Matters

Children's Participation and Decision-Making in Medical Matters »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Helena von Troil

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326261

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, International and National Agreements, Conventions Children, Medical Treatment, Conference Summary Highlights, Participation in Medical Research, Decision-making

According to international and national agreements and conventions children have a right to express their views in all matters affecting them. However it is one thing to state that children have a right to express...

China's State-Owned Enterprises as Climate Policy Actors
			: The Power and Steel Sectors

China's State-Owned Enterprises as Climate Policy Actors : The Power and Steel Sectors »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Henrik Bergsager , and Anna Korppoo

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325356

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Greenhouse Gas, State Owned Enterprises (SOEs), Electricity and Steel Sectors, Guanxi and Nomenklatura, Emission Growth, Political Leadership

A significant share of the greenhouse gas emitting activities of China is operated by state owned enterprises (SOEs). This report, written by Fridtjof Nansen Institute for the Nordic Council of Ministers, discusses...

Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Kjetil Martinsen , and Asbjørn Torvanger

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325165

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Shipping, Environmental Regulations, Pollution Burden, DNV, Control Mechanisms, Ship Emission

Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite drama...

Creating an inclusive labour market
			: Inclusion of youths, people with disabilities and seniors (a summary)

Creating an inclusive labour market : Inclusion of youths, people with disabilities and seniors (a summary) »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Ragna Flø , Bjørn Halvorsen , Ole-Johnny Hansen , and Jenny Tägtström

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325745

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Welfare, Economic Independence, Labour Market Inclusion Project, Project Stresses, Individually Adapted, Universal Solutions

High participation in the labour market is the cornerstone of Nordic welfare and high living standards. In all the Nordic countries, the goal is that as many as possible can participate in employment. Work provides...

Discovery and characterisation of dietary patterns in two Nordic countries
			: Using non-supervised and supervised multivariate statistical techniques to analyse dietary survey data

Discovery and characterisation of dietary patterns in two Nordic countries : Using non-supervised and supervised multivariate statistical techniques to analyse dietary survey data »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Anna Edberg , Sisse Fagt , Eva Freyhult , Lene Frost Andersen , Mats G. Gustafsson , Ulf Hammerling , Anna Karin Lindroos , Vibeke Kildegaard Knudsen , Salomon Sand , and Daniel Soeria-Atmadja

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325813

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Multivariate Data Analysis, Pattern Discovery, Predictive Modelling, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Factor Analysis, Dietary Prototypes

This Nordic study encompasses multivariate data analysis (MDA) of preschool Danish as well as pre- and elementary school Swedish consumers. Contrary to other counterparts the study incorporates two separate MDA var...

Economic Outlook in the Nordic Countries 2014
			: The Nordic Working Group of Economic Trends Review, autumn 2013

Economic Outlook in the Nordic Countries 2014 : The Nordic Working Group of Economic Trends Review, autumn 2013 »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326599

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Economic Outlook, Nordic Working Group, Economic Trends, Economic Situation, Nordic Countries

The Economic Outlook in the Nordic countries 2014 is the review from the Nordic Working Group of Economic Trends for the economic situation in the Nordic countries autumn 2013. The review contents as previous years...

Efficient strategy to support renewable energy
			: Integration in overall climate and energy security policies

Efficient strategy to support renewable energy : Integration in overall climate and energy security policies »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Elin Bergman , Martin Bo Hansen , Helge Sigurd Næss-Schmidt , and Patrik Söderholm

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325691

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Renewable Energy, Climate Change, Energy Security, Low Carbon Technologies, Nordic Council, Copenhagen Economics

This report reviews how the Nordic countries can develop a strategy for renewable energy that delivers efficiently on the two underlying policy objectives of climate change and energy security challenges. The overa...

The financial crisis and fiscal consolidation in green budgets

The financial crisis and fiscal consolidation in green budgets »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Annegrete Bruvoll , Silja Kralik , Friðrik Már Baldursson , and Haakon Vennemo

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289324793

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Fiscal Consolidation, Environmental Tax, Subsidy Reforms, Economic Efficiency, Financial Crisis, Environmental Tax Policy

This project adds insight into the potential contribution to fiscal consolidation from environmental tax and subsidy reforms, i.e. strengthening public budgets while at the same time improving economic efficiency a...

A Framework for Multispecies Assessment and Management
			: An ICES/NCM Background Document

A Framework for Multispecies Assessment and Management : An ICES/NCM Background Document »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Bjarte Bogstad , Stuart Reeves , Anna Rindorf , Jörn Schmidt , and Yvonne Walther

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325844

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Fisheries Management, Management Advice, Goals for Management, Science and Policy Domains, Baltic Sea, North Sea

The report describes a framework that can be used to identify the most important trade-offs in ecosystem based fisheries management. The framework contains a description of how to identify the border between the sc...

Labour migrants from Central and Eastern Europe in the Nordic countries
			: Patterns of migration, working conditions and recruitment practices

Labour migrants from Central and Eastern Europe in the Nordic countries : Patterns of migration, working conditions and recruitment practices »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Line Eldring , and Jon Horgen Friberg

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326247

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, New Comparative Knowledge, Labour Migrants, Recruitment Processes, Polish Labour Migrants, National Regulations, Nordic Labour Markets

This report presents the results from a project that has aimed to generate new comparative knowledge about labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe to the Nordic countries, the factors that shape wage and w...

A matter of health and job satisfaction
			: Seniors, work and retirement in the Nordic region

A matter of health and job satisfaction : Seniors, work and retirement in the Nordic region »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Bjørn Halvorsen , and Jenny Tägtström

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325677

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Countries, Work Participation, Welfare Perspective, Labour Market, Social Insurance Systems, Discrimination

In all the Nordic countries there is a declared policy of increasing work participation among seniors. The most important reason comes from a more long-term population, generation and welfare perspective: gradually...

Natural Capital in a Nordic context
			: Status and Challenges in the Decade of Biodiversity

Natural Capital in a Nordic context : Status and Challenges in the Decade of Biodiversity »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Sanna Ahvenharju , Marika Bröckl , Leonardo Mazza , Tiina Pursula , and Patrick ten Brink

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325349

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, International Approaches, Capital Accounting, Biodiversity, Ecosystems, Gaia Consulting, European Environmental Policy

The report reviews different international approaches for natural capital accounting. The five approaches reviewed are attempts to help create an improved evidence base on the links between biodiversity and ecosyst...

Nordic Economic Policy Review
			: Challenges in health care financing and provision

Nordic Economic Policy Review : Challenges in health care financing and provision »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Tor Iversen , and Sverre Kittelsen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289324960

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Economic Policy, Nordic Council of Ministers, Primary Health Care, Chronic Conditions, Price Rationing, Nordic Hospitals

The Nordic Economic Policy Review is published by the Nordic Council of Ministers and addresses policy issues in a way that is useful for in-formed non-specialists as well as for professional economists. All articl...

Nordic Economic Policy Review
			: Globalization, labour market institutions and wage structure

Nordic Economic Policy Review : Globalization, labour market institutions and wage structure »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Erling Barth , and Kalle O. Moene

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326612

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Economic Policy, Nordic Council of Ministers, Policy Issues, Informed Non-specialists, Professional Economists, Review Articles

The Nordic Economic Policy Review is published by the Nordic Council of Ministers and addresses policy issues in a way that is useful for in-formed non-specialists as well as for professional economists. All articl...