Browse

You are looking at 1 - 71 of 71 items :

  • Type: Books and Journals x
Clear All Modify Search
Migration and Remittances in Latin America and the Caribbean
			: Engines of Growth and Macroeconomic Stabilizers?

Migration and Remittances in Latin America and the Caribbean : Engines of Growth and Macroeconomic Stabilizers? »

Volume/Issue: 2017/144

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kimberly Beaton , Svetlana Cerovic , Misael Galdamez , Metodij Hadzi-Vaskov , Franz Loyola , Zsoka Koczan , Bogdan Lissovolik , Jan Martijn , Yulia Ustyugova , and Joyce Wong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303641.001

ISBN: 9781484303641

Keywords: Dominica, Dominican Republic, Caribbean, Costa Rica, Antigua and Barbuda, Asia and Pacific, Bahamas, The, Barbados, Belize, El Salvador

Outward migration has been an important phenomenon for countries in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC), particularly those in Central America and the Caribbean. This paper examines recent trends in outward migr...

Nicaragua
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report

Nicaragua : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/173

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484305638.002

ISBN: 9781484305638

Keywords: Western Hemisphere, Nicaragua

This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights Nicaragua's robust macroeconomic performance in 2016. Real GDP grew by 4.7 percent in 2016, supported by strong domestic demand, while inflation remained subdued at 3.1...

Nicaragua
			: Selected Issues

Nicaragua : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2017/174

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484305645.002

ISBN: 9781484305645

Keywords: Nicaragua, Western Hemisphere

This Selected Issues paper analyzes Nicaragua's social security system, which is projected to run out of liquid reserves by 2019, several years earlier than anticipated. To avoid burdening the budget, reforms to th...

Cluster Report
			: Trade Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

Cluster Report : Trade Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean »

Volume/Issue: 2017/66

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 March 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475586015.002

ISBN: 9781475586015

Keywords: Puerto Rico, Suriname, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica

This Cluster Report explores opportunities for trade integration in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. It finds that the region can reap significant growth benefits from further trade integration. With tra...

How to Check Integrity of Fiscal Data

How to Check Integrity of Fiscal Data »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Pokar Khemani , and Benoit Wiest

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475546736.061

ISBN: 9781475546736

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, Nicaragua, Malawi, Fiscal transparency, Public financial management, Western Hemisphere, Fiscal reporting, international standards, government financial statistics, data

The accuracy and reliability of government accounts and fiscal data is an issue in a number of countries, with significant and persistent discrepancies that can indicate underlying weaknesses in the country's publi...

Power It Up
			: Strengthening the Electricity Sector to Improve Efficiency and Support Economic Activity

Power It Up : Strengthening the Electricity Sector to Improve Efficiency and Support Economic Activity »

Volume/Issue: 2016/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriel Di Bella , and Francesco Grigoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484322437.001

ISBN: 9781484322437

Keywords: Credible and Non-Credible Promises, Economic efficiency, Economic infrastructure, Electricity Sector, Electricity Theft, Haiti, Nicaragua

Poor performance of the electricity sector remains a drag to economic efficiency and a bottleneck to economic activity in many low-income countries. This paper proposes a number of models that account for different...

Nicaragua
			: 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua

Nicaragua : 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua »

Volume/Issue: 2016/34

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498390705.002

ISBN: 9781498390705

Keywords: transparency, monetary fund, macroeconomic stability, debt, tax

The 2015 Article IV Consultation presents economic outlook and risks of Nicaragua. Over the last three years, real GDP growth has averaged 4.8 percent, one of the highest in the region, while inflation has remained...

Gestión financiera pública en América Latina
			: La clave de la eficiencia y la transparencia

Gestión financiera pública en América Latina : La clave de la eficiencia y la transparencia »

Series: Books

Publisher: Inter-American Development Bank

Publication Date: 19 January 2016

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781597822244.071

ISBN: 9781597822244

Keywords: Public financial management, Latin America, contabilidad, costo, presupuestos, compras, deuda, gestión financiera pública, América Latina

La eficiencia, la eficacia y la transparencia de la gestión financiera pública en América Latina son fundamentales para la supervisión de los recursos públicos, la estabilidad fiscal y el desarrollo económico soste...

Perspectivas económicas regionales, octubre de 2015: Departamento del Hemisferio Occidental
			: Ajustando bajo presión

Perspectivas económicas regionales, octubre de 2015: Departamento del Hemisferio Occidental : Ajustando bajo presión »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2015

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513540610.086

ISBN: 9781513540610

Keywords: intereses, comercio, intercambio, tasa de interés, desarrollo financiero

....

Institutions and Growth
			: a GMM/IV Panel VAR Approach

Institutions and Growth : a GMM/IV Panel VAR Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2015/174

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carlos Góes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513555508.001

ISBN: 9781513555508

Keywords: Institutions, Panel VAR, Economic Development, gdp, gdp per capita, results, Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods, Models with Panel Data, Institutions and Growth, Economic Development.,

Both sides of the institutions and growth debate have resorted largely to microeconometric techniques in testing hypotheses. In this paper, I build a panel structural vector autoregression (SVAR) model for a short...

What Matters for Financial Development and Stability?

What Matters for Financial Development and Stability? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Raja Almarzoqi , Sami Ben Naceur , and Akshay Kotak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513501178.001

ISBN: 9781513501178

Keywords: financial development, financial possibility frontier, variables, benchmarks, trade, economy, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)

This study aims to identify policies that influence the development of financial institutions as measured across three dimensions: depth, efficiency, and stability. Applying the concept of the financial possibility...

Perspectivas económicas, abril de 2015: Las Américas,
			: El Norte se recupera, el Sur aún espera

Perspectivas económicas, abril de 2015: Las Américas, : El Norte se recupera, el Sur aún espera »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 May 2015

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318768.086

ISBN: 9781484318768

Keywords: América Latina; exportadores de materias primas; economías que dependen del turismo; América Central y la República Dominicana; economía finacieramente integradas

Perspectivas económicas: Las Américas, abril de 2015...

Energy Subsidies in Latin America and the Caribbean
			: Stocktaking and Policy Challenges

Energy Subsidies in Latin America and the Caribbean : Stocktaking and Policy Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2015/30

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriel Di Bella , Lawrence Norton , Joseph Ntamatungiro , Sumiko Ogawa , Issouf Samaké , and Marika Santoro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484365366.001

ISBN: 9781484365366

Keywords: Energy Subsidies, Latin America and the Caribbean, energy, electricity, prices, fuel, oil, General,

The oil price decline creates an opportunity to dismantle energy subsidies, which escalated with high oil prices. This paper assesses energy subsidies in Latin America and the Caribbean-about 1.8 percent of GDP in...

Does Lower Debt Buy Higher Growth? The Impact of Debt Relief Initiatives on Growth

Does Lower Debt Buy Higher Growth? The Impact of Debt Relief Initiatives on Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2014/230

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sandra Marcelino , and Ivetta Hakobyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 December 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498369671.001

ISBN: 9781498369671

Keywords: Growth, debt, debt burden, debt sustainability, external debt, International Lending and Debt Problems, Economic Growth of Open Economies, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

In 1996, the IMF and the World Bank introduced the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative-a comprehensive debt relief program aimed at reducing the external debt burden of eligible countries to sustainable leve...

An Application of the "Fan-Chart Approach" to Debt Sustainability in Post-HIPC Low-Income Countries

An Application of the "Fan-Chart Approach" to Debt Sustainability in Post-HIPC Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2014/102

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Maximilien Kaffo Melou , Mariusz Sumlinski , and Chris Geiregat

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345033.001

ISBN: 9781498345033

Keywords: HIPC, MDRI, fan chart, debt sustainablity, debt relief, debt sustainability, debt accumulation, debt dynamics, Deficit, International Lending and Debt Problems

We analyse the debt dynamics in countries that benefited from the HIPC/MDRI debt relief initiatives with a view to applying a probabilistic approach to estimating future debt paths for those countries. We extend t...

Perspectivas económicas regionales, abril de 2014: Departamento del Hemisferio Occidental

Perspectivas económicas regionales, abril de 2014: Departamento del Hemisferio Occidental »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 April 2014

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484346129.086

ISBN: 9781484346129

Los cinco informes sobre las perspectivas económicas regionales (informes REO) que el FMI publica semestralmente abarcan Asia y el Pacífico, Europa, Oriente Medio y Asia Central, África sub-sahariana y las Américas...

Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth

Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2014/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Andrew Berg , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 February 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484352076.006

ISBN: 9781484352076

Keywords: Redistribution, Inequality, Growth, gini, redistributive transfers, income distribution, dependent variable, gini coefficient, and Growth,

The Fund has recognized in recent years that one cannot separate issues of economic growth and stability on one hand and equality on the other. Indeed, there is a strong case for considering inequality and an inabi...

Nicaragua
			: Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation

Nicaragua : Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/377

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335437.002

ISBN: 9781484335437

Keywords: central bank, current account, public debt, debt ratios, current account deficits

This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that during the past two years, macroeconomic developments in Nicaragua have been generally favorable. Real GDP grew by an average of 51/4 percent during 2011-2012, and...

Tax Coordination, Tax Competition, and Revenue Mobilization in the West African Economic and Monetary Union

Tax Coordination, Tax Competition, and Revenue Mobilization in the West African Economic and Monetary Union »

Volume/Issue: 2013/163

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mario Mansour , and Gregoire Rota Graziosi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 July 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484354216.001

ISBN: 9781484354216

Keywords: Revenue mobilization, Tax policy, Tax revenues, West African Economic and Monetary Union, tax coordination, tax harmonization, tax competition

We review the current state of the West African Economic and Monetary Union's tax coordination framework, against the main objectives of the WAEMU Treaty of 1994: reduce distortions to intra-community trade, and mo...

The Economic Effects of Fiscal Consolidation with Debt Feedback

The Economic Effects of Fiscal Consolidation with Debt Feedback »

Volume/Issue: 2013/136

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marcello Estevão , and Issouf Samaké

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484304488.001

ISBN: 9781484304488

Keywords: Identification, Fiscal mulpiliers, Consolidation, SVECM, fiscal policy, fiscal consolidation, fiscal multipliers, tax revenue, government spending, General,

The past several years of recession and slow recovery have raised much interest on the effect of fiscal stimulus on economic activity, even as high public debts in many countries would call for fiscal consolidation...

Centroamérica, Panamá y la República Dominicana
			: Desafíos tras la crisis mundial de 2008-09

Centroamérica, Panamá y la República Dominicana : Desafíos tras la crisis mundial de 2008-09 »

Series: Books

Author(s): Marco Pinon , Alejandro Lopez Mejia , M. (Mario) Garza , and Fernando Delgado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2012

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475513134.071

ISBN: 9781475513134

América Central, Panamá y la República Dominicana sobrellevaron bien la crisis financiera mundial de 2008-09. El impacto fue en general menos severo y de menor duración que en episodios anteriores, el ajuste de la...

Nicaragua
			: Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement

Nicaragua : Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement »

Volume/Issue: 2012/258

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506648.002

ISBN: 9781475506648

Keywords: tax reform, fiscal balances

This paper is a report of Nicaragua's performance under the 2007-11 program. The period was marked by a stern financial crisis, price shocks, and disasters, but the program maintained the macroeconomic stability. A...

Nicaragua
			: Selected Issues

Nicaragua : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2012/257

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506631.002

ISBN: 9781475506631

Keywords: unemployment, tfp, total factor productivity, recession

The paper is an elaborated report on Nicaragua's potential economic growth. The challenges and idiosyncratic shocks were immense but the policies of better education, labor contracts, and accomplishments in public...

Nicaragua 2012 Article IV Consultation

Nicaragua 2012 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/256

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506624.002

ISBN: 9781475506624

Keywords: tax system, budget support, public debt

This paper is an overview of Nicaragua's performance in the year 2011. The year 2012 is expected to face a recession and a moderation in the global oil prices. The tax revenue collections will be sturdy. The povert...

Statuts du Fonds Monétaire International

Statuts du Fonds Monétaire International »

Series: Articles of Agreement

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 April 2012

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352578.013

ISBN: 9781616352578

Keywords: voting, general resources account, voting power, election, balance of payments, gold, voting rights, exchange arrangements, repurchases, reserve assets

Last issued in 1992, this new release of the IMF's Articles of Agreement for 2011 includes changes to the Articles resulting from the adoption of the Fourth Amendment on August 10, 2009, as well as the Fifth and Si...

Nicaragua
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper:  Progress Report on National Human Development Plan as of 2010

Nicaragua : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report on National Human Development Plan as of 2010 »

Volume/Issue: 2011/323

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463924591.002

ISBN: 9781463924591

Keywords: primary school, primary education, foreign trade, free trade, balance of payments

This paper reports on progress made on Nicaragua's National Human Development Plan as of 2010. The operational goal for Nicaragua's National Human Development Plan is economic growth with increased employment and r...

Nicaragua
			: Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility and Financing Assurances Review:  Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua

Nicaragua : Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility and Financing Assurances Review: Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua »

Volume/Issue: 2011/322

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463924584.002

ISBN: 9781463924584

Keywords: central bank, debt service, external debt, current account

The Nicaraguan economy continued to post robust growth in the first half of 2011. The Seventh Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Financing Assurances Review highlights that all quantitative perform...

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisison Microfinance and Policy Implications

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisison Microfinance and Policy Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2011/175

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriel Di Bella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462313303.001

ISBN: 9781462313303

Keywords: global financial crisis, lending rate fundamentals, capital markets, international capital, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

The global financial crisis affected microfinance institutions (MFIs) as lending growth was constrained by scarcer borrowing opportunities, while the economic slowdown negatively impacted asset quality and profitab...

Nicaragua
			: Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility and Financing Assurances Review -Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion.

Nicaragua : Sixth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility and Financing Assurances Review -Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion. »

Volume/Issue: 2011/118

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455276561.002

ISBN: 9781455276561

Keywords: central bank, debt service, budget support, current account

Nicaragua's economic performance in 2010 was satisfactory. Real GDP grew, supported by strong consumption and investment. Bank credit started recovering while the financial system remained liquid and profitable. E...

Nicaragua
			: Fourth and Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility, Requests for Extension of the Arrangement, Rephasing of Access, and Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance of Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review-Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua

Nicaragua : Fourth and Fifth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility, Requests for Extension of the Arrangement, Rephasing of Access, and Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance of Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review-Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Nicaragua »

Volume/Issue: 2010/376

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 December 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455212972.002

ISBN: 9781455212972

Keywords: central bank, debt, budget, public sector, deficit

Economic performance in Nicaragua has been better than envisaged; nonetheless, vulnerabilities remain and will be compounded by electoral uncertainties. The decision to use part of the strong revenue performance to...

Nicaragua
			: Report on Observance of Standards and Codes:  FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

Nicaragua : Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2010/283

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455203680.002

ISBN: 9781455203680

Keywords: money laundering, terrorism, terrorist financing, financing of terrorism, law enforcement, Report on Observance of Standards and Codes,

In 2008, Nicaragua introduced legislation criminalizing money laundering (ML) and the financing of terrorism (FT) that is generally adequate, except for some key deficiencies. The Antimony Laundering and Combating...

Nicaragua
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Nicaragua : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2010/108

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455203673.002

ISBN: 9781455203673

Keywords: maternal mortality, public investment program, budget framework

This poverty reduction strategy paper on Nicaragua shows that the main obstacles to poverty reduction are related to culture, historical, and structural factors, as well as weak public policy. The lack of proper ph...

Equity and Fiscal Policy
			: The Income Distribution Effects of Taxation and Social Spending in Central America

Equity and Fiscal Policy : The Income Distribution Effects of Taxation and Social Spending in Central America »

Volume/Issue: 2010/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rodrigo Cubero , and Ivanna Hollar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455200719.001

ISBN: 9781455200719

Keywords: incidence, social spending, taxation, gini coefficient, public spending, Taxation and Subsidies: Incidence,

How does fiscal policy fare in improving the underlying income distribution in Central America? We integrate the data from a number of existing tax and public expenditure studies for the countries in the region and...

Bank Efficiency amid Foreign Entry
			: Evidence from the Central American Region

Bank Efficiency amid Foreign Entry : Evidence from the Central American Region »

Volume/Issue: 2010/95

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Torsten Wezel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982725.001

ISBN: 9781451982725

Keywords: Bank efficiency, data envelopment analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, banking, foreign banks, domestic banks, foreign bank, bank entry,

This paper investigates the efficiency of domestic and foreign banks in the Central American region during 2002-07. Using two main empirical approaches, Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis, t...

Latin America
			: Highlights from the Implementation of the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA)

Latin America : Highlights from the Implementation of the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA) »

Volume/Issue: 2008/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Roberto Ramos , Lisbeth Rivas , and Gonzalo Pastor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870978.001

ISBN: 9781451870978

Keywords: 1993 SNA implementation, Data Module of the ROSCs, GDP estimation biases, fixed capital formation, gross fixed capital formation, consumption expenditure,

This paper reviews the Latin American experience with the implementation of 1993 SNAand the updating of the national accounts' base year. It also makes a preliminary assessment of the possible estimation biases in...

Foreign Aid and Real Exchange Rate Adjustments in a Financially Constrained Dependent Economy

Foreign Aid and Real Exchange Rate Adjustments in a Financially Constrained Dependent Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2008/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stephen Turnovsky , Serpil Tekin , and Valerie Cerra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870626.001

ISBN: 9781451870626

Keywords: real exchange rate, welfare analysis, exchange rate, capital stock, capital markets, capital intensity,

A dynamic dependent-economy model is developed to investigate the role of the real exchange rate in determining the effects of foreign aid. If capital is perfectly mobile between sectors, untied aid has no longrun...

Kernel Density Estimation Based on Grouped Data
			: The Case of Poverty Assessment

Kernel Density Estimation Based on Grouped Data : The Case of Poverty Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2008/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Camelia Minoiu , and Sanjay Reddy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870411.001

ISBN: 9781451870411

Keywords: kernel density estimation, grouped data, statistics, poverty line, survey, surveys, household surveys,

We analyze the performance of kernel density methods applied to grouped data to estimate poverty (as applied in Sala-i-Martin, 2006, QJE). Using Monte Carlo simulations and household surveys, we find that the techn...

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 54, No. 3

IMF Staff Papers, Volume 54, No. 3 »

Volume: 54

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066519.024

ISBN: 9781589066519

Keywords: inflation, central bank, monetary fund, terms of trade, gdp deflator

This issue features a timely paper by Vladimir Klyuev and Paul Mills on the role of personal wealth and home equity withdrawal in the decline in the U.S. saving rate. Lusine Lusinyan and Leo Bonato explain how work...

Nicaragua
			: Staff Report for the 2005 Article IV Consultation, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Reviews Under the Three Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Requests for Rephasing and Waiver of Performance Criteria, Financing Assurances Review, and Request for Extension of the Arrangement

Nicaragua : Staff Report for the 2005 Article IV Consultation, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Reviews Under the Three Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Requests for Rephasing and Waiver of Performance Criteria, Financing Assurances Review, and Request for Extension of the Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2006/174

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829280.002

ISBN: 9781451829280

Keywords: debt, public sector, central bank, budget, interest

This paper discusses Nicaragua's 2005 Article IV Consultation and Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Reviews Under the Three Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). The economy continued to...

Nicaragua
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper:  Joint Staff Advisory Note

Nicaragua : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Joint Staff Advisory Note »

Volume/Issue: 2006/172

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829266.002

ISBN: 9781451829266

Keywords: poverty reduction strategy, macroeconomic framework, poverty reduction strategy paper, public investment, fiscal impact

Nicaragua's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper discusses several strategic policies for boosting medium-term economic growth. The role of the private sector as the main engine of growth through the stimulation of inv...

Nicaragua
			: Selected Issues

Nicaragua : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2006/173

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829273.002

ISBN: 9781451829273

Keywords: trade diversion, regional cooperation, trade flows, trading partners, intellectual property

This Selected Issues paper for Nicaragua reports that the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) provides a general framework for country-specific bilateral agreements. In...

Nicaragua
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Nicaragua : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2005/440

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829259.002

ISBN: 9781451829259

Keywords: budget, debt, public investment, public sector, deficit

This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for Nicaragua reports that the most pressing demand for the majority of Nicaraguans is employment generation and economic growth. The National Development Plan (NDP) gives prio...

Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative
			:  A First Assessment of Eligible Countries--Supplemental Information

Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative : A First Assessment of Eligible Countries--Supplemental Information »

Volume/Issue: 2005/090

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498330688.007

ISBN: 9781498330688

Keywords: Multilateral debt relief initiative, Public expenditure management, Debt relief, Balance of payments, Multilateral debt, Tax revenue, remedial action, remedial measure, PRGF, macroeconomic performance

This supplement summarizes new information available to staff since the issuance of The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative: A First Assessment of Eligible Countries (December 8, 2005). It focuses on the six member...

Nicaragua
			: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-Data Module:

Nicaragua : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-Data Module: »

Volume/Issue: 2005/426

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829242.002

ISBN: 9781451829242

Keywords: balance of payments, debt, government finance, central bank

Nicaragua's report on the Observance of Standards and Codes examines Data Module, response by the authorities, and detailed assessments using the data quality assessment framework. The Ministry of Finance and Publi...

América Central
			: Integración mundial y cooperación regional

América Central : Integración mundial y cooperación regional »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfred Schipke , and Markus Rodlauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 2005

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064799.084

ISBN: 9781589064799

América Central ha concitado creciente atención como una región que se está integrando exitosamente a la economía mundial. Este estudio examina -entre otras cosas- las implicaciones macroeconómicas y fiscales del A...

Central America
			: Global Integration and Regional Cooperation

Central America : Global Integration and Regional Cooperation »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064461.084

ISBN: 9781589064461

Keywords: Tax administration, Statistics, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rate regime, free trade, trade diversion

Central America has received growing attention as a region that is integrating successfully into the global economy. This paper examines-among other things-the macroeconomic and fiscal implications of the Free Trad...

Nicaragua
			: Fifth and Sixth Reviews Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for Waiver and Modification of Performance Criteria, and Financing Assurances Review

Nicaragua : Fifth and Sixth Reviews Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for Waiver and Modification of Performance Criteria, and Financing Assurances Review »

Volume/Issue: 2004/347

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829235.002

ISBN: 9781451829235

Keywords: debt, public sector, central bank, revenues, interest

This paper focuses on Nicaragua's Fifth and Sixth Reviews Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for Waiver and Modification of Performance Criteria. The macroecon...

Evaluation of the IMF's Role in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

Evaluation of the IMF's Role in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility »

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): David Goldsbrough , Isabelle Mateos y Lago , Martin Kaufman , Daouda Sembene , Tsidi Tsikata , Steve Mugerwa , Alex Segura-Ubiergo , and Jeff Chelsky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063679.017

ISBN: 9781589063679

Keywords: expenditure, conditionality, poverty reduction strategy, expenditures, macroeconomic framework

In 1999, the IMF and the World Bank adopted a new frame work for supporting economic reform in low-income member countries to achieve the objectives of poverty reduction and economic growth. The frame work consists...

Nicaragua
			: Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries-Completion Point Document

Nicaragua : Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries-Completion Point Document »

Volume/Issue: 2004/72

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829228.002

ISBN: 9781451829228

Keywords: debt service, external debt, debt relief, debt sustainability, public debt

The government has fully complied with all the elements of the fourth floating completion point condition, which calls for the implementation of reforms to develop human capital and social protection. Investment in...

Statement by the IMF Staff Representative

Statement by the IMF Staff Representative »

Volume/Issue: 2004/71

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829211.002

ISBN: 9781451829211

Keywords: debt, public sector, interest, central bank, debt service

The draft 2004 budget passed by the assembly is consistent with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). Achieving the programmed strengthening of the tax effort remains a challenge. On the expenditure side,...

Nicaragua
			: Joint Staff Assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Second Progress Report

Nicaragua : Joint Staff Assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Second Progress Report »

Volume/Issue: 2004/19

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829204.002

ISBN: 9781451829204

Keywords: poverty reduction strategy, poverty reduction strategy paper, tax reform, fiscal decentralization, macroeconomic framework,

The current government has succeeded in reorienting economic policies after a series of shocks and an initial weak policy response. Revised real GDP growth targets are feasible with sustained prudent macroeconomic...

Nicaragua
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Second Progress Report

Nicaragua : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Second Progress Report »

Volume/Issue: 2004/13

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829167.002

ISBN: 9781451829167

Keywords: maternal mortality, public spending, fiscal equity, mortality rate, births

The government of Nicaragua has worked toward adopting the necessary economic measures to put the country's economy on the course of fiscal sustainability and those that guarantee transparent and austere management...

Nicaragua
			: First and Second Reviews Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and Request for Waiver and Modification of Performance Criteria

Nicaragua : First and Second Reviews Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and Request for Waiver and Modification of Performance Criteria »

Volume/Issue: 2003/349

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829198.002

ISBN: 9781451829198

Keywords: debt, central bank, public sector, interest, budget

The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) program has been brought back on track, after some difficulties, in early 2003 (which led to a delay in completing the first review). Although a start has been made in...

Dealing with Increased Risk of Natural Disasters
			: Challenges and Options

Dealing with Increased Risk of Natural Disasters : Challenges and Options »

Volume/Issue: 2003/197

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Keen , Paul Freeman , and Muthukumara Mani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860030.001

ISBN: 9781451860030

Keywords: Natural Disasters, Climate Change, Urbanization, disaster, disasters, hurricane, disaster risk, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: General, Economic Development: General, Natural Disaster,

Natural disaster risk is emerging as an increasingly important constraint on economic development and poverty reduction. This paper first sets out the key stylized facts in the area-that the costs of disaster have...

Debt Relief, Additionality, and Aid Allocation in Low Income Countries

Debt Relief, Additionality, and Aid Allocation in Low Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/175

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Robert Powell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858778.001

ISBN: 9781451858778

Keywords: low-income countries, HIPCs, additionality, debt, debt reduction, creditors, debt service payments, International Lending and Debt Problems,

This paper models the resource implications of debt relief provided to low-income countries (LICs). Obtaining debt relief does not necessarily lead to individual aid-dependent countries receiving more overall resou...

Budget Support Versus Project Aid

Budget Support Versus Project Aid »

Volume/Issue: 2003/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tito Cordella , and Giovanni Dell'Ariccia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851182.001

ISBN: 9781451851182

Keywords: aid policy, asymmetric information, empirical growth models, budget support, budget surplus, capital expenditures, budget constraint, capital expenditure, Asymmetric and Private Information, Welfare and Poverty: General

Should donors who are interested in the effectiveness of developmental programs rely on conditional budget support or on project aid? To answer this question, we present a model in which only a subset of the develo...

Nicaragua
			: Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation and Requests for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and for Interim Assistance Under the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries

Nicaragua : Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation and Requests for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and for Interim Assistance Under the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/24

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 February 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829150.002

ISBN: 9781451829150

Keywords: debt, public sector, central bank, interest, deficit

This paper assesses Nicaragua's 2002 Article IV Consultation and Requests for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and for Interim Assistance Under the Enhanced Initiative...

Nicaragua
			: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Nicaragua : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2002/269

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829181.002

ISBN: 9781451829181

Keywords: capital stock, public sector, capital accumulation, central bank, debt

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines factors that have determined long-term growth in Nicaragua. Stylized facts suggest that government policies have had a decisive influence on growth. In p...

Central American Tax Reform
			: Trends and Possibilities

Central American Tax Reform : Trends and Possibilities »

Volume/Issue: 2002/227

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Janet Stotsky , and Asegedech WoldeMariam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875423.001

ISBN: 9781451875423

Keywords: Tax Reform, tax rates, taxation, tax revenue, tax system, tax structure, Public Economics: General, Subsidies, and Revenue: General,

Central American tax systems are modern in their orientation, though there remains scope for beneficial reform. Value-added taxes are the mainstay of collections, but their performance varies. Income and property t...

Expenditure Issues and Governance in Central America

Expenditure Issues and Governance in Central America »

Volume/Issue: 2002/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ana Corbacho , and Hamid Davoodi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859522.001

ISBN: 9781451859522

Keywords: Expenditure issues, inequality, social safety nets, Central America, public spending, primary education, health care, health spending, educational attainment, Health

This paper analyzes Central America's track record on inequality, poverty, and quality of fiscal adjustment in relation to economic growth; health and education outcomes; adequacy of social safety nets; and governa...

Nicaragua
			: Report on Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module

Nicaragua : Report on Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module »

Volume/Issue: 2002/79

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829143.002

ISBN: 9781451829143

Keywords: fiscal transparency, budget execution, budget execution reports, budget preparation, fiscal management

This report assesses the Observance of Standards and Codes on the Fiscal Transparency Module for Nicaragua. Nicaragua has made notable progress in recent years in improving fiscal management and fiscal transparency...

Nicaragua
			: Statistical Appendix

Nicaragua : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2001/170

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829136.002

ISBN: 9781451829136

Keywords: expenditure, central bank, current account, current account balance, debt service

This paper provides the details of the IMF's projections and estimates on Nicaragua's gross domestic product by expenditure; value added in agriculture and manufacturing; central government operations; operations o...

Nicaragua
			: Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation and the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP) for July-December 2001

Nicaragua : Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation and the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP) for July-December 2001 »

Volume/Issue: 2001/171

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829174.002

ISBN: 9781451829174

Keywords: debt, central bank, public sector, interest, deficit

Nicaragua showed weak economic performance owing to trade shocks, a decline in investment, and slippages in the fiscal and monetary areas, under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility Arrangement. Executive Dire...

Nicaragua
			: Recent Economic Developments and Statistical Annex

Nicaragua : Recent Economic Developments and Statistical Annex »

Volume/Issue: 1999/124

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 November 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829129.002

ISBN: 9781451829129

Keywords: central bank, interest, payments, debt, liabilities

This paper describes economic developments in Nicaragua during the 1990s. During 1990-96, Nicaragua made substantial progress in reducing macroeconomic imbalances. Fiscal and monetary policies were strengthened, mo...

Nicaragua
			: Statistical Annex

Nicaragua : Statistical Annex »

Volume/Issue: 1998/48

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 June 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829112.002

ISBN: 9781451829112

Keywords: expenditure, central bank, current account, current account balance, total expenditure

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Inflation, Disinflation, and Growth

Inflation, Disinflation, and Growth »

Volume/Issue: 1998/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , and Steven Phillips

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451961188.001

ISBN: 9781451961188

Keywords: growth determinants, growth regressions, robustness, inflation rate, inflation rates, high inflation, low inflation

Although few would doubt that very high inflation is bad for growth, there is much less agreement about moderate inflation’s effects. Using panel regressions and a nonlinear specification, this paper finds a...

Zaïre's Hyperinflation, 1990-96

Zaïre's Hyperinflation, 1990-96 »

Volume/Issue: 1997/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philippe Beaugrand

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846935.001

ISBN: 9781451846935

Keywords: money stock, money supply, central bank, monetary financing

This paper reviews Zaïre’s experience with hyperinflation during 1990-96 and develops an illustrative model based on a money demand function that includes government revenue as a determinant. Governme...

Nicaragua
			: Recent Economic Developments

Nicaragua : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1996/124

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829105.002

ISBN: 9781451829105

Keywords: central bank, commercial banks, foreign currency, current account, interest payments

This paper reviews economic developments in Nicaragua during 1990-96. During 1990-95, Nicaragua made substantial progress in policy implementation to reduce macroeconomic imbalances and to transform itself to a mar...

Nicaragua
			: Statistical Annex

Nicaragua : Statistical Annex »

Volume/Issue: 1995/79

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 August 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451829099.002

ISBN: 9781451829099

Keywords: central bank, expenditure, current account, current account balance, debt service

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Statuts du
			: Fonds monétaire international

Statuts du : Fonds monétaire international »

Series: Articles of Agreement

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1993

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753731.013

ISBN: 9781557753731

Keywords: voting, voting power, exchange arrangements, election, exchange rates, voting rights, exchange restrictions, general resources account, exchange transactions, gold

Revised in 1993, this edition incorporates the Third Amendment of the Articles of Agreement. Reprinted in December 2004. Reprinted in January 2008 (200 copies)...

Tax Farming
			: A Radical Solution for Developing Country Tax Problems?

Tax Farming : A Radical Solution for Developing Country Tax Problems? »

Volume/Issue: 1992/70

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Stella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451960327.001

ISBN: 9781451960327

Keywords: tax farming, farming, tax farmers

Systemic tax administration problems in many developing countries have led to a search for radical solutions. One such proposed solution is tax farming. Tax farming is a system wherein the right to collect taxes is...