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Economic Integration in the Maghreb
			: An Untapped Source of Growth

Economic Integration in the Maghreb : An Untapped Source of Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2019/1

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Jean-Francois Dauphin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 February 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484378373.087

ISBN: 9781484378373

Keywords: Economic development, Tunisia, Economic integration, Morocco, North Africa, Algeria, Maghreb, Mauritania, Middle East, Maghreb; Economic Integration; Economic Development; North Africa

Individual countries of the Maghreb have achieved substantial progress on trade, but, as a region they remain the least integrated in the world. The share of intraregional trade is less than 5 percent of their tota...

A Growth-Friendly Path for Building Fiscal Buffers in the Caucuses and Central Asia

A Growth-Friendly Path for Building Fiscal Buffers in the Caucuses and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2018/6

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Edward Gemayel , Lorraine Ocampos , Matteo Ghilardi , and James Aylward

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484337165.087

ISBN: 9781484337165

Keywords: Growth acceleration, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen, Republic of, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan

Since 2014, large and persistent external shocks have hit the CCA region, particularly a slump in global commodity prices and slower growth in its key economic partners. Fiscal accommodation, along with currency ad...

Public Wage Bills in the Middle East and Central Asia

Public Wage Bills in the Middle East and Central Asia »

Volume: 18

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Natalia Tamirisa , and Christoph Duenwald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336731.087

ISBN: 9781484336731

Keywords: Public sector, Public sector wages, Public employment, Public expenditure management, Public expenditures reform, Public services, Public employment systems, Public sector; Public sector wages; Public employment; Public expenditure management; Public expenditures reform; Public services; Public employment systems

Analysis of policies for managing public sector wage bills in the Middle East and Central Asia region. While some work has been done recently at the Fund on issues related to government employment and compensation,...

2018 Quinquennial Review of the Funds Capacity Development Strategy
			:  Concept Note

2018 Quinquennial Review of the Funds Capacity Development Strategy : Concept Note »

Volume/Issue: 2017/003

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 February 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498347075.007

ISBN: 9781498347075

Keywords: Financial statistics, Economic policy, Economic indicators, Sustainable development, Development strategy, prioritization, capacity development, executive board, CCB, RBM

(CD), including technical assistance (TA) and training, is one of the three core pillars of the Fund's work. Its main objective is to help member countries build institutions and capacity necessary to formulate and...

Avoiding the New Mediocre
			: Raising Long-Term Growth in the Middle East and Central Asia

Avoiding the New Mediocre : Raising Long-Term Growth in the Middle East and Central Asia »

Volume: 16

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Pritha Mitra , Amr Hosny , Gohar Minasyan , Mark Fischer , and Gohar Abajyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513572710.087

ISBN: 9781513572710

Keywords: Middle East and Central Asia, Fiscal policy, environment, oil, productivity, growth, employment, long-term growth, capital, labor

Raising the Middle East and Central Asia's long-term growth prospects is critical for meeting the region's pressing need for jobs and higher living standards....

Macroeconomic Stability in Resource-Rich Countries

Macroeconomic Stability in Resource-Rich Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2016/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elva Bova , Paulo Medas , and Tigran Poghosyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475596465.001

ISBN: 9781475596465

Keywords: resource-rich countries, procyclical fiscal policy, commodity, prices, price, fiscal policy, General, Models with Panel Data, All Countries,, Natural resources

Resource-rich countries face large and persistent shocks, especially coming from volatile commodity prices. Given the severity of the shocks, it would be expected that these countries adopt countercyclical fiscal p...

Natural Resource Booms in the Modern Era
			: Is the curse still alive?

Natural Resource Booms in the Modern Era : Is the curse still alive? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Warner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513507224.001

ISBN: 9781513507224

Keywords: Resource Booms, gdp, economy, investment, capital, value, Infrastructures, All Countries,

The global boom in hydrocarbon, metal and mineral prices since the year 2000 created huge economic rents - rents which, once invested, were widely expected to promote productivity growth in other parts of the boomi...

Fair Taxation in the Middle East and North Africa

Fair Taxation in the Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2015/16

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mario Mansour , Pritha Mitra , Carlo Sdralevich , and Andrew Jewell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 2015

Language: Arabic

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513552255.006

ISBN: 9781513552255

Keywords: Resource Revenues, Excise, Value-Added Tax, Equity, tax, taxes, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement, International Relations and International Political Economy: Other

Fairness - and what governments can do about it - is at the forefront of economic and social debate all over the world. In MENA, this has been at the core of recent political transitions but has not been adequately...

Fair Taxation in the Middle East and North Africa

Fair Taxation in the Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2015/16

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mario Mansour , Pritha Mitra , Carlo Sdralevich , and Andrew Jewell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513563565.006

ISBN: 9781513563565

Keywords: Egypt, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Syrian Arab Republic, Algeria, Income tax, Hydrocarbons, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon

Fairness - and what governments can do about it - is at the forefront of economic and social debate all over the world. In MENA, this has been at the core of recent political transitions but has not been adequately...

Fair Taxation in the Middle East and North Africa

Fair Taxation in the Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2015/16

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Mario Mansour , Pritha Mitra , Carlo Sdralevich , and Andrew Jewell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 2015

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513555515.006

ISBN: 9781513555515

Keywords: Resource Revenues, Excise, Value-Added Tax, Equity, tax, taxes, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement, International Relations and International Political Economy: Other

Fairness - and what governments can do about it - is at the forefront of economic and social debate all over the world. In MENA, this has been at the core of recent political transitions but has not been adequately...

Global Implications of Lower Oil Prices

Global Implications of Lower Oil Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2015/15

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Aasim Husain , Rabah Arezki , Peter Breuer , Vikram Haksar , Thomas Helbling , Paulo Medas , and Martin Sommer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513532417.006

ISBN: 9781513532417

Keywords: Oil price, fuel taxes and subsidies, fiscal vulnerabilities, external vulnerabilities, exchange rate regime, oil, prices, price, oil prices, energy

The sharp drop in oil prices is one of the most important global economic developments over the past year. The SDN finds that (i) supply factors have played a somewhat larger role than demand factors in driving the...

The Journey to Inflation Targeting
			: Easier Said than Done The Case for Transitional Arrangements along the Road

The Journey to Inflation Targeting : Easier Said than Done The Case for Transitional Arrangements along the Road »

Volume/Issue: 2015/136

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bernard Laurens , Kelly Eckhold , Darryl King , Nils Mæhle , Abdul Naseer , and Alain Durré

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 June 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567990.001

ISBN: 9781513567990

Keywords: central bank, exchange rate, interest rates, central banks, General,

Countries with evolving monetary regimes that decide to embark on 'the Journey to inflation targeting' may not be able to adopt a full-fledged inflation targeting regime immediately. Those countries would be better...

Is Islamic Banking Good for Growth?

Is Islamic Banking Good for Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/81

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam , and Kangni Kpodar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475569285.001

ISBN: 9781475569285

Keywords: financial development, banks, banking, finance, bank, General,

The rapid growth of Islamic banking has attracted much attention lately in the economic literature. At the same time, a mature body of the literature has shown that financial development is broadly conducive to eco...

Assessing The Impact Of Fiscal Shocks On Output In MENAP Countries

Assessing The Impact Of Fiscal Shocks On Output In MENAP Countries »

Volume: 15

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Martin Cerisola , Chadi Abdallah , Victor Davies , and Mark Fischer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498383905.005

ISBN: 9781498383905

Keywords: Fiscal policy, fiscal multipliers, fiscal, fiscal shocks, tax, multipliers, General, General

This note is a reference guide to the econometric work on fiscal multipliers for MENAP countries. Spending and tax multipliers are estimated from conventional VAR models and identified using a sign-restrictions app...

Soft Power and Exchange Rate Volatility

Soft Power and Exchange Rate Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2015/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , Richard Harris , and Fatih Yilmaz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475530520.001

ISBN: 9781475530520

Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, exchange, exchange rate, volatility, exchange rates, trade, Time-Series Models, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

Standard models-based exclusively on macro-financial variables-have made little progress in explaining the behavior of exchange rates. In this paper, we introduce a neglected set of 'soft power' factors capturing...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2014, Middle East and Central Asia,

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2014, Middle East and Central Asia, »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498343732.086

ISBN: 9781498343732

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Economic forecasting, Economic cooperation, Economic growth, Economic conditions, Afghanistan, Economic integration, Middle East and Central Asia, North Africa, Oil exporting countries

This issue discusses economic developments in the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP), which continue to reflect the diversity of conditions prevailing across the region. Most high-income o...

Middle East Transitions
			: A Long, Hard Road

Middle East Transitions : A Long, Hard Road »

Volume/Issue: 2014/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shahid Yusuf

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498359122.001

ISBN: 9781498359122

Keywords: economic transition, growth, youth unemployment, institutions, SMEs, SEZs, employment, labor market, labor force, General

Since the onset of the Arab Spring, economic uncertainty in Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen (Arab Countries in Transition, ACTs) has slowed already sluggish growth; worsened unemployment, particul...

Are Banks Really Lazy? Evidence from Middle East and North Africa

Are Banks Really Lazy? Evidence from Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2014/86

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Simon Gray , Philippe Karam , and Rima Turk Ariss

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484386460.001

ISBN: 9781484386460

Keywords: MENA, credit, central bank, government securities, monetary fund, banking, monetary financing, General, Government Policy and Regulation, and credit.,

We investigate whether low loan-to-deposit (LTD) ratios and high levels of reserve balances at the central bank (or holdings of government securities) are a reflection of policy-driven factors compared to commonly...

Toward New Horizons: Arab Economic Transformation amid Political Transition

Toward New Horizons: Arab Economic Transformation amid Political Transition »

Volume: 14

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Harald Finger , and Daniela Gressani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 May 2014

Language: Arabic

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351826.087

ISBN: 9781484351826

Keywords: Arab Spring, Arab countries in transition, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, country studies, growth

The changing political landscape in the Arab world has created opportunities for economic transformation by tackling long-standing economic issues. Nevertheless, three years after the onset of political transition,...

Toward New Horizons: Arab Economic Transformation amid Political Transition

Toward New Horizons: Arab Economic Transformation amid Political Transition »

Volume: 14

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Harald Finger , and Daniela Gressani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 April 2014

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475525380.087

ISBN: 9781475525380

Keywords: Arab Spring, Arab countries in transition, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, country studies, growth

The changing political landscape in the Arab world has created opportunities for economic transformation by tackling long-standing economic issues. Nevertheless, three years after the onset of political transition,...

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort

Understanding Countries' Tax Effort »

Volume/Issue: 2013/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ricardo Fenochietto , and Carola Pessino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484301272.001

ISBN: 9781484301272

Keywords: tax effort, tax frontier, tax capacity, stochastic tax frontier, inefficiency, tax revenues, tax analysis, determinants of tax revenue, tax system, Models with Panel Data

This paper presents a model to determine the tax effort and tax capacity of 113 countries and the main variables on which they depend. The results and the model allow a clear determination of which countries are ne...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities -Financial Access Survey Subaccount

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities -Financial Access Survey Subaccount »

Volume/Issue: 2013/083

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498341691.007

ISBN: 9781498341691

Keywords: Executive Board decisions, External financing, Financial instruments, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Sovereign wealth funds, Combating the financing of terrorism, Tax policy, Anti-money laundering, Multilateral development institutions

In March 2009 the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for Selected Fund Activities (the 'SFA Instrument'). The financing of activities under the terms of...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Africa Regional Technical Assistance Center West 2 Subaccount

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Africa Regional Technical Assistance Center West 2 Subaccount »

Volume/Issue: 2013/050

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498341684.007

ISBN: 9781498341684

Keywords: Africa Regional Technical Assistance Center, Executive Board decisions, External financing, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Technical Assistance, West Africa, Anti-money laundering, Banks, Combating the financing of terrorism

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund activities (the 'SFA Instrument'). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Government of Australia Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Government of Australia Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities »

Volume/Issue: 2013/051

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498341677.007

ISBN: 9781498341677

Keywords: Executive Board decisions, External financing, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Technical Assistance, Anti-money laundering, Banks, Combating the financing of terrorism, Development, Financial assistance

In March 2009, the Fund adopted the Instrument to establish a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for Selected Fund Activities (the 'SFA Instrument').1 The financing of act...

Libya
			: 2013 Article IV Consultation

Libya : 2013 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2013/150

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484399026.002

ISBN: 9781484399026

Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, budget deficit, fiscal framework, government spending

The political and security environment remains uncertain in Libya. Libya faces the challenges of stabilizing the economy and responding to the aspirations of the revolution. The near-term outlook is favorable, but...

Libya
			: Selected Issues

Libya : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2013/151

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484387399.002

ISBN: 9781484387399

Keywords: prices, electricity, electricity subsidies, electricity tariffs, pricing

The cost of energy subsidies is large, and reduces the fiscal space available for public expenditure priorities, including education, health, and infrastructure. Libya's ample hydrocarbon wealth will allow it to re...

The Finance and Growth Nexus Re-Examined
			: Do All Countries Benefit Equally?

The Finance and Growth Nexus Re-Examined : Do All Countries Benefit Equally? »

Volume/Issue: 2013/130

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adolfo Barajas , Ralph Chami , and Reza Yousefi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484372104.001

ISBN: 9781484372104

Keywords: Growth, Financial Development, Financial Access, oil, banking, bank deposits, banking sector, bank supervision, General, Asia including Middle East,

A large theoretical and empirical literature has focused on the impact of financial deepening on economic growth throughout the world. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating whether this impact d...

Searching for the Finance-Growth Nexus in Libya

Searching for the Finance-Growth Nexus in Libya »

Volume/Issue: 2013/92

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , and Mohammad Rahmati

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484385883.001

ISBN: 9781484385883

Keywords: Financial development, cointegration, causality, VAR models, gdp per capita, financial system, gdp growth, Institutions and Growth, Comparative Studies of Countries,

This paper investigates the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth in Libya during the period 1970–2010. The empirical results vary with estimation methodology and model specif...

The Dynamic Effect of Social and Political Instability on Output
			: The Role of Reforms

The Dynamic Effect of Social and Political Instability on Output : The Role of Reforms »

Volume/Issue: 2013/91

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lorenzo E. Bernal-Verdugo , Davide Furceri , and Dominique Guillaume

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484381687.001

ISBN: 9781484381687

Keywords: Economic models, Economic growth, Fiscal reforms, Political economy, social conflicts, reforms, crisis, growth, governance, social instability

The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamic effect of social and political instability on output. Using a panel of up to 183 countries from 1980 to 2010, the results of the paper suggest that social conflicts h...

Hitchhiker's Guide to Inflation in Libya

Hitchhiker's Guide to Inflation in Libya »

Volume/Issue: 2013/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serhan Cevik , and Katerina Teksoz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484353042.001

ISBN: 9781484353042

Keywords: international sanctions, price inflation, inflation dynamics, General,

This paper presents an empirical investigation of inflation dynamics in Libya over the period 1964–2010, using cointegration and error correction models. While inflation inertia is found to be a key determin...

The Day After Tomorrow
			: Designing an Optimal Fiscal Strategy for Libya

The Day After Tomorrow : Designing an Optimal Fiscal Strategy for Libya »

Volume/Issue: 2013/79

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carlos Caceres , Serhan Cevik , Ricardo Fenochietto , and Borja Gracia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484389812.001

ISBN: 9781484389812

Keywords: Fiscal policy, cyclical adjustment, fiscal sustainability, permanent income hypothesis, fiscal rules, natural resources, public financial management, fiscal stance, primary deficit, Structure and Scope of Government

Libya is highly dependent on exhaustible and volatile hydrocarbon resources, which constitute the bulk of government revenues. Although resource wealth provides the means to promote socio-economic development, proc...

Finances & Développement Mars 2013

Finances & Développement Mars 2013 »

Volume/Issue: 50/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2013

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475568646.022

ISBN: 9781475568646

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterl...

The Economics of Political Transitions
			: Implications for the Arab Spring

The Economics of Political Transitions : Implications for the Arab Spring »

Volume/Issue: 2013/69

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Padamja Khandelwal , and Agustin Roitman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475569643.001

ISBN: 9781475569643

Keywords: political instability, Arab Countries in Transition, Arab Spring, exchange rate, social unrest, current account balance, exchange rate regimes, currency depreciation, Asia including Middle East, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

Over the past two years, ongoing political transitions in many Arab countries have led to social unrest and an economic downturn. This paper examines comparable historical episodes of political instability to deriv...

Finance & Development, March 2013

Finance & Development, March 2013 »

Volume/Issue: 50/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475542684.022

ISBN: 9781475542684

Keywords: photography, copyright, press, periodicals

Two years ago, citizens in the Arab world-fired by their ideals and visions of a better life-ignited a social movement that inspired people around the globe. In Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen-the...

The Endogenous Skill Bias of Technical Change and Inequality in Developing Countries

The Endogenous Skill Bias of Technical Change and Inequality in Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2013/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alberto Behar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536959.001

ISBN: 9781475536959

Keywords: Skill-biased Technical Change, skilled workers, unskilled labor, trade liberalization, unskilled workers, General, Technological Change: Choices and Consequences,

This paper draws on existing empirical literature and an original theoretical model to argue that globalization and skill supply affect the extent to which technology adoption in developing countries favors skilled...

Libya
			: Technical Assistance Report-Public Financial Management Reform  Priorities in the New Environment

Libya : Technical Assistance Report-Public Financial Management Reform Priorities in the New Environment »

Volume/Issue: 2013/36

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475528954.002

ISBN: 9781475528954

Keywords: budget preparation, medium-term fiscal framework, public financial management, budget execution

Libya faces a number of challenges to establishing a robust, efficient, and transparent public financial management system. There is a need to establish a clear macrofiscal policy framework. The Sovereign Wealth Fu...

Revisiting the Link Between Finance and Macroeconomic Volatility

Revisiting the Link Between Finance and Macroeconomic Volatility »

Volume/Issue: 2013/29

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , and Narapong Srivisal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475543988.001

ISBN: 9781475543988

Keywords: Financial Depth, Macroeconomic Volatility, private consumption, external shocks, trade openness, growth rate, terms of trade, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

This paper examines the impact of financial depth on macroeconomic volatility using a dynamic panel analysis for 110 advanced and developing countries. We find that financial depth plays a significant role in dampe...

Regional Economic Outlook, November 2012, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, November 2012, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 November 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510812.086

ISBN: 9781475510812

Keywords: exporters, oil, inflation, oil exporters, gas

The outlook for the Middle East and North Africa region is mixed. Oil-importing countries are witnessing tepid growth, and the moderate recovery expected in 2013 is subject to heightened downside risks. For the Ara...

Measures of Fiscal Risk in  Hydrocarbon-Exporting Countries

Measures of Fiscal Risk in Hydrocarbon-Exporting Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2012/260

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Carlos Caceres , and Leandro Medina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475530162.001

ISBN: 9781475530162

Keywords: stochastic simulations, volatility, break-even prices, exporting countries, commodity prices, break-even prices., Forecasting and Other Model Applications, Financial Forecasting and Simulation, General, Government Policy,

The recent relatively high levels of global oil prices have led to a significant improvement in the public finances of several hydrocarbon-exporting countries. However, despite the increase in fiscal buffers, mediu...

The Global Impact of the Systemic Economies and MENA Business Cycles

The Global Impact of the Systemic Economies and MENA Business Cycles »

Volume/Issue: 2012/255

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , Kamiar Mohaddes , and Mehdi Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475581645.001

ISBN: 9781475581645

Keywords: Global VAR (GVAR), global macroeconomic modeling, impulse responses, macroeconomic shocks, international business cycle, oil exporters, exporters, oil prices, oil exports, reer

This paper analyzes spillovers from macroeconomic shocks in systemic economies (China, the Euro Area, and the United States) to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as well as outward spillovers from a GD...

The Differential Effects of Oil Demand and Supply Shocks on the Global Economy

The Differential Effects of Oil Demand and Supply Shocks on the Global Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2012/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , Kamiar Mohaddes , Mehdi Raissi , and Maziar Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475597158.001

ISBN: 9781475597158

Keywords: Global VAR (GVAR), global macroeconomic modeling, impulse responses, international business cycle, oil-demand and oil-supply shocks, oil exporters, exporters, oil prices, exporting countries, Time-Series Models

We employ a set of sign restrictions on the generalized impulse responses of a Global VAR model, estimated for 38 countries/regions over the period 1979Q2-2011Q2, to discriminate between supply-driven and demand-dr...

Tunisie
			: Évaluation de la stabilité du système financier

Tunisie : Évaluation de la stabilité du système financier »

Volume/Issue: 2012/241

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 August 2012

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475506327.002

ISBN: 9781475506327

Keywords: banking, banking supervision, banking system, foreign exchange, recapitalization, deposit insurance, capital adequacy, reserve requirement, banking regulation, return on equity

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Libya Beyond the Revolution
			: Challenges and Opportunities

Libya Beyond the Revolution : Challenges and Opportunities »

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504392.087

ISBN: 9781475504392

Keywords: Employment, banking, foreign exchange, banking system, public finances, macroeconomic stability

In the aftermath of the revolution of 2011, Libya faces the complex task of rebuilding its economy, infrastructure, and institutions, and responding to the demands of the population, especially for improved governa...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - International Forum Sovereign Wealth Funds Subaccount

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - International Forum Sovereign Wealth Funds Subaccount »

Volume/Issue: 2012/017

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.;International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498340816.007

ISBN: 9781498340816

Keywords: Executive Board decisions, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Sovereign wealth funds, Tax policy, Combating the financing of terrorism, Anti-money laundering, Natural resources, fund activity, essential term

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund activities (the 'SFA Instrument'). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities -Government of Canada Subaccount

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities -Government of Canada Subaccount »

Volume/Issue: 2012/012

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.;International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498340861.007

ISBN: 9781498340861

Keywords: Canada, Executive Board decisions, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Tax policy, Combating the financing of terrorism, Anti-money laundering, Financial assistance, Multilateral development institutions, fund activity

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for Selected Fund Activities (the 'SFA Instrument'). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Oil Exporters' Dilemma
			: How Much to Save and How Much to Invest

Oil Exporters' Dilemma : How Much to Save and How Much to Invest »

Volume/Issue: 2012/4

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reda Cherif , and Fuad Hasanov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502459.001

ISBN: 9781475502459

Keywords: volatility, precautionary, saving, buffer-stock, investment, oil exporters, fiscal policy, exporters, exporting countries, domestic investment

Policymakers in oil-exporting countries confront the question of how to allocate oil revenues among consumption, saving, and investment in the face of high income volatility. We study this allocation problem in a p...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351298.086

ISBN: 9781616351298

Keywords: Economic recovery, Energy prices, Commodity prices, Economic forecasting, Economic conditions, Spillovers, South Sudan, Regional Economic Outlook, Foreign direct investment, Monetary policy

The Arab Spring holds the promise of improved living standards and a more prosperous future for the peoples of the Middle East and North Africa region. At the same time, the region is witnessing uncertainty and eco...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Africa Regional Technical Assistance Center South (AFRITAC South) Subaccount

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Africa Regional Technical Assistance Center South (AFRITAC South) Subaccount »

Volume/Issue: 2011/080

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498339414.007

ISBN: 9781498339414

Keywords: Administered accounts, Africa Regional Technical Assistance Center, Executive Board decisions, External financing, Financial instruments, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Southern Africa, Technical assistance programs, Public financial management

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund activities (the "SFA Instrument"). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - African Development Bank Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - African Development Bank Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities »

Volume/Issue: 2011/040

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498338820.007

ISBN: 9781498338820

Keywords: Tax policy, Combating the financing of terrorism, Anti-money laundering, Financial assistance, Multilateral development institutions, fund activity, assistance center, AfDB, SFA, essential term

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for Selected Fund Activities (the "SFA Instrument"). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2011, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2011, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350642.086

ISBN: 9781616350642

Keywords: oil importers, oil exporters, oil and gas, subsidies, oil prices

This issue of the Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia provides an in-depth look at the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP) region, as well as the Caucasus and Central As...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Denmark Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities - Denmark Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities »

Volume/Issue: 2011/024

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498339100.007

ISBN: 9781498339100

Keywords: Executive Board decisions, External financing, Financial instruments, Framework Administered Account, Lapse of time approval, Technical Assistance, Tax policy, Combating the financing of terrorism, Anti-money laundering, Financial assistance

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund Activities (the 'SFA Instrument'). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities
			:  World Bank Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities

Framework Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities : World Bank Subaccount for Selected Fund Activities »

Volume/Issue: 2011/022

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498339124.007

ISBN: 9781498339124

Keywords: Collaboration with World Bank, Executive Board decisions, External financing, Framework Administered Account, IDA, Lapse of time approval, Technical Assistance, Tax policy, Combating the financing of terrorism, Anti-money laundering

In March 2009, the Fund established a new Framework Administered Account to administer external financial resources for selected Fund Activities (the 'SFA Instrument'). The financing of activities under the terms o...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2010, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2010, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069527.086

ISBN: 9781589069527

Keywords: oil exporters, exporters, oil importers, gas exporters, banking

The Regional Economic Outlook assesses the near-term outlook for each of the three subregions: the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP) oil exporters, the MENAP oil importers, and the Caucas...

Commodity Windfalls, Polarization, and Net Foreign Assets
			: Panel Data Evidenceon the Voracity Effect

Commodity Windfalls, Polarization, and Net Foreign Assets : Panel Data Evidenceon the Voracity Effect »

Volume/Issue: 2010/209

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Markus Bruckner , and Rabah Arezki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455205400.001

ISBN: 9781455205400

Keywords: Commodity Windfalls, Net Foreign Assets, Polarization, foreign assets, net foreign asset, foreign asset, net foreign asset position, Equity, Justice, Inequality

This paper examines the effect that windfalls from international commodity price booms have on net foreign assets in a panel of 145 countries during the period 1970-2007. The main finding is that windfalls from int...

Recoveries in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan
			: Have Macroeconomic Policies Been Effective?

Recoveries in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan : Have Macroeconomic Policies Been Effective? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli , and Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455200818.001

ISBN: 9781455200818

Keywords: recoveries, investments, hydrocarbon exporting countries, trade openness, recession, export growth, exporters, real export growth,

This paper identifies and documents the properties of output gap recessions and recoveries in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan (MENAP) during the 1980 to 2008 period. It goes on to investigate the key de...

The Cyclicality of Fiscal Policy in the Middle East and Central Asia
			: Is the Current Crisis Different?

The Cyclicality of Fiscal Policy in the Middle East and Central Asia : Is the Current Crisis Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451982121.001

ISBN: 9781451982121

Keywords: government spending, public debt, fiscal policy response, General Outlook and Conditions, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: General, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General,

The countries of the Middle East and North Africa, and the Caucasus and Central Asia have the highest output volatility in the world. Fiscal policy is a powerful tool that can help dampen the business cycles. This...

Fiscal Policy in Oil Producing Countries During the Recent Oil Price Cycle

Fiscal Policy in Oil Producing Countries During the Recent Oil Price Cycle »

Volume/Issue: 2010/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451962536.001

ISBN: 9781451962536

Keywords: fiscal impulses, Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General, National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General, National Deficit Surplus,

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the average fiscal policy responses of oil producing countries (OPCs) to the recent oil price cycle. We find that OPCs worsened their non-oil primary balances substantiall...

The Empirics of Exchange Rate Regimes and Trade
			: Words vs. Deeds

The Empirics of Exchange Rate Regimes and Trade : Words vs. Deeds »

Volume/Issue: 2010/48

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahvash Qureshi , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963199.001

ISBN: 9781451963199

Keywords: exchange rate volatility, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, Macroeconomic Aspects Of International Trade And Finance,

This paper examines the impact of exchange rate regimes on bilateral trade while differentiating the effects of "words" and "deeds". Our findings-based on an extended database for de jure and de facto exchange rate...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2009 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068728.044

ISBN: 9781589068728

Keywords: liabilities, debt, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, equity securities, money market, money market instruments, debt securities, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2009, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2009, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068582.086

ISBN: 9781589068582

Keywords: oil exporters, exporters, oil importers, remittances, energy exporters

The global economic crisis has taken a toll on the Middle East and Central Asia region, but appropriate policy responses have helped mitigate the impact. Looking ahead, the region's oil exporters are expected to be...

Oil Prices and Bank Profitability
			: Evidence From Major Oil-Exporting Countries in the Middle East and North Africa

Oil Prices and Bank Profitability : Evidence From Major Oil-Exporting Countries in the Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2009/220

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Heiko Hesse , and Tigran Poghosyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873672.001

ISBN: 9781451873672

Keywords: bank profitability, oil price shocks, system GMM, banking, exporting countries, bank performance,

This paper analyzes the relationship between oil price shocks and bank profitability. Using data on 145 banks in 11 oil-exporting MENA countries for 1994-2008, we test hypotheses of direct and indirect effects of o...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: 2009 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : 2009 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya »

Volume/Issue: 2009/294

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823134.002

ISBN: 9781451823134

Keywords: budget, public expenditure, central bank, article, interest

Libya's macroeconomic performance in 2008 has been strong, with real GDP growth of about 4 percent, and record fiscal and external surpluses. The staff report for Libya's 2009 Article IV Consultation underlies econ...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2009, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2009, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068421.086

ISBN: 9781589068421

Keywords: oil exporters, exporters, oil importers, exchange rate, balance sheets

The global crisis is now affecting the countries in the Middle East and Central Asia region, and economic and financial vulnerabilities are rising. In the Middle East and North Africa, good economic fundamentals, a...

Current Account Determinants for Oil-Exporting Countries

Current Account Determinants for Oil-Exporting Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2009/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hanan Morsy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871753.001

ISBN: 9781451871753

Keywords: oil exporters, current account balance, current account deficits, current account deficit,

The paper aims at characterizing the main determinants of the medium-term current account balance for oil-exporting countries using dynamic panel estimation techniques. Previous studies included a very limited numb...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067530.044

ISBN: 9781589067530

Keywords: Balance of payments statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Publication, liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, direct investment, bonds

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Fiscal Policy and Economic Cycles in Oil-Exporting Countries

Fiscal Policy and Economic Cycles in Oil-Exporting Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2008/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kamilya Tazhibayeva , Aasim Husain , and Anna Ter-Martirosyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871111.001

ISBN: 9781451871111

Keywords: public spending, fiscal impulse, fiscal stance

This paper empirically assesses the impact of oil price shocks on the underlying non-oil economic cycle in oil-exporting countries. Panel VAR analysis and the associated impulse responses indicate that in countries...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2008, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2008, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067622.086

ISBN: 9781589067622

Keywords: oil exporters, exporting countries, exporters, inflation, commodity prices

Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia underlines that the region has continued to experience strong growth in 2008, and the short-term outlook is generally favorable. However, inflation has emerge...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: 2008 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : 2008 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. »

Volume/Issue: 2008/302

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823127.002

ISBN: 9781451823127

Keywords: budget, public expenditure, article, deficit

This Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya's 2008 Article IV Consultation is focused on containing public expenditure to reduce inflation pressures, strengthening the monetary policy framework, and advancing fi...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: Statistical Appendix

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2008/301

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823110.002

ISBN: 9781451823110

Keywords: foreign assets, central bank, commercial banks, net foreign assets, foreign exchange

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia
			: What is the Role of Oil?

Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia : What is the Role of Oil? »

Volume/Issue: 2008/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Billmeier , and Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870749.001

ISBN: 9781451870749

Keywords: trade elasticities, current account adjustment, export prices, exporting countries, export volume, oil exports, oil exporters,

The analysis in this paper suggests that import and export volume elasticities are markedly lower in oil-exporting Middle East and Central Asian countries than in non-oil countries in the region. A key implication...

Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom

Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom »

Volume/Issue: 2008/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Johannes Wiegand

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870381.001

ISBN: 9781451870381

Keywords: Petro dollars, oil exporters, bank lending, exporters, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, oil exporter,

High oil prices have once again led to large external surpluses of oil exporting countries, similar to the 1970s and 1980s. This paper analyzes the extent to which (i) oil exporters use bank deposits to invest thes...

Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region

Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region »

Volume/Issue: 2008/184

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joe Crowley

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870428.001

ISBN: 9781451870428

Keywords: Credit Growth, Oil Inflows, export growth, oil producers, oil export,

Rapid private sector credit growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia has been a result of strong economic growth, financial deepening, and banks’ willingness to explore consumer credit marke...

Natural Resource Endowments, Governance, and the Domestic Revenue Effort
			: Evidence from a Panel of Countries

Natural Resource Endowments, Governance, and the Domestic Revenue Effort : Evidence from a Panel of Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2008/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Thornton , Fabian Bornhorst , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870282.001

ISBN: 9781451870282

Keywords: hydrocarbon revenues, domestic revenue effort, government revenue, equation, statistics, autocorrelation,

The recent development literature stresses that countries that receive large revenues from natural resource endowments typically raise less revenue from domestic taxation, and that this creates governance problems...

Managing the Oil Revenue Boom
			: The Role of Fiscal Institutions

Managing the Oil Revenue Boom : The Role of Fiscal Institutions »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Rolando Ossowski , Theo Thomas , and Paulo Medas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067189.084

ISBN: 9781589067189

Keywords: Financial institutions, Oil revenues, oil-producing countries, fiscal policy, oil prices, fiscal rules

Oil-producing countries have benefited from rising oil prices in recent years. The increase in oil exports and oil revenues has had major implications for these countries. These developments have revealed how gover...

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2008, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, May 2008, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067158.083

ISBN: 9781589067158

Keywords: oil prices, oil exporters, oil revenues, oil-producing countries, exporting countries

The Middle East and Central Asia region grew at 6.5 percent in 2007, marking its best five-year performance over the past 30 years. So far, the turmoil in international financial markets has had a limited impact on...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2007 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066564.044

ISBN: 9781589066564

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2007, Middle East and Central Asia

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2007, Middle East and Central Asia »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066694.086

ISBN: 9781589066694

Keywords: oil exporters, prices, exporters, current account, exporting countries

The Middle East and Central Asia is undergoing a remarkable transformation driven by rapid GDP growth and high oil and non-oil commodity prices. The report presents common economic trends and reviews prospects and...

The Value-Added Tax
			: Its Causes and Consequences

The Value-Added Tax : Its Causes and Consequences »

Volume/Issue: 2007/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ben Lockwood , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867473.001

ISBN: 9781451867473

Keywords: vat, tax ratio, taxation, tax system, Value-added Tax, Tax Reform,

Has the VAT proved, as its proponents claim, an especially effective form of taxation? To address this, this paper first shows that a tax innovation-such as the introduction of a VAT- reduces the marginal cost of p...

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: 2006 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : 2006 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya »

Volume/Issue: 2007/149

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823103.002

ISBN: 9781451823103

Keywords: budget, deficit, article, revenue management, macroeconomic stability

This 2006 Article IV Consultation highlights that Libya has made efforts to liberalize its economy and foreign trade, achieving increasing economic growth while maintaining macroeconomic stability. In 2006, economi...

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: Statistical Appendix

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2007/148

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823097.002

ISBN: 9781451823097

Keywords: foreign assets, oil sector, petroleum products, foreign liabilities, national oil

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Financial Sector Reforms and Prospects for Financial Integration in Maghreb Countries

Financial Sector Reforms and Prospects for Financial Integration in Maghreb Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2007/125

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Sole , Gabriel Sensenbrenner , Amor Tahari , J. E. J. De Vrijer , Marina Moretti , Patricia Brenner , and Abdelhak Senhadji

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866896.001

ISBN: 9781451866896

Keywords: Maghreb Countries, banking, financial sector, foreign exchange, financial markets, financial system,

A healthy and dynamic financial sector is essential to achieving high and sustainable economic growth in the Maghreb region-Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. Financial integration within the Maghreb...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2006 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065789.044

ISBN: 9781589065789

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Russian Federation
			: Selected Issues

Russian Federation : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2006/430

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975307.002

ISBN: 9781451975307

Keywords: revenues, budget, public capital, financial assets, deficit

Russia's large oil and gas reserves play a key role in its economic development. As with many other large oil exporters, Russia's energy wealth is also posing numerous challenges to macroeconomic management. Althou...

Beauty Queens and Wallflowers
			: Currency Unions in the Middle East and Central Asia

Beauty Queens and Wallflowers : Currency Unions in the Middle East and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2006/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , and Julian Berengaut

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864861.001

ISBN: 9781451864861

Keywords: Currency Union, Optimum Currency Areas, inflation, monetary union, monetary fund, central bank, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration,

Against the background of the theory of optimum currency areas, the paper analyzes possible sequences for establishing a currency union (CU) in the Middle East and Central Asia region. Between the corner solutions...

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: 2005 Article IV Consultation:  Staff Report; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : 2005 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion »

Volume/Issue: 2006/136

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823073.002

ISBN: 9781451823073

Keywords: article, interest, deficit, balance of payments, budget, Maurtitania,

This 2005 Article IV Consultation underlies that in 2004, Libya's macroeconomic performance was satisfactory, owing mainly to higher oil prices and increased oil output. Real GDP grew 41/2 percent while consumer pr...

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: Selected Issue:  Medium-Term Economic Reform Strategy, and Statistical Appendix

The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : Selected Issue: Medium-Term Economic Reform Strategy, and Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2006/137

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823080.002

ISBN: 9781451823080

Keywords: budget, central bank, revenues, balance of payments, interest

This Selected Issues paper aims to present a medium-term reform strategy that could be pursued by Libya to accelerate its transition to a market economy. The paper reviews the main characteristics of the Libyan eco...

Fiscal Policy and Financial Development

Fiscal Policy and Financial Development »

Volume/Issue: 2006/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Hauner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862867.001

ISBN: 9781451862867

Keywords: Bank efficiency, bank profitability, financial development, public sector, banking, banking sector, bank credit, bank borrowing, National Budget, Deficit

We examine the effects of public sector borrowing from the domestic banking system on financial development in middle-income countries. While these countries' external debt has been falling, the share of bank credi...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2005 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064607.044

ISBN: 9781589064607

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities, money market

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Balance of Payments Manual

Balance of Payments Manual »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753397.071

ISBN: 9781557753397

Keywords: payments, balance of payments, liabilities, debt, interest

The fifth edition of Balance of Payments Manual, issued in 1993, presents revised and updated standards for concepts, definitions, classifications, and conventions for compilation of balance of payments and interna...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 19

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 19 »

Volume/Issue: 34/19

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938951.023

ISBN: 9781451938951

Keywords: international monetary fund, central bank, world trade, economic developments

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 2005/83

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823066.002

ISBN: 9781451823066

Keywords: debt, central bank, article, budget, interest

This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Libyan economy remains largely state controlled and heavily dependent on the oil sector. Since the lifting of the Libya-specific trade sanctions of the United N...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: Statistical Appendix

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : Statistical Appendix »

Volume/Issue: 2005/78

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823059.002

ISBN: 9781451823059

Keywords: foreign assets, crude oil, petroleum products, foreign liabilities, national oil

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Financial Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa

Financial Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2004/201

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874389.001

ISBN: 9781451874389

Keywords: Financial development, index, measurement, Middle East and North Africa, banking, financial sector, banking sector, bank assets, bank credit, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

Based on data collected on a wide range of financial sector indicators, new indices of financial development for countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are constructed, encompassing six themes: develo...

The Effects of Fiscal Policieson the Economic Development of Women in the Middle East and North Africa

The Effects of Fiscal Policieson the Economic Development of Women in the Middle East and North Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2003/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nicole Laframboise , and Tea Trumbic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875850.001

ISBN: 9781451875850

Keywords: government social spending, gender bias, public spending, public expenditure, female literacy, Subsidies, and Revenue, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies,

Statistics indicate that the economic and social development of women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) compares unfavorably with most regions in the world. This paper assesses the influence of government...

The Socialist Peopled Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
			: 2003 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Staff Statement; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion

The Socialist Peopled Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : 2003 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Staff Statement; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion »

Volume/Issue: 2003/327

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451823042.002

ISBN: 9781451823042

Keywords: budget, article, public enterprises, public sector, debt

The Libyan economy remains saddled with extensive controls, restrictions, and subsidies that continue to distort prices and resource allocations, hinder efficiency and competitiveness, and impede the performance of...

The Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuationson Output and Prices
			: Evidence From Developing Countries

The Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuationson Output and Prices : Evidence From Developing Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2003/200

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Magda Kandil , and Ida Mirzaie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860184.001

ISBN: 9781451860184

Keywords: exchange rate, anticipated vs. unanticipated appreciation, supply vs. demand channels, real and inflationary effects, price inflation, aggregate demand, money supply, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

The paper examines the effects of exchange rate fluctuations on real output and the price level in a sample of 33 developing countries. The theoretical model decomposes movements in the exchange rate into anticipat...

The Middle East and North Africa in a Changing Oil Market

The Middle East and North Africa in a Changing Oil Market »

Series: Miscellaneous Publication (Other)

Author(s): Bright Okogu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062344.073

ISBN: 9781589062344

Keywords: opec, gas, oil market, oil prices, natural gas

The world oil market has undergone a series of changes that have reduced the share of oil in the global energy balance and, with it, the influence of Middle Eastern oil exporters. In spite of oil's loss of ground,...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062184.012

ISBN: 9781589062184

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2003 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2002 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061842.044

ISBN: 9781589061842

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, money market, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...