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The Future of China's Bond Market

This book analyzes segments of China's bond market, from sovereign, policy bank, and credit bonds, to the rapidly growing local government bond market.

The Future of China's Bond Market

This book analyzes segments of China's bond market, from sovereign, policy bank, and credit bonds, to the rapidly growing local government bond market.

Macroeconomic and Financial Policies for Climate Change Mitigation: A Review of the Literature

Macroeconomic and Financial Policies for Climate Change Mitigation: A Review of the Literature »

Volume/Issue: 2019/185

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Signe Krogstrup , and William Oman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 September 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513511955.001

ISBN: 9781513511955

Keywords: Financial regulation and supervision, Financial crises, Central banking and monetary issues, Economic conditions, Financial management, climate change, fiscal policy, monetary policy, financial policy, policy framework

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of this century. Mitigation requires a large-scale transition to a low-carbon economy. This paper provides an overview of the rapidly growing literature on the role...

People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2019/274

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 August 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513511252.002

ISBN: 9781513511252

Keywords: Financial crises, Balance of trade, Fiscal sector, Bilateral trade, Credit, trade balance, SOEs, consumption growth, implicit guarantee, household debt

Selected Issues...

People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2019/274

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 August 2019

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513511306.002

ISBN: 9781513511306

Selected Issues...

People's Republic of China
			: 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for China

People's Republic of China : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for China »

Volume/Issue: 2019/266

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510460.002

ISBN: 9781513510460

Keywords: Economic indicators, Financial statistics, Financial institutions, Fiscal policy, Gross domestic product, trade tension, percent of GDP, PBC, SOEs, off-budget

After the slowdown in 2018, reflecting financial regulatory strengthening and softening external demand, growth stabilized in early 2019. Financial deleveraging and reduced interconnectedness between banks and non-...

People's Republic of China
			: 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for China

People's Republic of China : 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for China »

Volume/Issue: 2019/266

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2019

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513510637.002

ISBN: 9781513510637

Keywords: Economic indicators, Financial statistics, Financial institutions, Fiscal policy, Gross domestic product, trade tension, percent of GDP, PBC, SOEs, off-budget

After the slowdown in 2018, reflecting financial regulatory strengthening and softening external demand, growth stabilized in early 2019. Financial deleveraging and reduced interconnectedness between banks and non-...

People's Republic of China
			: Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

People's Republic of China : Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2019/172

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 June 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498320689.002

ISBN: 9781498320689

Keywords: Systemically important financial institutions, Real sector, Social security, Money laundering, Central banks, STRs, PBC, financial intelligence, CFT, AML

This report provides a summary of the anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in place in the People's Republic of China (China)1 as at the date of the onsite visit (July 9-27,...

Internal Capital Markets in Business Groups and the Propagation of Credit Supply Shocks

Internal Capital Markets in Business Groups and the Propagation of Credit Supply Shocks »

Volume/Issue: 2019/111

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yu Shi , Robert Townsend , and Wu Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314411.001

ISBN: 9781498314411

Keywords: Interest rate ceilings, Supply and demand, Credit demand, Credit, Bank credit, Internal capital markets, business groups, bank lending, China, corporate shareholder

Using business registry data from China, we show that internal capital markets in business groups can propagate corporate shareholders' credit supply shocks to their subsidiaries. An average of 16.7% local bank cre...

Understanding Export Diversification: Key Drivers and Policy Implications

Understanding Export Diversification: Key Drivers and Policy Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2019/105

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rahul Giri , Saad Quayyum , and Rujun Yin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498313087.001

ISBN: 9781498313087

Keywords: Commodity markets, Commodity price fluctuations, Comparative advantage, Natural resources, International trade agreements, Diversification, Education, Trade, Natural Resource Rent, Commodity Exporter

We identify key factors, from large set of potential determinants, that explain the variation in export diversification across countries and over time using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), which addresses model unc...

Illuminating Economic Growth

Illuminating Economic Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2019/77

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yingyao Hu , and Jiaxiong Yao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 April 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498302944.001

ISBN: 9781498302944

Keywords: Low income countries, Economic growth, Development, Emerging markets, Technological innovation, Nighttime lights, measurement error, GDP per capita., real GDP, optimal weight

This paper seeks to illuminate the uncertainty in official GDP per capita measures using auxiliary data. Using satellite-recorded nighttime lights as an additional measurement of true GDP per capita, we provide a s...

China's Bond Market and Global Financial Markets

China's Bond Market and Global Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2018/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , and Maurice Obstfeld

Publisher: ChinaMoney Magazine by CFETS of PBoC

Publication Date: 03 April 2019

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/WPICA2018253.001

ISBN: WPICA2018253

Keywords: Globalization, Asia and Pacific, China, International financial markets, Bond Market, Market Integration, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, International Business Cycles

A cross-country comparative analysis shows that there is substantial room for further integration of China into global financial markets, especially in the case of the international bond market. A further successfu...

The Future of China's Bond Market

The Future of China's Bond Market »

Series: Books

Publisher: CITIC

Publication Date: 29 March 2019

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513507798.071

ISBN: 9781513507798

Keywords: Bond markets, Bond issues, Interest rates, Central banks, Bond yields, bond market, interbank, implicit guarantee, People's Bank of China, renminbi

China's bond market is destined to play an increasingly important role, both at home and abroad. And the inclusion of the country's bonds in global indexes will be a milestone for its financial market integration,...

Financial Deepening, Terms of Trade Shocks, and Growth Volatility in Low-Income Countries

Financial Deepening, Terms of Trade Shocks, and Growth Volatility in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2019/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kangni Kpodar , Maelan Le Goff , and Raju Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 March 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498303569.001

ISBN: 9781498303569

Keywords: Financial sector development, Economic stabilization, Real sector, International capital markets, Terms of trade, Banks, stock markets, terms of trade shocks, growth volatility, volatility

This paper contributes to the literature by looking at the possible relevance of the structure of the financial system-whether financial intermediation is performed through banks or markets-for macroeconomic volati...

The Impact of Rapid Aging and Pension Reform on Savings and the Labor Supply

The Impact of Rapid Aging and Pension Reform on Savings and the Labor Supply »

Volume/Issue: 2019/61

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Lei Ning , and Dongming Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498302890.001

ISBN: 9781498302890

Keywords: Pension reforms, Social security, Household survey data, Labor supply, Social welfare programs, Demographic Change, Pension Reform, Saving, Life Cycle, Heterogeneous Agent Model

We study, both empirically and quantitatively, the role of savings and the labor supply in self-insurance channels over the life cycle when one faces not only idiosyncratic income risks, but also changes in longevi...

The Future of China's Bond Market

The Future of China's Bond Market »

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 March 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484372142.071

ISBN: 9781484372142

Keywords: Bond markets, Bond issues, Interest rates, Central banks, Bond yields, bond market, interbank, implicit guarantee, people 's bank of China, renminbi

China's bond market is destined to play an increasingly important role, both at home and abroad. And the inclusion of the country's bonds in global indexes will be a milestone for its financial market integration,...

China's Evolving Exchange Rate Regime

China's Evolving Exchange Rate Regime »

Volume/Issue: 2019/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sonali Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 March 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498302029.001

ISBN: 9781498302029

Keywords: Exchange markets, Real effective exchange rates, Central banks, Exchange rate policy, Nominal effective exchange rate, reminbi, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, liquidity, RMB

China's exchange rate regime has undergone gradual reform since the move away from a fixed exchange rate in 2005. The renminbi has become more flexible over time but is still carefully managed, and depth and liquid...

Mobilization Effects of Multilateral Development Banks

Mobilization Effects of Multilateral Development Banks »

Volume/Issue: 2019/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chiara Broccolini , Giulia Lotti , Alessandro Maffioli , Andrea Presbitero , and Rodolfo Stucchi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 February 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484393864.001

ISBN: 9781484393864

Keywords: Official development assistance, International bond markets, Sovereign credit ratings, International financial markets, Poverty reduction and development, Multilateral Development Banks;Private Capital Flows;Mobilization Effects;Catalytic Finance;Syndicated loans;syndicated loan;MDB;outcome variable;mobilization;bond issuance

We use loan-level data on syndicated lending to a large sample of developing countries between 1993 and 2017 to estimate the mobilization effects of multilateral development banks (MDBs), controlling for a large se...

Export Competitiveness - Fuel Price Nexus in Developing Countries: Real or False Concern?

Export Competitiveness - Fuel Price Nexus in Developing Countries: Real or False Concern? »

Volume/Issue: 2019/25

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kangni Kpodar , Stefania Fabrizio , and Kodjovi Eklou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 February 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484387771.001

ISBN: 9781484387771

Keywords: Oil prices, Demand elasticity, Gasoline prices, Cost of living, Energy prices, Retail fuel prices;Fuel Subsidies;Export growth;Developing countries.;fuel price increase;non-fuel;fuel price;price shock;energy price

This paper investigates the impact of domestic fuel price increases on export growth in a sample of 77 developing countries over the period 2000-2014. Using a fixed-effect estimator and the local projection approac...

China's Digital Economy: Opportunities and Risks

China's Digital Economy: Opportunities and Risks »

Volume/Issue: 2019/16

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang , and Sally Chen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 January 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484389706.001

ISBN: 9781484389706

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Digital economy; Fintech; Productivity; Employment; Financial stability, Digital economy, Fintech, Productivity, Employment, Financial stability, Government Policy and Regulation, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, General

China's digital economy has expanded rapidly in recent years. While average digitalization of the economy remains lower than in advanced economies, digitalization is already high in certain regions and sectors, in...

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies

China's High Savings: Drivers, Prospects, and Policies »

Volume/Issue: 2018/277

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang , Ray Brooks , Ding Ding , Haiyan Ding , Hui He , Jing Lu , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484388778.001

ISBN: 9781484388778

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, People's Republic of, China; Savings; Demographic Changes; Social Safety Net; Inequality; Housing; Projections, China, Savings, Demographic Changes, Social Safety Net, Inequality; Housing, Projections,

China's high national savings rate-one of the highest in the world-is at the heart of its external/internal imbalances. High savings finance elevated investment when held domestically, or lead to large external imb...

Transport Infrastructure, City Productivity Growth and Sectoral Reallocation: Evidence from China

Transport Infrastructure, City Productivity Growth and Sectoral Reallocation: Evidence from China »

Volume/Issue: 2018/276

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yang Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484389584.001

ISBN: 9781484389584

Keywords: Transport infrastructure, trade, highway, productivity, China, Incidence

This paper examines the impact of highway expansion on aggregate productivity growth and sectoral reallocation between cities in China. To do so, I construct a unique dataset of bilateral transportation costs betwe...

China's Bond Market and Global Financial Markets

China's Bond Market and Global Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2018/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , and Maurice Obstfeld

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484377475.001

ISBN: 9781484377475

Keywords: Globalization, Asia and Pacific, China, International financial markets, Bond Market, Market Integration, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration, International Business Cycles

A cross-country comparative analysis shows that there is substantial room for further integration of China into global financial markets, especially in the case of the international bond market. A further successfu...

The Long-Run Trend of Residential Investment in China

The Long-Run Trend of Residential Investment in China »

Volume/Issue: 2018/251

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , and Weicheng Lian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484385371.001

ISBN: 9781484385371

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, People's Republic of, Central banks and their policies, China housing market, residential investment, rebalancing, Bayesian Analysis, Time-Series Models, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments

In this paper we analyze the fundamental drivers of China's residential investment as a share of its GDP. Our analysis indicates that the economic structural changes that led to rebalancing toward consumption were...

China's Monetary Policy Communication: Frameworks, Impact, and Recommendations

China's Monetary Policy Communication: Frameworks, Impact, and Recommendations »

Volume/Issue: 2018/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael McMahon , Alfred Schipke , and Xiang Li

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484385647.001

ISBN: 9781484385647

Keywords: Financial markets, Central banks and their policies, Asia and Pacific, Monetary policy, People’;s Bank of China, Communication, Central Bank, Monetary Policy Transmission, People&;amp;#x2019;s Bank of China, Monetary Policy (Targets

Financial markets are eager for any signal of monetary policy from the People's Bank of China (PBC). The importance of effective monetary policy communication will only increase as China continues to liberalize its...

China's Rebalancing: Recent Progress, Prospects and Policies

China's Rebalancing: Recent Progress, Prospects and Policies »

Volume/Issue: 2018/243

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano , and Jiayi Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484380673.001

ISBN: 9781484380673

Keywords: Real sector, Producer prices, Economic status, Financial crises, Social safety nets, China, rebalancing, macro-policy framework, policy coordination, rebalance

While China's growth gathered momentum in 2017, rebalancing was uneven and decelerated along many dimensions reflecting the temporary factors behind the growth pickup. Going forward, rebalancing is expected to proc...

Governance of the IMF
			: Evaluation Update

Governance of the IMF : Evaluation Update »

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484373439.017

ISBN: 9781484373439

Keywords: Risk management, Development, Financial crises, Stocks, International monetary system, IMF, IEO, governance, representation, effectiveness

In 2008, the IEO undertook an evaluation on the IMF governance and concluded that effectiveness had been the strongest aspect of IMF governance, while accountability and voice had been the weakest. Since then, IMF...

The Future of Asian Finance

The Future of Asian Finance »

Series: Books

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Cheng Lim , Chikahisa Sumi , James Walsh , and Jerald Schiff

Publisher: China Financial Publishing House (CFPH)

Publication Date: 04 October 2018

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504991973.071

ISBN: 9787504991973

Keywords: bond, markets, investment, market, financial crisis

Asia's financial systems proved resilient to the shocks from the global financial crisis, and growth since then has been strong. But new challenges have emerged in the region's economies, including demographics and...

China's Capacity Reduction Reform and Its Impact on Producer Prices

China's Capacity Reduction Reform and Its Impact on Producer Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2018/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Linxi Chen , Ding Ding , and Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375914.001

ISBN: 9781484375914

Keywords: China, Asia and Pacific, capacity reduction, supply-side structural reforms, producer price index, Time-Series Models, Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

In late 2015, the Chinese authorities launched a policy to reduce capacity in the coal and steel industries under the wider effort of Supply-Side Structural Reforms. Around the same time, producer price inflation i...

China's Local Government Bond Market

China's Local Government Bond Market »

Volume/Issue: 2018/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , and Jingsen Wang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484378410.001

ISBN: 9781484378410

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China; Local Government; Subnational fiscal balance; bond market, China, Local Government, Subnational fiscal balance, bond market, Other, General, State and Local Borrowing, Government Policy and Regulation

Local governments play a significant role in China's public finance and fiscal operations. The size of local government debt has grown rapidly over the past years, exceeding the stock of sovereign debt in China. Ho...

Sectoral Booms and Misallocation of Managerial Talent: Evidence from the Chinese Real Estate Boom

Sectoral Booms and Misallocation of Managerial Talent: Evidence from the Chinese Real Estate Boom »

Volume/Issue: 2018/221

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yu Shi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484378465.001

ISBN: 9781484378465

Keywords: Real estate boom, misallocation, aggregate productivity

This paper identifies a new mechanism leading to inefficiency in capital reallocation at the extensive margin when an economy experiences a sectoral boom. I argue that imperfections in the financial market and capi...

People's Republic of China
			: 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2018/240

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 July 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484370797.002

ISBN: 9781484370797

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

China is at an historic juncture. After decades of high-speed growth, the authorities are now focusing on high-quality growth. Whether and how this shift is carried through will determine China's development path f...

People's Republic of China
			: 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2018/240

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2018

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484371190.002

ISBN: 9781484371190

China is at an historic juncture. After decades of high-speed growth, the authorities are now focusing on high-quality growth. Whether and how this shift is carried through will determine China's development path f...

The People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Systemic Oversight of Financial Market Infrastructures - Technical Note

The People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program; Systemic Oversight of Financial Market Infrastructures - Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2018/192

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484363805.002

ISBN: 9781484363805

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

This Technical Note analyzes financial stability issues related to the financial market infrastructure in China. Since the previous Financial Sector Assessment Program, the supervision and oversight of the infrastr...

The People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT)-Technical Note

The People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program; Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT)-Technical Note »

Volume/Issue: 2018/191

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484363799.002

ISBN: 9781484363799

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program for China in the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) areas. The Ch...

Inequality in China - Trends, Drivers and Policy Remedies

Inequality in China - Trends, Drivers and Policy Remedies »

Volume/Issue: 2018/127

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sonali Jain-Chandra , Niny Khor , Rui Mano , Johanna Schauer , Philippe Wingender , and Juzhong Zhuang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 June 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484357538.001

ISBN: 9781484357538

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, Fiscal policy, Income inequality, structural change, Personal Income and Wealth Distribution, General

China has experienced rapid economic growth over the past two decades and is on the brink of eradicating poverty. However, income inequality increased sharply from the early 1980s and rendered China among the most...

Australia's Linkages with China: Prospects and Ramifications of China's Economic Transition

Australia's Linkages with China: Prospects and Ramifications of China's Economic Transition »

Volume/Issue: 2018/119

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philippe Karam , and Dirk Muir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 May 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484357200.001

ISBN: 9781484357200

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Australia, Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium; open economy macoeconomics; small open economy; open economy simulation, Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium, open economy macoeconomics, small open economy, open economy simulation, Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Policy Coordination and Transmission

China and Australia have increasingly strong links, especially through trade. These are driven by demand from China for Australian commodities (coal and iron ore) and services (tourism and education). These links a...

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2018, Asia Pacific
			: Good Times, Uncertain Times: A Time to Prepare

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2018, Asia Pacific : Good Times, Uncertain Times: A Time to Prepare »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 May 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484339886.086

ISBN: 9781484339886

Asia is expected to grow by about 51/2 percent this year, accounting for nearly two-thirds of global growth, and the region remains the world's most dynamic by a considerable margin. But despite the strong outlook,...

Intergovernmental Fiscal Reform in China

Intergovernmental Fiscal Reform in China »

Volume/Issue: 2018/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351109.001

ISBN: 9781484351109

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Social safety nets, Intergovernmental relations, subnational government finances, China, Social Security and Public Pensions, State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue, State and Local Borrowing

China is the most decentralized country in the world in terms of expenditures shares, with subnational governments responsible for 85 percent of government spending. Limited revenue autonomy and insufficient interg...

Decoupling of Emissions and GDP: Evidence from Aggregate and Provincial Chinese Data

Decoupling of Emissions and GDP: Evidence from Aggregate and Provincial Chinese Data »

Volume/Issue: 2018/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gail Cohen , João Tovar Jalles , Prakash Loungani , Ricardo Marto , and Gewei Wang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 April 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484351000.001

ISBN: 9781484351000

Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, Gross domestic product, China, Emissions, Environmental Okun's Law, Kuznets Curve, China, Provinces

We provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GDP in China using both aggregate and provincial data. The Kuznets elasticity is about 0.6 for China, higher than t...

People's Republic of China
			: Tax Policy and Employment Creation

People's Republic of China : Tax Policy and Employment Creation »

Volume/Issue: 2018/92

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 March 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484349229.002

ISBN: 9781484349229

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Tax Policy and Employment Creation...

China's Economy in Transition
			: From External to Internal Rebalancing

China's Economy in Transition : From External to Internal Rebalancing »

Series: Books

Author(s): Anoop Singh , Malhar Nabar , and Papa N'Diaye

Publisher: China Financial Economic Publishing House

Publication Date: 19 March 2018

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787509572153.071

ISBN: 9787509572153

Keywords: Asia, current account, real interest rate, financial reform, real estate, current account surplus

China's current account surplus has declined to around one-quarter the peak reached before the global financial crisis. While this is a major reduction in China's external imbalance, it has not been accompanied by...

Credit Booms-Is China Different?

Credit Booms-Is China Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2018/2

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sally Chen , and Joong Shik Kang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 January 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336762.001

ISBN: 9781484336762

Keywords: Financial crises, Financial cycles, Banking crises, Asia and Pacific, credit gap, debt overhang, sustainable growth, General

Strong Chinese output growth after the Global Financial Crisis was supported by booming credit. This credit boom carries risks. International experience suggests that China's credit growth is on a dangerous traject...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles »

Volume/Issue: 2017/402

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335154.002

ISBN: 9781484335154

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The Chinese insurance sector is experiencing rapid growth, posing particular challenges to effective supervision. The sector has been growing by over 20 percent a year and there are ambitious government targets for...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2017/403

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335222.002

ISBN: 9781484335222

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) has maintained its momentum in regulation and supervision in the face of exceptional growth in scale and increasing complexity of the banking system. Equally, the CBRC...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Iosco Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Iosco Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2017/404

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335307.002

ISBN: 9781484335307

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The authorities' vision of ensuring that the capital markets support China's transformation towards a more market-oriented economy has driven capital markets development and-as the authorities recognize-the regulat...

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports »

Volume/Issue: 2017/288

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yibin Mu , Chu Wang , and Dong Frank Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335406.001

ISBN: 9781484335406

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Development, Exports, Growth, China Economy, SSA, General, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

The analysis of China's impacts on the 44 SSA countries reveals that: (i) after joining the WTO in 2001, China has started to impact significantly on SSA growth: one-percent increase in China's GDP per capita leads...

Credit and Fiscal Multipliers in China

Credit and Fiscal Multipliers in China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/273

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sophia Chen , Lev Ratnovski , and Pi-Han Tsai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484332160.001

ISBN: 9781484332160

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, Macroprudential Policy, Fiscal stimulus, Credit Growth, Multipliers, Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary or Stabilization Policy, General, Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity

We jointly estimate credit and fiscal multipliers in China. We use the tenure of the provincial party secretary, interacted with the type of stimulus used in other provinces, to obtain separate instruments for prov...

Reassessing the Perimeter of Government Accounts in China

Reassessing the Perimeter of Government Accounts in China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano , and Phil Stokoe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331651.001

ISBN: 9781484331651

Keywords: China, Asia and Pacific, Government Statistics, Fiscal Risks, Local Government Finance, General

China's official general government accounts do not include off-budget quasi-fiscal spending unlike the IMF's augmented government accounts. This paper argues that the broader concept of augmented government remain...

People's Republic of China
			: Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

People's Republic of China : Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes »

Volume/Issue: 2017/359

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331156.002

ISBN: 9781484331156

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/358

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331149.002

ISBN: 9781484331149

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Since the 2011 FSAP, China's impressive economic growth has continued, and it is now undertaking a necessary but prolonged economic transformation. China is transitioning from an economic model based on exports and...

Resolving China's Zombies: Tackling Debt and Raising Productivity

Resolving China's Zombies: Tackling Debt and Raising Productivity »

Volume/Issue: 2017/266

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Alfred Schipke , Yuyan Tan , and Zhibo Tan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484330722.001

ISBN: 9781484330722

Keywords: Corporate debt, Debt restructuring, Asia and Pacific, China, state-owned enterprises, and zombie firms, zombie firms, General, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis

Nonviable 'zombie' firms have become a key concern in China. Using novel firm-level industrial survey data, this paper illustrates the central role of zombies and their strong linkages with stateowned enterprises (...

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S.

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S. »

Volume/Issue: 2017/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Xu , and Kaiji Gong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484326008.001

ISBN: 9781484326008

Keywords: Western Hemisphere, Asia and Pacific, United States, Chinese Import Competition, R&D Expenditures, Reallocation, R&D Expenditures, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Labor Market Interactions

We analyze the impact of rising import competition from China on U.S. innovative activities. Using Compustat data, we find that import competition induces R&D expenditures to be reallocated towards more productive...

Assessing China's Residential Real Estate Market

Assessing China's Residential Real Estate Market »

Volume/Issue: 2017/248

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Xiaoyu Huang , Tao Jin , and W. Raphael Lam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484324813.001

ISBN: 9781484324813

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Macroprudential Policy, Central banks and their policies, China real estate market, housing bubbles, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), Housing Supply and Markets, Bayesian Analysis

China's real estate market rebounded sharply after a temporary slowdown in 2014-2015. This paper uses city-level data to estimate the range of house price overvaluation across city-tiers and assesses the main risks...

People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2017/248

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314722.002

ISBN: 9781484314722

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Selected Issues...

People's Republic of China
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/247

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314654.002

ISBN: 9781484314654

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Policy support, strengthening external demand, and supply-side reforms have helped maintain strong growth which, along with tighter enforcement of capital flow management measures, has also reduced exchange rate pr...

Does the Stock Market Boost Firm Innovation?
			: Evidence from Chinese Firms

Does the Stock Market Boost Firm Innovation? : Evidence from Chinese Firms »

Volume/Issue: 2017/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Hanya Li , and Jinfan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303726.001

ISBN: 9781484303726

Keywords: China, People's Republic of, Asia and Pacific, China, Corporate governance, IPO, Innovation, Financial Constraint, State Ownership, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis, Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

The paper analyses the effect of the stock market on firm innovation through the lens of initial public offering (IPO) using uniquely matched Chinese firm-level data. We find that IPOs lead to an increase in both t...

Eighth Periodic Monitoring Report on the Status of Implementation Plans in Response to Board-Endorsed IEO Recommendations

Eighth Periodic Monitoring Report on the Status of Implementation Plans in Response to Board-Endorsed IEO Recommendations »

Volume/Issue: 2017/032

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498346702.007

ISBN: 9781498346702

Keywords: External sector, Economic cooperation, Financial sector reform, Financial crises, External sector assessment, IEO, management action, WEO, PMR, SPR

Monitoring Report (PMR) on the Status of Management Implementation Plans (MIPs) in Response to Board-Endorsed IEO Recommendations assesses the progress made over the last year on actions contained in the four MIPs...

Trading with China
			: Productivity Gains, Job Losses

Trading with China : Productivity Gains, Job Losses »

Volume/Issue: 2017/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): JaeBin Ahn , and Romain Duval

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 May 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475595833.001

ISBN: 9781475595833

Keywords: China, People's Republic of, Imports, Productivity, Trade, Asia and Pacific, Exports, Growth, Jobs, China

We analyze the impact on productivity in advanced economies of fast-growing trade with China between the mid-1990s and late-2000s, separately identifying the export and import channels. We use country-sector-level...

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2017, Asia and Pacific
			: Preparing for Choppy Seas

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2017, Asia and Pacific : Preparing for Choppy Seas »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): Ranil Salgado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 May 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475575064.086

ISBN: 9781475575064

The Asia-Pacific region continues to be the world leader in growth, and recent data point to a pickup in momentum. We expect the region to expand by 5.5 percent in 2017, up from 5.3 percent in 2016. Accommodative p...

Modernizing China
			: Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure »

Series: Books

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 April 2017

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475583625.071

ISBN: 9781475583625

Keywords: China, China, People's Republic of, Economic reforms, reforms, economic success, growth model, policy frameworks, markets, market economy, soft infrastructure

China is at a critical juncture in its economic transformation as it tries to rebalance what is generally seen as an exhausted growth model. A unifying theme across the reforms that will deliver this transformation...

Modernizing China
			: Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure »

Series: Books

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513539942.071

ISBN: 9781513539942

Keywords: China, China, People's Republic of, Economic reforms, China, reforms, economic reforms, economic success, growth model, policy frameworks, markets

China is at a critical juncture in its economic transformation as it tries to rebalance what is generally seen as an exhausted growth model. A unifying theme across the reforms that will deliver this t...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 January 2017

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523256.069

ISBN: 9781475523256

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies in participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of t...

Excerpt: Modernizing China
			: Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Excerpt: Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure »

Series: Miscellaneous Publication (Other)

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475564044.073

ISBN: 9781475564044

Modernizing China: Investing in Soft Infastructure...

Regulating Local Government Financing Vehicles and Public-Private Partnerships in China

Regulating Local Government Financing Vehicles and Public-Private Partnerships in China »

Volume/Issue: 2016/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui Jin , and Isabel Rial

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 December 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475553178.001

ISBN: 9781475553178

Keywords: Public-private partnership, China, Infrastructure, Public investment, Fiscal risk, Risk management, Government accounting, fiscal risk, public investment, subnational government

In this paper, we argue that there is much room for China to strengthen its regulatory framework for public-private partnerships (PPPs). We show that infrastructure projects carried out through local government fin...

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth
			: Firm-level Evidence

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth : Firm-level Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2016/249

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Nan Li , and Jing Fang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475563139.001

ISBN: 9781475563139

Keywords: Business enterprises, Productivity, China, Asia and Pacific, Technological innovation, Public corporations, Innovation, Growth, Patent, R&;D

This paper examines whether the rapid growing firm patenting activity in China is associated with real economic outcome by building a unique dataset uniting detailed firm balance sheet information with firm patent...

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems?

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Csaba Feher , Jack Ree , Ikuo Saito , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560336.001

ISBN: 9781475560336

Keywords: Pensions, Pension reforms, Japan, Korea, Republic of, China, People's Republic of, China, Asia and Pacific, Asia, Retirement, Pension System Reform

Automatic adjustment mechanisms (AAMs)-rules ensuring that certain characteristics of a pension system respond to demographic, macroeconomic and financial developments, in a predetermined fashion and without the ne...

A Tale of Transition
			: An Empirical Analysis of Economic Inequality in Urban China, 1986-2009

A Tale of Transition : An Empirical Analysis of Economic Inequality in Urban China, 1986-2009 »

Volume/Issue: 2016/239

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Haiyan Ding , and Hui He

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560008.001

ISBN: 9781475560008

Keywords: Time series, China, People's Republic of, Consumption distribution, Transition economies, Income distribution, China, Asia and Pacific, Household expenditures, Household survey data, Income inequality

This paper is the first comprehensive empirical study of earnings, income, and consumption inequality in urban China from 1986 to 2009, using unique micro-level data from the Urban Household Survey (UHS). The paper...

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity
			: Crossing the Tipping Point

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity : Crossing the Tipping Point »

Volume/Issue: 2016/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vitor Gaspar , Laura Jaramillo , and Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558142.001

ISBN: 9781475558142

Keywords: Nigeria, Political economy, Income taxes, Taxation, Tax evasion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tax administration, Spain, Western Hemisphere, China

An empirical finding by Gaspar, Jaramillo and Wingender (2016) shows that once countries cross a tax-to-GDP threshold of around 12¾ percent, real GDP per capita increases sharply and in a sustained manner over the...

China Spillovers
			: New Evidence From Time-Varying Estimates

China Spillovers : New Evidence From Time-Varying Estimates »

Volume/Issue: 2016/07

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Davide Furceri , João Tovar Jalles , and Aleksandra Zdzienicka

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475546637.062

ISBN: 9781475546637

Keywords: Exports, Asia and Pacific, Commodities, China, Manufacturing, Industry, Trade, growth, global economic growth, global financial crisis

Until recently, China has been the leading contributor to global economic growth and-since the recent global financial crisis-a stabilizing driver of its evolution. However, as China recently began to rebalance its...

Quantifying the Spillovers from China Rebalancing Using a Multi-Sector Ricardian Trade Model

Quantifying the Spillovers from China Rebalancing Using a Multi-Sector Ricardian Trade Model »

Volume/Issue: 2016/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475553741.001

ISBN: 9781475553741

Keywords: Consumption, China, Demand, International trade, Trade models, Spillovers, Spillovers, Transition economies, Economic sectors, China rebalancing

This paper assesses the spillovers from different facets of China rebalancing using a calibrated Ricardian trade model that includes 41 economies, each consisting of 34 sectors. We find that China's move up the val...

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold?

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sohrab Rafiq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552607.001

ISBN: 9781475552607

Keywords: Cambodia, Cambodia, China, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Emerging markets, Economic integration, Economic growth, Philippines, Indonesia

This paper looks at the effects of a China slowdown on Emerging Market Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Frontier Developing Economies (Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., and Vietnam) in ASEAN. The main finding...

Spillovers from the Maturing of China's Economy

Spillovers from the Maturing of China's Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2016/212

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Dizioli , Benjamin Hunt , and Wojciech Maliszewski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552225.001

ISBN: 9781475552225

Keywords: Spillovers, Asia and Pacific, China’;s slowdown and rebalancing, international business cycle, model based analysis, China&;amp;#x2019;s slowdown and rebalancing, Computable General Equilibrium Models, Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Business Cycles

China's transition to a new growth model continues and the impact has been felt across the globe. Several trends contribute to the ‘maturing' of China's economy: i) structural slowing on the convergence path; ii) o...

Resolving China's Corporate Debt Problem

Resolving China's Corporate Debt Problem »

Volume/Issue: 2016/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wojciech Maliszewski , Serkan Arslanalp , John Caparusso , José Garrido , Si Guo , Joong Shik Kang , W. Raphael Lam , Daniel Law , Wei Liao , Nadia Rendak , Philippe Wingender , Jiangyan Yu , and Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 October 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475545289.001

ISBN: 9781475545289

Keywords: Corporate Debt Overhang; Credit; Restructuring; Hardening Budget Constraints

Corporate credit growth in China has been excessive in recent years. This credit boom is related to the large increase in investment after the Global Financial Crisis. Investment efficiency has fallen and the finan...

Global Financial Stability Report, October 2016
			: Fostering Stability in a Low-Growth, Low-Rate Era

Global Financial Stability Report, October 2016 : Fostering Stability in a Low-Growth, Low-Rate Era »

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513559582.082

ISBN: 9781513559582

Keywords: Economic stability, Financial stability, Global Financial Stability Report, Global Financial Stability Risks, global financial stability, corporate leverage, nonbank financing, corporate governance, investor protection

The current report finds that short-term risks to global financial stability have abated since April 2016, but that medium-term risks continue to build. Financial institutions in advanced economies face a number of...

Review of the Method of Valuation of the SDR - Amendment to Rule O-1

Review of the Method of Valuation of the SDR - Amendment to Rule O-1 »

Volume/Issue: 2016/057

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.;International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345224.007

ISBN: 9781498345224

Keywords: Amendments to Rules and Regulations, Basket of currencies, China, Currency selection, Executive Board decisions, Foreign exchange transactions, Representative exchange rates, Rule T-1(c), SDR interest rate basket, SDR valuation basket

This paper seeks Executive Board approval of an amendment to Rule O-1, which specifies the currency amounts in the SDR valuation basket....

Excerpt: Modernizing China
			: Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Excerpt: Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure »

Series: Miscellaneous Publication (Other)

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475543049.073

ISBN: 9781475543049

Modernizing China: Investing in Soft Infastructure...

China's Footprint in Global Commodity Markets

China's Footprint in Global Commodity Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/06

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Christina Kolerus , Papa N'Diaye , and Christian Saborowski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475541069.062

ISBN: 9781475541069

Keywords: Crude oil, Food prices, Asia and Pacific, Commodities, Commodity prices, China, Spillovers, Industrial production, footprint, global commodity markets

This note assesses empirically the role Chinese activity plays in global commodities markets, showing that the strength of China's economic activity has a significant bearing on commodity prices, but that the impac...

Spillover Implications of China's Slowdown for International Trade

Spillover Implications of China's Slowdown for International Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2016/4

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Patrick Blagrave , and Esteban Vesperoni

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475539462.062

ISBN: 9781475539462

Keywords: Export growth, Exports, Asia and Pacific, China, Commodities, Manufacturing, Spillovers, Trade, export intensity, final demand

Using a panel vector autoregression and a novel measure of export-intensity-adjusted final demand, this note studies spillovers from China's economic transition on export growth in 46 advanced and emerging market e...

Spillovers from China
			: Financial Channels

Spillovers from China : Financial Channels »

Volume/Issue: 2016/05

Series: Spillover Notes

Author(s): Nkunde Mwase , Papa N'Diaye , Hiroko Oura , Frantisek Ricka , Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Yuanyan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475539486.062

ISBN: 9781475539486

Keywords: Spillovers, China, Asia and Pacific, Commodities, Asset markets, Assets, Trade, Global financial markets, transition, growth path

Although China's much-needed transition to a new growth path is proceeding broadly as expected, the transition is still fraught with uncertainty, including regarding the Chinese authorities' ability to achieve a sm...

Regulating Local Government Financing Vehicles and Public-Private Partnerships in China

Regulating Local Government Financing Vehicles and Public-Private Partnerships in China »

Volume/Issue: 2016/187

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui Jin , and Isabel Rial

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536768.001

ISBN: 9781475536768

Keywords: fiscal risk, public investment, subnational government

In this paper, we argue that there is much room for China to strengthen its regulatory framework for public-private partnerships (PPPs). We show that infrastructure projects carried out through local government fin...

Rebalancing in China-Progress and Prospects

Rebalancing in China-Progress and Prospects »

Volume/Issue: 2016/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475532937.001

ISBN: 9781475532937

Keywords: Rebalancing, China

China is transitioning to a greener, more inclusive, more consumer and service based, and less credit-driven economy. This paper defines a framework for assessing rebalancing, reviews progress, and discusses medium...

China's Changing Trade and the Implications for the CLMV

China's Changing Trade and the Implications for the CLMV »

Volume: 16

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Koshy Mathai , Geoff Gottlieb , Gee Hee Hong , Sung Eun Jung , Jochen M. Schmittmann , and Jiangyan Yu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513544991.087

ISBN: 9781513544991

Keywords: Trade partners, Global trade, Trade flows, Trade patterns, trade,labor,clmv

China's trade patterns are evolving. While it started in light manufacturing and the assembly of more sophisticated products as part of global supply chains, China is now moving up the value chain, 'onshoring' the...

China's Financial Interlinkages and Implications For Inter-Agency Coordination

China's Financial Interlinkages and Implications For Inter-Agency Coordination »

Volume/Issue: 2016/181

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Min Liao , Tao Sun , and Jinfan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475530490.001

ISBN: 9781475530490

Keywords: financial landscape, risks, policy coordination

China's financial system has become very large, diversified, and interconnected. This changing financial landscape could potentially produce systemic risks, arising primarily from growing financial interconnectedne...

Guía de la Encuesta Coordinada sobre la Inversión Directa 2015

Guía de la Encuesta Coordinada sobre la Inversión Directa 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 August 2016

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523287.069

ISBN: 9781475523287

Keywords: inversión, empresa, participaciones de capital, acciones, inversión directa, deuda

Esta Guía ha sido elaborada para ayudar a las economías a participar en la Encuesta Coordinada sobre la Inversión Directa (ECID). La ECID, que se está llevando a cabo simultáneamente en todas las economías particip...

The People's Republic of China
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for The People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China : 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for The People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2016/270

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524321.002

ISBN: 9781475524321

This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights China's continued transition to sustainable growth, with progress on many fronts. Growth slowed to 6.9 percent in 2015 and is projected to moderate to 6.6 percent in 201...

The People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

The People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/271

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524383.002

ISBN: 9781475524383

This Selected Issues paper reviews China's progress along various dimensions of rebalancing. External rebalancing has advanced well, while progress on internal rebalancing has been mixed-substantial on the supply s...

China's Growing Influence on Asian Financial Markets

China's Growing Influence on Asian Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serkan Arslanalp , Wei Liao , Shi Piao , and Dulani Seneviratne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475525137.001

ISBN: 9781475525137

Keywords: China, Spillovers, Equity markets, Foreign Exchange Markets

This paper finds that financial spillovers from China to regional markets are on the rise. The main transmission channel appears to be trade linkages, although direct financial linkages are playing an increasing ro...

Spillovers from China's Growth Slowdown and Rebalancing to the ASEAN-5 Economies

Spillovers from China's Growth Slowdown and Rebalancing to the ASEAN-5 Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2016/170

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Dizioli , Jaime Guajardo , Vladimir Klyuev , Rui Mano , and Mehdi Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475524260.001

ISBN: 9781475524260

Keywords: China’;s slowdown and rebalancing, international business cycle, spillovers, Global VAR, Flexible System of Global Models (FSGM), ASEAN-5.

After many years of rapid expansion, China's growth is slowing to more sustainable levels and is rebalancing, with consumption becoming the main growth driver. This transition is likely to have negative effects on...

Climate Mitigation in China
			: Which Policies Are Most Effective?

Climate Mitigation in China : Which Policies Are Most Effective? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/148

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian Parry , Baoping Shang , Philippe Wingender , Nate Vernon , and Tarun Narasimhan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475574524.001

ISBN: 9781475574524

Keywords: Paris Agreement, carbon tax, China, air pollution, coal tax, emissions trading, incidence, welfare effects

For the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, China pledged to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity of GDP by 60-65 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. This paper develops a practical spreadsheet tool for eva...

Inflation, Financial Developments, and Wealth Distribution

Inflation, Financial Developments, and Wealth Distribution »

Volume/Issue: 2016/132

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wai-Yip Alex Ho , and Chun-Yu Ho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498352826.001

ISBN: 9781498352826

Keywords: Inflation, Borrowing Constraint, Adjustment Cost, Heterogeneous Agents, Wealth Distribution

We find that from 1995 to 2002 in China, the dispersion of wealth decreased, the moneywealth ratio increased for all wealth levels and the aggregate money-output ratio increased. We develop a two-asset dynamic gene...

Report of the Managing Director to the Board of Governors and to the Executive Board Pursuant to Article XVIII, Section 4©

Report of the Managing Director to the Board of Governors and to the Executive Board Pursuant to Article XVIII, Section 4© »

Volume/Issue: 2016/034

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498345552.007

ISBN: 9781498345552

Keywords: Allocation of SDRs, Article XVIII, Section 4(c), Cancellation of SDRs, Demand, Eleventh basic period, Reports to Board of Governors, Reserve assets, SDR role, SDRs, International monetary system

This report is submitted pursuant the provisions of the Articles of Agreement relating to a general allocation or cancellation of Special Drawing Rights (SDR). The Articles provide for periodic consideration and de...

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
			: 2016 Article IV Consultation, First Review under the Extended Credit Facility, and Request for Waiver for Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Exective Director for the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe : 2016 Article IV Consultation, First Review under the Extended Credit Facility, and Request for Waiver for Nonobservance of Performance Criterion and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Exective Director for the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe »

Volume/Issue: 2016/174

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498307444.002

ISBN: 9781498307444

Keywords: debt, poverty, monetary fund, commercial banks, market

This paper discusses recent economic developments and economic outlook and risks of São Tomé and Príncipe. Although São Tomé and Príncipe's economic development is constrained by its insularity, fragility, limited...

Thailand
			: Selected Issues

Thailand : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2016/140

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 June 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484376003.002

ISBN: 9781484376003

Keywords: market, price, value, volatility, market volatility

This paper discusses selected issues related to the economy of Thailand. The economy of Thailand is largely dependent on China. A 1 percent decline in China's GDP lowers Thailand's output by about 0.2 percent. Popu...

China and Asia in Global Trade Slowdown

China and Asia in Global Trade Slowdown »

Volume/Issue: 2016/105

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gee Hee Hong , Jaewoo Lee , Wei Liao , and Dulani Seneviratne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484368565.001

ISBN: 9781484368565

Keywords: trade linkages, trade elasticities, spillovers Author’;s E-Mail Address: ghong@imf.org, jlee3@imf.org, wliao@imf.org, dseneviratne@imf.org

Asia and China made disproportionate contributions to the slowdown of global trade growth in 2015. China's import growth slowed starkly, driven by both external and domestic factors, including a rebalancing of dema...

Chinese Imports
			: What's Behind the Slowdown?

Chinese Imports : What's Behind the Slowdown? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/106

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joong Shik Kang , and Wei Liao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484368626.001

ISBN: 9781484368626

Keywords: Imports; Rebalancing; Exchange Rate; Onshoring

Real imports in China have decelerated significantly over the last two years to below 4 percent (yoy) from double-digit growth in previous years. Weaker investment, partly due to progress in rebalancing from invest...

Exchange Rate Developments and Policies in the Caucasus and Central Asia

Exchange Rate Developments and Policies in the Caucasus and Central Asia »

Volume: 16

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mark Horton , Hossein Samiei , Natan Epstein , and Kevin Ross

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513543031.087

ISBN: 9781513543031

Keywords: currency, central bank, inflation, monetary policy, central banks

Since late 2014, exchange rates (ERs) and ER regimes of the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) countries have come under strong pressure. This reflects the decline of oil and other commodity prices, weaker growth in R...

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2016, Asia and Pacific
			: Building on Asia's Strengths during Turbulent Times

Regional Economic Outlook, April 2016, Asia and Pacific : Building on Asia's Strengths during Turbulent Times »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): Ranil Salgado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 May 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498350921.086

ISBN: 9781498350921

Keywords: Regional Economic Outlook, Consumption, Development, Supply and demand, Financial crises, Commodity markets, Economies, trade, income, prices

Although Asia remains a growth leader in the global economy, growth is expected to ease slightly to 5.5 percent during 2016, with countries affected to varying degrees by a still weak global recovery, slowing globa...

Debt Equity Conversions and NPL Securitization in China
			: Some Initial Considerations

Debt Equity Conversions and NPL Securitization in China : Some Initial Considerations »

Volume: 16

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): James Daniel , Jose Garrido , and Marina Moretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513524153.005

ISBN: 9781513524153

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Credit, bank lending, borrowing, bank, bank regulation, insolvency, liquidation, non-performing, loan

This note considers the role debt-equity conversions and NPL securitization can play in addressing excessive corporate debt in China, and the corresponding burden on banks of impaired assets. It finds that such tec...

Behind the Scenes with Data at the IMF
			: An IEO Evaluation

Behind the Scenes with Data at the IMF : An IEO Evaluation »

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498385985.017

ISBN: 9781498385985

Keywords: data, data quality, data provision, data assets, surveillance, resources, International Monetary Fund, Independent Evaluation Office, IMF, IEO

This report examines whether the IMF has effectively leveraged an important asset: data. It finds that in general, the IMF has been able to rely on a large amount of data of acceptable quality, and that data provis...

World Economic Outlook, April 2016
			: Too Slow for Too Long

World Economic Outlook, April 2016 : Too Slow for Too Long »

Series: World Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498398589.081

ISBN: 9781498398589

Keywords: emerging market, market, environment, investment, labor market

Major macroeconomic realignments are affecting prospects differentially across the world's countries and regions. The April 2016 WEO examines the causes and implications of these realignments-including the slowdown...

Global Financial Stability Report, April 2016
			: Potent Policies for a Successful Normalization

Global Financial Stability Report, April 2016 : Potent Policies for a Successful Normalization »

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513506777.082

ISBN: 9781513506777

Keywords: Financial stability, Global Financial Stability Report, Global Financial Stability Reports, Global Financial Stability Risks, International financial stability, Macroprudential policies and financial stability, market, emerging market, insurance, equity

The current Global Financial Stability Report (April 2016) finds that global financial stability risks have risen since the last report in October 2015. The new report finds that the outlook has deteriorated in adv...