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Japan
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Detailed Assessment of Observance on Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

Japan : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Detailed Assessment of Observance on Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2017/282

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484319710.002

ISBN: 9781484319710

Keywords: Japan, Asia and Pacific

Banking regulations and supervisory processes have undergone significant improvements since the last Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The Japan Financial Services Agency (JFSA) is in the process of refor...

Japan
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Insurance Sector Regulation and Supervision

Japan : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Insurance Sector Regulation and Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2017/281

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484319697.002

ISBN: 9781484319697

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Japan

The Japanese insurance sector is characterized by a mature market, high concentration, and the predominance of life insurance products with interest guarantees. The insurance sector represents 13 percent of total f...

Japan
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Long-Term Challenges for Financial Intermediation

Japan : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Long-Term Challenges for Financial Intermediation »

Volume/Issue: 2017/283

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484319741.002

ISBN: 9781484319741

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Japan

Sustained demographic change can have potentially significant effects on the economy and the financial system. Aging can affect financial intermediation through its effects on potential growth, on the term structur...

Japan
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Regulation and Supervision of Securities

Japan : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Regulation and Supervision of Securities »

Volume/Issue: 2017/284

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484319789.002

ISBN: 9781484319789

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Japan

Japanese securities firms consist of a very heterogeneous group of firms, ranging from major global players to purely domestic firms that conduct only limited activities. At one end, the firms include two major ind...

Japan
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Systemic Risk Analysis and Stress Testing the Financial Sector

Japan : Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Systemic Risk Analysis and Stress Testing the Financial Sector »

Volume/Issue: 2017/285

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484319819.002

ISBN: 9781484319819

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Japan

A comprehensive set of stress tests and interconnectedness were conducted to assess the resilience of Japan's financial system and shed light on linkages and potential vulnerabilities. Japan has one of the largest...

Japan
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Japan

Japan : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Japan »

Volume/Issue: 2017/242

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484313411.002

ISBN: 9781484313411

Keywords: Japan, Asia and Pacific

Abenomics has improved economic conditions and engendered structural reforms but has not yet achieved a durable exit from deflation. The economy has expanded at a pace above potential the last five consecutive quar...

Japan
			: Financial System Stability Assessment

Japan : Financial System Stability Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2017/244

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484313435.002

ISBN: 9781484313435

Keywords: Japan, Asia and Pacific

Weak growth and low interest rates, together with underlying demographic headwinds, are posing chronic challenges for the financial system. Despite accommodative financial conditions, sluggish domestic demand have...

Japan
			: Selected Issues

Japan : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2017/243

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484313428.002

ISBN: 9781484313428

Keywords: Jordan, Middle East

Selected Issues...

Policy Uncertainty in Japan

Policy Uncertainty in Japan »

Volume/Issue: 2017/128

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Steven Davis , Arata Ito , Naoko Miake , and Ikuo Saito

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 May 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484300671.001

ISBN: 9781484300671

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Japan, Policy uncertainty, aggregate investment, General, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)

We develop new economic policy uncertainty (EPU) indices for Japan from January 1987 onwards building on the approach of Baker, Bloom and Davis (2016). Each index reflects the frequency of newspaper articles that c...

Household Consumption in Japan - Role of Income and Asset Developments

Household Consumption in Japan - Role of Income and Asset Developments »

Volume/Issue: 2017/23

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Erkki Vihriälä

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 January 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475573084.001

ISBN: 9781475573084

Keywords: Disposable income, Household consumption, Assets, Japan, Liquidity, Income, Asia and Pacific, Regression analysis, consumption determinants, income and wealth

We study Japanese household consumption at a disaggregated level focusing on the role of income and asset dynamics. Stagnation of real per capita consumption is widespread acrosslabor market groups, age groups and...

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems?

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Csaba Feher , Jack Ree , Ikuo Saito , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560336.001

ISBN: 9781475560336

Keywords: Pensions, Pension reforms, Japan, Korea, Republic of, China, People's Republic of, China, Asia and Pacific, Asia, Retirement, Pension System Reform

Automatic adjustment mechanisms (AAMs)-rules ensuring that certain characteristics of a pension system respond to demographic, macroeconomic and financial developments, in a predetermined fashion and without the ne...

The Impact of Demographics on Productivity and Inflation in Japan

The Impact of Demographics on Productivity and Inflation in Japan »

Volume/Issue: 2016/237

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Niklas Westelius , and Yihan Liu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475559712.001

ISBN: 9781475559712

Keywords: Total factor productivity, Population growth, Demographic transition, Inflation, Japan, Asia and Pacific, Aging, and Productivity, Productivity, Demographic Trends and Forecasts

Is Japan's aging and, more recently, declining population hampering growth and reflation efforts? Exploiting demographic and economic variation in prefectural data between 1990 and 2007, we find that aging of the w...

Minimum Wage as a Wage Policy Tool in Japan

Minimum Wage as a Wage Policy Tool in Japan »

Volume/Issue: 2016/232

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chie Aoyagi , Giovanni Ganelli , and Nour Tawk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475555349.001

ISBN: 9781475555349

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Income distribution, Japan, Women, Wage policy, Regression analysis, Labor market characteristics, Minimum wages, minimum wage, income policies

Using prefectural data, we study the potential impact on wage dynamics of the planned minimum wage increase policy in Japan. Our main result is that stepping up minimum wage growth from 2 to the planned 3 percent p...

Institutionalizing Countercyclical Investment

Institutionalizing Countercyclical Investment »

Volume/Issue: 2016/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bradley Jones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513512495.001

ISBN: 9781513512495

Keywords: Asset Allocation, Asset Owners, Momentum, Risk Management, asset, investment, risk, returns, Asset Pricing, Government Policy and Regulation

Do portfolio shifts by the world’s largest asset owners respond procyclically to past returns, or countercyclically to valuations? And if countercyclical investment (with both market-stabilizing and return-generati...

The Financial Wealth of Corporations

The Financial Wealth of Corporations »

Volume/Issue: 2016/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yuko Hashimoto , and Noriaki Kinoshita

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484395073.001

ISBN: 9781484395073

Keywords: Nonfinancial corporation, financial balance sheet, net financial wealth, balance sheet, equity, debt, balance sheets, stock, General, Methodology for Collecting

This paper analyzes the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector’s financial balance sheets using data available from the OECD. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP—a frequently use...

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2015/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Wolfgang Bergthaler , Kenneth Kang , Yan Liu , and Dermot Monaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498384834.006

ISBN: 9781498384834

Keywords: Corporate sector, Debt restructuring, Business enterprises, Bankruptcy, Europe, Economic recovery, Insolvency, Non-performing loans, SME, debt distress

The global financial crisis has left a large private sector debt overhang and high levels of non- performing loans (NPLs) in several European countries. Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) represent a signific...

ASEAN Financial Integration

ASEAN Financial Integration »

Volume/Issue: 2015/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Geert Almekinders , Alex Mourmouras , Jianping Zhou , Satoshi Fukuda , and Yong Sarah Zhou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484386491.001

ISBN: 9781484386491

Keywords: Economic growth, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Capital flows, Capital account liberalization, Economic integration, Financial integration, Indonesia

The establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) at end-2015 has brought into sharp focus the issue of financial and economic integration in the region. This paper takes stock of ASEAN's financial integratio...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014
			: From stabilization to sustainable growth

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014 : From stabilization to sustainable growth »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498315357.011

ISBN: 9781498315357

Keywords: Annual reports, Administrative and Capital budgets, Bilateral surveillance, External training programs, Executive Board, Financial sector surveillance, IMF, IMF Finance, IMF Lending, Fund budget

Seven years after the onset of the global financial crisis, the world still has a way to go to secure a sustainable recovery marked by strong growth that supports rapid job creation and benefits all, International...

Monetary Policy in the New Normal

Monetary Policy in the New Normal »

Volume/Issue: 2014/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Karl Habermeier , Tommaso Mancini Griffoli , and Fabian Valencia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475561784.006

ISBN: 9781475561784

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Central bank autonomy, Central bank independence, Central banks, Financial stability, Monetary policy, Macroprudential Policy, inflation, central bank, monetary fund

The proposed SDN would take stock of the current debate on the shape that monetary policy should take after the crisis. It revisits the pros and cons of expanding the objectives of monetary policy, the merits of tu...

Women, Work, and the Economy
			: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity

Women, Work, and the Economy : Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity »

Volume/Issue: 2013/10

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Katrin Elborgh-Woytek , Monique Newiak , Kalpana Kochhar , Stefania Fabrizio , Kangni Kpodar , Philippe Wingender , Benedict Clements , and Gerd Schwartz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566567.006

ISBN: 9781475566567

Keywords: Developed countries, Employment, Emerging markets, Labor markets, Gender equality, Fiscal policy, Women

The proposed SDN discusses the specific macro-critical aspects of women’s participation in the labor market and the constraints that prevent women from developing their full economic potential. Building on e...

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 October 2013

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484362785.011

ISBN: 9781484362785

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows, balance of payments, debt sustainability, management of capital flows, risk management, internal audit

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013 : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515398.011

ISBN: 9781475515398

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013
			: Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013 : Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World »

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566253.089

ISBN: 9781475566253

Keywords: public debt, government debt, fiscal adjustment, central bank, debt ratios

Continued progress in reducing advanced economy deficits and a gradually improving external environment have lowered short-term fiscal risks, according to this issue, but global prospects nevertheless remain subdue...

Rethinking Macro Policy II
			: Getting Granular

Rethinking Macro Policy II : Getting Granular »

Volume/Issue: 2013/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484363478.006

ISBN: 9781484363478

Keywords: Financial stability, Fiscal consolidation, Central banks and their policies, Central banks, Capital flows, Public debt, Stabilization measures, Fiscal policy, Inflation targeting, Monetary policy

This note explores how the economic thinking about macroeconomic management has evolved since the crisis began. It discusses developments in monetary policy, including unconventional measures; the challenges associ...

Current Developments in Monetary and Financial Law, Volume 6
			: Restoring Financial Stability--The Legal Response

Current Developments in Monetary and Financial Law, Volume 6 : Restoring Financial Stability--The Legal Response »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 February 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350819.072

ISBN: 9781616350819

Keywords: Banking, Central bank policy, Financial stability, Financial institutions, International banking, debt, loans, restructuring, regulation

'Restoring Financial Stability-The Legal Response' is the theme of the sixth volume of 'Current Developments in Monetary and Financial Law.' The book covers a range of issues: frameworks and regulatory reforms in t...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012
			: Working Together To Support Global Recovery

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012 : Working Together To Support Global Recovery »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354152.011

ISBN: 9781616354152

Keywords: credit, balance of payments, technical assistance, financial sector, debt relief

The IMF's 2012 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2012, which covers the period from May 1, 2011, thr...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012
			: Financial Statements

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2012 : Financial Statements »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354169.011

ISBN: 9781616354169

Keywords: financial statements, technical assistance, cash flows, financial assets, financial instruments

The IMF's 2012 Annual Report chronicles the response of the Fund's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2012, which covers the period from May 1, 2011, thr...

Estimating the Costs of Financial Regulation

Estimating the Costs of Financial Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/11

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Andre Santos , and Douglas Elliott

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475510089.006

ISBN: 9781475510089

Keywords: Capital markets, Banks, Bank supervision, Bank reforms, Financial institutions, Basel III, Systemically Important Institutions, Financial Regulation, Capital Requirements, Liquidity Requirements

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Raising the Consumption Tax in Japan
			: Why, When, How?

Raising the Consumption Tax in Japan : Why, When, How? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/13

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Kenneth Kang , Michael Keen , Mahmood Pradhan , and Ruud A. Mooij

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463902889.006

ISBN: 9781463902889

Keywords: Consumption taxes, Revenue measures, Japan, Tax increases, Tax revenues, Value added tax, Consumption tax, VAT, fiscal adjustment, social security

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Tax Biases to Debt Finance
			: Assessing the Problem, Finding Solutions

Tax Biases to Debt Finance : Assessing the Problem, Finding Solutions »

Volume/Issue: 2011/11

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ruud A. Mooij

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 May 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463935139.006

ISBN: 9781463935139

Keywords: Corporate taxation, investors, tax system, cost of capital, corporate tax, interest payments, Interest Deductibility, Corporate Financial Structure, Multinational Debt Shifting, Bank Leverage

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Crisis Management and Resolution
			: Early Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Crisis Management and Resolution : Early Lessons from the Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2011/5

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ceyla Pazarbasioglu , Luc Laeven , Oana Nedelescu , Stijn Claessens , Fabian Valencia , Marc Dobler , and Katharine Seal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455286546.006

ISBN: 9781455286546

Keywords: Financial crises, Financial stability, Crisis management, Asset restructuring, Burden sharing, Moral hazard, Stress tests, resolution, too big to fail, financial institutions

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced?

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384860.006

ISBN: 9781462384860

Keywords: global imbalances, current account, exchange rates, current account deficits, current account surpluses, exchange rate, current account deficit, Account Balances Be Reduced?,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Unwinding Financial Sector Interventions
			: Preconditions and Practical Considerations

Unwinding Financial Sector Interventions : Preconditions and Practical Considerations »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Michael Papaioannou , and Udaibir Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069893.072

ISBN: 9781589069893

Keywords: financial sector, financial institutions, fiscal policy, financial stability, financial system

As the financial crisis abates, governments are faced with the challenge of balancing the withdrawal of fiscal support with reestablishing sound public finances and sustainable growth. This volume presents papers f...

Fiscal Space

Fiscal Space »

Volume/Issue: 2010/11

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , Jun Kim , and Mahvash Qureshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455228010.004

ISBN: 9781455228010

Keywords: Developed countries, Debt management, Public debt, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, debt dynamics, debt, interest, primary balance

In this note, the authors reexamine the issue of debt sustainability in a large group of advanced economies. Their hypothesis is that, when debt is in a moderate range, its dynamics are sustainable in the sense tha...

Reconstructing the World Economy

Reconstructing the World Economy »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Il SaKong , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069770.072

ISBN: 9781589069770

Keywords: inflation, current account, financial system, central bank, monetary policy

This volume presents papers from a conference organized by the Korea Development Institute and the IMF. The purpose of this high-level conference was for policymakers and academics from the Asian region and from G-...

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2010/03

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455224982.004

ISBN: 9781455224982

Keywords: Bank credit, Bank regulations, Bank supervision, Central bank role, Economic policy, Economic stabilization, Financial crisis, Financial intermediation, Fiscal policy, Inflation targeting

The great moderation lulled macroeconomists and policymakers alike in the belief that we knew how to conduct macroeconomic policy. The crisis clearly forces us to question that assessment. In this paper, we review...

A Practical Guide to Public Debt Dynamics, Fiscal Sustainability, and Cyclical Adjustment of Budgetary Aggregates

A Practical Guide to Public Debt Dynamics, Fiscal Sustainability, and Cyclical Adjustment of Budgetary Aggregates »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Julio Escolano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462396955.005

ISBN: 9781462396955

Keywords: Public debt dynamics, debt ratio, Government budget constraint, Ponzi game, Cyclically adjusted balance, debt, interest, primary balance, interest payments

This paper presents a practical guide to public debt dynamics, fiscal sustainability, and cyclical adjustment of budgetary aggregates. The paper discusses fiscal formulas, which may be of practical use in fiscal an...

Global Imbalances
			: In Midstream?

Global Imbalances : In Midstream? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/29

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462333387.004

ISBN: 9781462333387

Keywords: Financial crisis, Capital flows, Asset prices, Current account deficits, Cross country analysis, Capital markets, Private savings, Private investment, Investment, International financial system

...

Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies

Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/27

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Vladimir Klyuev , Phil De Imus , and Krishna Srinivasan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462382828.004

ISBN: 9781462382828

Keywords: Credit controls, Credit easing, quantitative easing, liquidity, monetary policy, central banks, central bank, balance sheets, interest, financial institutions

...

The State of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor
			: November 2009

The State of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor : November 2009 »

Volume/Issue: 2009/25

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462349531.004

ISBN: 9781462349531

Keywords: Fiscal sustainability, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest, deficit

...

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068506.084

ISBN: 9781589068506

Keywords: Budgets, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Financial institutions, Public finance, Pension funds, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fiscal stability, financial sector, deposit insurance

The economic and financial crisis is affecting the fiscal accounts of virtually every country. Public sector support for the financial system, fiscal stimulus and the automatic stabilizers, as well as the revenue d...

The State of Public Finances
			: A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor

The State of Public Finances : A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor »

Volume/Issue: 2009/21

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Mark Horton , and Manmohan Kumar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455257270.004

ISBN: 9781455257270

Keywords: Emerging markets, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, fiscal sustainability, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest

...

Why Has Japan Been Hit So Hard by the Global Recession?

Why Has Japan Been Hit So Hard by the Global Recession? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Martin Sommer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455282494.004

ISBN: 9781455282494

Keywords: Demand, Domestic investment, Consumption, Consumer goods, Exports, Financial crisis, Manufacturing sector, International trade, Industrial sector, Private sector

...

Gauging Risks for Deflation

Gauging Risks for Deflation »

Volume/Issue: 2009/01

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jörg Decressin , and Douglas Laxton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067295.004

ISBN: 9781589067295

Keywords: Fiscal policy, monetary policy, interest rates, exchange rate, central banks, central bank

...

What is the International Monetary Fund?

What is the International Monetary Fund? »

Series: EXR Pamphlets

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065338.052

ISBN: 9781589065338

Keywords: IMF, Fund role, balance of payments, debt relief, central bank, world trade, debt reduction

An introductory guide to the IMF, its history, and its role in the international financial system. Explains for a general audience the IMF's lending policies, how decisions are made, and where the money comes from....

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Reforma financiera
			:  ¿Qué factores la afectan y qué otros le dan forma?

Reforma financiera : ¿Qué factores la afectan y qué otros le dan forma? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Ashoka Mody , and Abdul Abiad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 October 2005

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064836.051

ISBN: 9781589064836

La liberalización del sector financiero ocupó un lugar destacado en la agenda de trabajo de las autoridades de política económica durante el último cuarto del siglo XX. Pero ha habido diferencias significativas en...

Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa

Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064393.058

ISBN: 9781589064393

Keywords: Trade, Trade policy, trade liberalization, intraregional trade, regional integration, trade barriers, regional trade

In recent years, African policymakers have increasingly resorted to regional trade arrangements (RTAs) as a substitute for broad-based trade liberalization. This trend has long-term implications for the effectivene...

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Clark , Shang-Jin Wei , Natalia Tamirisa , Azim Sadikov , and Li Zeng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063587.084

ISBN: 9781589063587

Keywords: Capital flows, Exchange rates, Trade, exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, real exchange rate, bilateral trade

The effect of exchange rate volatility on trade flows was examined by a 1984 IMF study on G-7 countries. Over the past two decades, many developments in the world economy, such as the currency crises in the 1990s a...

Cómo se gobierna el FMI
			:  Toma de decisiones, control institucional, transparencia y rendicion de cuentas

Cómo se gobierna el FMI : Toma de decisiones, control institucional, transparencia y rendicion de cuentas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063037.054

ISBN: 9781589063037

El autor -quien ocupó un alto cargo en el FMI durante dos décadas- en primer lugar centra la atención en el sistema de cuotas y la distribución del poder de voto en el FMI y concluye que se requieren reformas para...

Reestructuración del sector empresarial
			:  La función del gobierno en épocas de crisis

Reestructuración del sector empresarial : La función del gobierno en épocas de crisis »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 July 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061989.051

ISBN: 9781589061989

Examina las etapas del proceso de reestructuración del sector empresarial. La reestructuración a gran escala del sector empresarial que resulta necesaria como consecuencia de una crisis financiera es uno de los des...

Deflation
			: Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062276.084

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and...

Advanced Country Experiences with Capital Account Liberalization

Advanced Country Experiences with Capital Account Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Age Bakker , and Bryan Chapple

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061170.084

ISBN: 9781589061170

Keywords: exchange rate, capital controls, capital account liberalization, capital movements, capital inflows

After the industrial countries established current account convertibility in the late1950s, they began to phase out their capital controls. Their efforts were slow and tentative at first, but built up considerable...

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy"

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy" »

Volume/Issue: 2002/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971019.003

ISBN: 9781451971019

Keywords: Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund, fiscal sustainability, fiscal position, fiscal policies, public debt, Fiscal Policies And Behavior Of Economic Agents, Macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy

This paper provides a perspective on how the IMF assesses a “sound fiscal policy,” focusing principally on industrial and emerging market economies. It observes six central criteria: the short-term fi...

Financial Risks, Stability, and Globalization

Financial Risks, Stability, and Globalization »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Omotunde Johnson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060128.072

ISBN: 9781589060128

Keywords: Financial stability, Risk premium, banking, financial system, financial sector, regulation, financial institutions

This book covers financial sector stability issues in the following areas: risk management and governance in financial institutions; financial crises and contagion; domestic monetary and financial policies; and int...

Methodology for Current Account and Exchange Rate Assessments

Methodology for Current Account and Exchange Rate Assessments »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Kincaid , Martin Fetherston , Peter Isard , and Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060814.084

ISBN: 9781589060814

Keywords: Current account balances, Exchange rates, current account, exchange rate, current account positions, real exchange rate

...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060678.054

ISBN: 9781589060678

Keywords: SDR Department, Fund, Fund general resources, Fund financial position, currency, currencies, reserve, interest, quota

This pamphlet describes the financial structure and operations of the IMF, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, the role of the IMF as trustee to various a...

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities »

Volume/Issue: 2001/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Zelmer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971583.003

ISBN: 9781451971583

Keywords: Central banks, Central banks and their policies, Bonds, Monetary policy, Monetary policy, Monetary operations, central bank, government securities, balance sheets, financial institutions,

The limited supply of government securities in some industrial countries has important ramifications for the operating techniques used by central banks to implement monetary policy, provide credit to the financial...

Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy

Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Andrew Berg , Paolo Mauro , Michael Mussa , Alexander Swoboda , Esteban Jadresic , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 August 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758927.084

ISBN: 9781557758927

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate regime, exchange rate regimes, transition countries

This paper examines the consequences of heightened capital mobility and of the integration of developing economies in increasingly globalized markets for the exchange rate regimes of the industrial, developing, and...

Reconsidering External Financing of Domestic Budget Deficits
			: Debunking Some Received Wisdom

Reconsidering External Financing of Domestic Budget Deficits : Debunking Some Received Wisdom »

Volume/Issue: 2000/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): David Woo , and Simon Gray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970951.003

ISBN: 9781451970951

Keywords: Debt management, Budget deficits, External financing, foreign currency denominated sovereign debt, foreign currency, domestic currency, exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign investors

The past decade has witnessed a steady increase in outstanding external sovereign debt issued by emerging market economies. This paper examines some of the “received wisdom” regarding the benefits of...

Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country

Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country »

Volume/Issue: 1999/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , Patrick Downes , and Dewitt Marston

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973433.003

ISBN: 9781451973433

Keywords: Financial crisis, Financial systems, Financial system soundness, indicators of financial vulnerability, banking crisis, stress tests, financial system, financial institutions, central bank, balance sheet

The forward-looking framework expounded in this paper links a qualitative evaluation of system-wide vulnerability (covering macro, sectoral, institutional, and systemic liquidity issues) with a quantitative assessm...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757593.054

ISBN: 9781557757593

Keywords: Fund facilities, Fund, Overdue obligations, SDR Department, currency, currencies, balance of payments, reserve, quota

The financial structure and operations of the IMF are described in this pamphlet, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, and the role of the IMF as trustee t...

Exchange Rate Assessment
			: Extension of the Macroeconomic Balance Approach

Exchange Rate Assessment : Extension of the Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Isard , and Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757319.084

ISBN: 9781557757319

Keywords: Exchange rates, current account, exchange rate, real exchange rate, current accounts

The IMF's internal analysis of exchange rate issues has been guided by, and limited by, the conceptual and empirical frameworks that have emerged from the collective research of the economics profession. The resear...

Fiscal Policy Rules

Fiscal Policy Rules »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Kopits , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757043.017

ISBN: 9781557757043

Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal rules, public debt, fiscal policy rules, fiscal rule

What are fiscal policy rules? What are the principal benefits and drawbacks associated with various fiscal rules, particularly compared with alternative approaches to fiscal adjustment? Can fiscal rules contribute...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (Revised 1998)

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (Revised 1998) »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463904180.054

ISBN: 9781463904180

Keywords: balance of payments, reserve tranche, repurchases, general resources account, credit tranche

This paper discusses the financial organization and operations of the IMF. The policies and activities of the IMF are guided by its charter, known as the Articles of Agreement. The IMF is unique among intergovernme...

Deindustrialization
			: Its Causes and Implications

Deindustrialization : Its Causes and Implications »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756435.051

ISBN: 9781557756435

Keywords: employment, productivity growth, service sector, share of employment, unemployment

Over the past 25 years, the share of employment accouted for bymanufacturing has fallen dramatically in the world's most advanced economies, a phenomenon widely referred to as "deindustrialization."Many see deindus...

Pension Regimes and Saving

Pension Regimes and Saving »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfredo Cuevas , George Mackenzie , and Philip Gerson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756404.084

ISBN: 9781557756404

Keywords: pension, retirement, benefits, pensions, pension plans

Public pension systems around the world have been criticized in recent years for some serious flaws, including the excessive burden they impose on the public finances and their depressing impact on saving rates. Th...

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756206.084

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This paper discusses a study analyzing aging populations and public pension schemes. An aging society is characterized by a growing proportion of the retired to the active working population. The study examines the...

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756008.084

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass not only a wide geographic area but also broad differences in stages of economic development, including among them some of the fastes...

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions »

Volume/Issue: 1996/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972009.003

ISBN: 9781451972009

Keywords: tax authorities, tax treatment, tax deductible, fiscal authorities, tax deductions

Provisioning for loan losses is a method for recognizing the reduction in the value of a hank’s loan portfolio. Provisions are an essential element of prudential risk management and capital adequacy measurem...

Saving Behavior and the Asset Price "Bubble" in Japan
			: Analytical Studies

Saving Behavior and the Asset Price "Bubble" in Japan : Analytical Studies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Guy Meredith , and Ulrich Baumgartner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 April 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754622.084

ISBN: 9781557754622

Keywords: inflation, fdi, direct investment, price inflation, elderly

This volume brings together various analytical studies the IMF staff has undertaken on the Japanese economy, focusing on two areas of particular interest for both longer-term economic performance and recent cyclica...

Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules
			: How Tough a Challenge is it to Join the Basle Club?

Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules : How Tough a Challenge is it to Join the Basle Club? »

Volume/Issue: 1995/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , María Nieto , and Olivier Frecaut

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972467.003

ISBN: 9781451972467

Keywords: Bank regulations, capital accord, balance sheet, capital ratio, risk weights, capital adequacy

The 1988 Basle Capital Accord has introduced the norm of a risk-based capital ratio of 8 percent. It was negotiated among the G-10 countries to strengthen their international banks’ capital base while simult...

Improving the International Monetary System
			: Constraints and Possibilities

Improving the International Monetary System : Constraints and Possibilities »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Morris Goldstein , Donald Mathieson , Tamim Bayoumi , Michael Mussa , and Peter Clark

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754448.084

ISBN: 9781557754448

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, capital markets, international capital markets, international capital

This study addresses major policy issues associated with the future of the international monetary system. It focuses on whether there is a need for fundamental reform of this system, defined as systematic and susta...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1995

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1995 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944990.011

ISBN: 9781451944990

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, inflation, balance of payments

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals
			: A Framework for Analysis

Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals : A Framework for Analysis »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Symansky , Peter Clark , Leonardo Bartolini , and Tamim Bayoumi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754516.084

ISBN: 9781557754516

Keywords: Exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, current account, real exchange rates

This paper summarizes the methods and types of indicators that are often employed, both insid and outside the IMF, to assess whether exchange rates are broadly in line with economic fundamentals....

Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle

Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle »

Volume/Issue: 1994/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Garry Schinasi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971927.003

ISBN: 9781451971927

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, inflationary pressures, price inflation, monetary fund

The business cycle in several industrial countries during the period 1989-1993 was different from previous post World War II business cycles in important ways. This paper describes the unique character of the recen...

The United States
			: Japan Current Account Imbalance:  A Review

The United States : Japan Current Account Imbalance: A Review »

Volume/Issue: 1994/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stephen Golub

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970708.003

ISBN: 9781451970708

Keywords: exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, trade flows, real exchange rates

This paper reviews the macroeconomic and microeconomic dimensions of the United States-Japan conflict over trade. From a macroeconomic perspective, there is nothing surprising about Japan’s surpluses, given...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1994

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1994 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944938.011

ISBN: 9781451944938

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, current account balance, repurchases, current account deficit

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1993

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1993 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944891.011

ISBN: 9781451944891

Keywords: inflation, balance of payments, monetary policy, monetary fund, world economy

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System

Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mark Taylor , Peter Isard , Morris Goldstein , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752345.084

ISBN: 9781557752345

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, inflation, monetary fund, monetary union

How can international monetary stability be promoted? This study looks at ways to bolster economic policies and coordination among the industrial countries serving as nominal anchors for the world economy. It also...

The Internationalization of Currencies
			: An Appraisal of the Japanese Yen

The Internationalization of Currencies : An Appraisal of the Japanese Yen »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yusuru Ozeki , and George Tavlas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 January 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557751973.084

ISBN: 9781557751973

Keywords: capital outflows, bonds, international currency, financial markets, inflation

A tripolar international monetary system-centered on the U.S. dollar, the deutsche mark, and the yen - appears to be emerging. This paper not only assesses the role of the yen as an international currency but also...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1992

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1992 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944853.011

ISBN: 9781451944853

Keywords: balance of payments, general resources account, repurchases, repayments, inflation

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System

Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson , Morris Goldstein , and Jacob Frenkel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752154.084

ISBN: 9781557752154

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, current account, inflation, monetary fund

This study identifies the key characteristics of a successful exchange rate system. It focuses on regimes in the industrial countries and consider the implications for the operation of the international monetary sy...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1991

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1991 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944822.011

ISBN: 9781451944822

Keywords: debt, interest, payments, balance of payments, external debt

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1990

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1990 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944792.011

ISBN: 9781451944792

Keywords: balance of payments, debt reduction, general resources account, repurchases, debt strategy

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1989

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1989 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944754.011

ISBN: 9781451944754

Keywords: balance of payments, debt reduction, general resources account, repayments, repurchases

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1988

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1988 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944716.011

ISBN: 9781451944716

Keywords: balance of payments, repurchases, current account, general resources account, exporting countries

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Strengthening the International Monetary System
			: Exchange Rates, Surveillance, and Objective Indicators

Strengthening the International Monetary System : Exchange Rates, Surveillance, and Objective Indicators »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Andrew Crockett , and Morris Goldstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934768.084

ISBN: 9780939934768

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate policies, balance of payments, exchange rate system

This report comprises three papers written by staff members of the Fund's Research Department on issues arising out of the reports on the international monetary system prepared in 1985 by the Group of Ten (represen...

Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025

Aging and Social Expenditure in the Major Industrial Countries, 1980-2025 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Edgardo Ruggiero , Peter Heller , Menachem Katz , Robert Feldman , Richard Hemming , Peter Kohnert , Ziba Farhadian , Donogh McDonald , Ahsan Mansur , and Bernard Nivollet

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934683.084

ISBN: 9780939934683

Keywords: expenditure, pension, social expenditure, pensions, unemployment

Most of the seven major industrial countries are now experiencing significant changes in their demographic structure. A persistent pattern of declining fertility and improving life expectancy has created major segm...

International Capital Markets
			: Developments and Prospects

International Capital Markets : Developments and Prospects »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Donald Mathieson , Eliot Kalter , Maxwell Watson , and G. Kincaid

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934591.084

ISBN: 9780939934591

Keywords: bond, bonds, claims, bond issues, international capital markets

This paper provides a description and analysis of recent developments in international capital markets and an assessment of the prospects for private financing flows....

World Economic Outlook
			: September 1984

World Economic Outlook : September 1984 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750860.084

ISBN: 9781557750860

Keywords: current account, oil exporting countries, exports of goods, exporters, official creditors

Recent indicators suggest that activity in the world economy is strengthening more rapidly than projected by the staff six months ago. This is especially true of the United States, but the staff has also revised up...

The Exchange Rate System
			: Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future

The Exchange Rate System : Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750648.084

ISBN: 9781557750648

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate system, exchange rate movements, balance of payments

The last few years have witnessed a resurgence of calls for a re-examination, or perhaps even a reform, of the international monetary system. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on that subject in three wa...

Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade

Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750655.084

ISBN: 9781557750655

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate variability, trade flows, exchange rate movements

In View of the continuation of substantial movements in exchange rate relationships among major currencies, the recent increase in protectionist pressures, and the disappointing performance of world trade, renewed...

Issues in the Assessment of the Exchange Rates of Industrial Countries

Issues in the Assessment of the Exchange Rates of Industrial Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750761.084

ISBN: 9781557750761

Keywords: Developed countries, Exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, capital flows, effective exchange rate

In its surveillance activities, the Fund is frequently confronted with the difficult problem of how to identify exchange rate behavior that is unrelated to underlying economic and financial conditions and, conseque...

World Economic Outlook

World Economic Outlook »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750853.084

ISBN: 9781557750853

Keywords: current account, balance of payments, current account deficit, exporting countries, debt service

Although still beset with many problems, the world economy took a decided turn for the better in 1983....

Developments in International Trade Policy

Developments in International Trade Policy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Naheed Kirmani , Lorenzo Pérez , Shailendra Anjaria , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 1982

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750600.084

ISBN: 9781557750600

Keywords: export subsidies, milk, international trade, dairy, world trade

This paper contains further work by the Fund staff on trade issues and developments following the pattern of the surveys prepared in 1978 and 1981, mainly focusing on commercial policies of the major trading nation...

International Capital Markets
			: Recent Develpments and Short-Term Prospects, 1981

International Capital Markets : Recent Develpments and Short-Term Prospects, 1981 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 August 1981

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750709.084

ISBN: 9781557750709

Keywords: bond, capital markets, international capital markets, capital market, bond issues

This paper provides a review of recent developments and an assessment of short-term prospects for private international capital markets, which constitute one of the main sources of international capital flows....

Trade Policy Developments in Industrial Countries

Trade Policy Developments in Industrial Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Wanda Tseng , Lorenzo Pérez , Zubair Iqbal , and Shailendra Anjaria

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1981

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750822.084

ISBN: 9781557750822

Keywords: international trade, oil exporting, exporting developing countries, bilateral agreements, quantitative restrictions

This study reviews recent developments in international trade policies in selected industrial countries. It was prepared for the June 1981 World Economic Outlook....