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Credit Booms-Is China Different?

Credit Booms-Is China Different? »

Volume/Issue: 2018/2

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sally Chen , and Joong Shik Kang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 January 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484336762.001

ISBN: 9781484336762

Keywords: Financial crises, Financial cycles, Banking crises, Asia and Pacific, credit gap, debt overhang, sustainable growth, General

Strong Chinese output growth after the Global Financial Crisis was supported by booming credit. This credit boom carries risks. International experience suggests that China's credit growth is on a dangerous traject...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Insurance Core Principles »

Volume/Issue: 2017/402

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335154.002

ISBN: 9781484335154

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The Chinese insurance sector is experiencing rapid growth, posing particular challenges to effective supervision. The sector has been growing by over 20 percent a year and there are ambitious government targets for...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision »

Volume/Issue: 2017/403

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335222.002

ISBN: 9781484335222

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) has maintained its momentum in regulation and supervision in the face of exceptional growth in scale and increasing complexity of the banking system. Equally, the CBRC...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Iosco Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

People's Republic of China : Financial Sector Assessment Program- Detailed Assessment of Observance of the Iosco Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2017/404

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335307.002

ISBN: 9781484335307

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

The authorities' vision of ensuring that the capital markets support China's transformation towards a more market-oriented economy has driven capital markets development and-as the authorities recognize-the regulat...

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports

China's Impacts on SSA through the Lens of Growth and Exports »

Volume/Issue: 2017/288

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yibin Mu , Chu Wang , and Dong Frank Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484335406.001

ISBN: 9781484335406

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Development, Exports, Growth, China Economy, SSA, General, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

The analysis of China's impacts on the 44 SSA countries reveals that: (i) after joining the WTO in 2001, China has started to impact significantly on SSA growth: one-percent increase in China's GDP per capita leads...

Credit and Fiscal Multipliers in China

Credit and Fiscal Multipliers in China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/273

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sophia Chen , Lev Ratnovski , and Pi-Han Tsai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484332160.001

ISBN: 9781484332160

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, China, Macroprudential Policy, Fiscal stimulus, Credit Growth, Multipliers, Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary or Stabilization Policy, General, Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity

We jointly estimate credit and fiscal multipliers in China. We use the tenure of the provincial party secretary, interacted with the type of stimulus used in other provinces, to obtain separate instruments for prov...

Reassessing the Perimeter of Government Accounts in China

Reassessing the Perimeter of Government Accounts in China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/272

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano , and Phil Stokoe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331651.001

ISBN: 9781484331651

Keywords: China, Asia and Pacific, Government Statistics, Fiscal Risks, Local Government Finance, General

China's official general government accounts do not include off-budget quasi-fiscal spending unlike the IMF's augmented government accounts. This paper argues that the broader concept of augmented government remain...

People's Republic of China
			: Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

People's Republic of China : Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes »

Volume/Issue: 2017/359

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331156.002

ISBN: 9781484331156

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Detailed Assessment Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes...

People's Republic of China
			: Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/358

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 December 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484331149.002

ISBN: 9781484331149

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Since the 2011 FSAP, China's impressive economic growth has continued, and it is now undertaking a necessary but prolonged economic transformation. China is transitioning from an economic model based on exports and...

Resolving China's Zombies: Tackling Debt and Raising Productivity

Resolving China's Zombies: Tackling Debt and Raising Productivity »

Volume/Issue: 2017/266

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Alfred Schipke , Yuyan Tan , and Zhibo Tan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484330722.001

ISBN: 9781484330722

Keywords: Corporate debt, Debt restructuring, Asia and Pacific, China, state-owned enterprises, and zombie firms, zombie firms, General, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis

Nonviable 'zombie' firms have become a key concern in China. Using novel firm-level industrial survey data, this paper illustrates the central role of zombies and their strong linkages with stateowned enterprises (...

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S.

Does Import Competition Induce R&D Reallocation? Evidence from the U.S. »

Volume/Issue: 2017/253

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Xu , and Kaiji Gong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484326008.001

ISBN: 9781484326008

Keywords: Western Hemisphere, Asia and Pacific, United States, Chinese Import Competition, R&D Expenditures, Reallocation, R&D Expenditures, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Trade and Labor Market Interactions

We analyze the impact of rising import competition from China on U.S. innovative activities. Using Compustat data, we find that import competition induces R&D expenditures to be reallocated towards more productive...

Assessing China's Residential Real Estate Market

Assessing China's Residential Real Estate Market »

Volume/Issue: 2017/248

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ding Ding , Xiaoyu Huang , Tao Jin , and W. Raphael Lam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484324813.001

ISBN: 9781484324813

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Macroprudential Policy, Central banks and their policies, China real estate market, housing bubbles, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), Housing Supply and Markets, Bayesian Analysis

China's real estate market rebounded sharply after a temporary slowdown in 2014-2015. This paper uses city-level data to estimate the range of house price overvaluation across city-tiers and assesses the main risks...

People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2017/248

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314722.002

ISBN: 9781484314722

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Selected Issues...

People's Republic of China
			: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China : 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China »

Volume/Issue: 2017/247

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484314654.002

ISBN: 9781484314654

Keywords: Asia and Pacific

Policy support, strengthening external demand, and supply-side reforms have helped maintain strong growth which, along with tighter enforcement of capital flow management measures, has also reduced exchange rate pr...

Does the Stock Market Boost Firm Innovation?
			: Evidence from Chinese Firms

Does the Stock Market Boost Firm Innovation? : Evidence from Chinese Firms »

Volume/Issue: 2017/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Hanya Li , and Jinfan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303726.001

ISBN: 9781484303726

Keywords: China, People's Republic of, Asia and Pacific, China, Corporate governance, IPO, Innovation, Financial Constraint, State Ownership, Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis, Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

The paper analyses the effect of the stock market on firm innovation through the lens of initial public offering (IPO) using uniquely matched Chinese firm-level data. We find that IPOs lead to an increase in both t...

Trading with China
			: Productivity Gains, Job Losses

Trading with China : Productivity Gains, Job Losses »

Volume/Issue: 2017/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): JaeBin Ahn , and Romain Duval

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 May 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475595833.001

ISBN: 9781475595833

Keywords: China, People's Republic of, Imports, Productivity, Trade, Asia and Pacific, Exports, Growth, Jobs, China

We analyze the impact on productivity in advanced economies of fast-growing trade with China between the mid-1990s and late-2000s, separately identifying the export and import channels. We use country-sector-level...

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015

The Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide 2015 »

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Rita Mesias

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 January 2017

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475523256.069

ISBN: 9781475523256

Keywords: investment, enterprise, equity, direct investment, debt

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies in participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of t...

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth
			: Firm-level Evidence

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth : Firm-level Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2016/249

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hui He , Nan Li , and Jing Fang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475563139.001

ISBN: 9781475563139

Keywords: Business enterprises, Productivity, China, Asia and Pacific, Technological innovation, Public corporations, Innovation, Growth, Patent, R&;D

This paper examines whether the rapid growing firm patenting activity in China is associated with real economic outcome by building a unique dataset uniting detailed firm balance sheet information with firm patent...

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems?

Automatic Adjustment Mechanisms in Asian Pension Systems? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/242

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elif Arbatli , Csaba Feher , Jack Ree , Ikuo Saito , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475560336.001

ISBN: 9781475560336

Keywords: Pensions, Pension reforms, Japan, Korea, Republic of, China, People's Republic of, China, Asia and Pacific, Asia, Retirement, Pension System Reform

Automatic adjustment mechanisms (AAMs)-rules ensuring that certain characteristics of a pension system respond to demographic, macroeconomic and financial developments, in a predetermined fashion and without the ne...

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity
			: Crossing the Tipping Point

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity : Crossing the Tipping Point »

Volume/Issue: 2016/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vitor Gaspar , Laura Jaramillo , and Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558142.001

ISBN: 9781475558142

Keywords: Nigeria, Political economy, Income taxes, Taxation, Tax evasion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tax administration, Spain, Western Hemisphere, China

An empirical finding by Gaspar, Jaramillo and Wingender (2016) shows that once countries cross a tax-to-GDP threshold of around 12¾ percent, real GDP per capita increases sharply and in a sustained manner over the...

Quantifying the Spillovers from China Rebalancing Using a Multi-Sector Ricardian Trade Model

Quantifying the Spillovers from China Rebalancing Using a Multi-Sector Ricardian Trade Model »

Volume/Issue: 2016/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rui Mano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475553741.001

ISBN: 9781475553741

Keywords: Consumption, China, Demand, International trade, Trade models, Spillovers, Spillovers, Transition economies, Economic sectors, China rebalancing

This paper assesses the spillovers from different facets of China rebalancing using a calibrated Ricardian trade model that includes 41 economies, each consisting of 34 sectors. We find that China's move up the val...

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold?

When China Sneezes Does ASEAN Catch a Cold? »

Volume/Issue: 2016/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sohrab Rafiq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552607.001

ISBN: 9781475552607

Keywords: Cambodia, Cambodia, China, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Emerging markets, Economic integration, Economic growth, Philippines, Indonesia

This paper looks at the effects of a China slowdown on Emerging Market Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and Frontier Developing Economies (Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., and Vietnam) in ASEAN. The main finding...

Spillovers from the Maturing of China's Economy

Spillovers from the Maturing of China's Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2016/212

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Allan Dizioli , Benjamin Hunt , and Wojciech Maliszewski

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475552225.001

ISBN: 9781475552225

Keywords: Spillovers, Asia and Pacific, China’;s slowdown and rebalancing, international business cycle, model based analysis, China&;amp;#x2019;s slowdown and rebalancing, Computable General Equilibrium Models, Forecasting and Simulation, Open Economy Macroeconomics, International Business Cycles

China's transition to a new growth model continues and the impact has been felt across the globe. Several trends contribute to the ‘maturing' of China's economy: i) structural slowing on the convergence path; ii) o...

Debt Equity Conversions and NPL Securitization in China
			: Some Initial Considerations

Debt Equity Conversions and NPL Securitization in China : Some Initial Considerations »

Volume: 16

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): James Daniel , Jose Garrido , and Marina Moretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 April 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513524153.005

ISBN: 9781513524153

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Credit, bank lending, borrowing, bank, bank regulation, insolvency, liquidation, non-performing, loan

This note considers the role debt-equity conversions and NPL securitization can play in addressing excessive corporate debt in China, and the corresponding burden on banks of impaired assets. It finds that such tec...

Pilot Project on Concentration and Distribution Measures for a Selected Set of Financial Soundness Indicators

Pilot Project on Concentration and Distribution Measures for a Selected Set of Financial Soundness Indicators »

Volume/Issue: 2016/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joseph Crowley , Plapa Koukpamou , Elena Loukoianova , and André Mialou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498337014.001

ISBN: 9781498337014

Keywords: Financial Soundness Indicators, Concentration and Distribution Measures, institutions, data, pilot project, confidentiality, information, General, All Countries, Fiscal Crisis,

This paper reports the main findings of a pilot project launched in July 2014 by the IMF’s Statistics Department to test augmenting the IMF’s financial soundness indicators (FSIs) with concentration and distributio...

Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

Emerging Market Volatility
			: Lessons from The Taper Tantrum

Emerging Market Volatility : Lessons from The Taper Tantrum »

Volume/Issue: 2014/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Vivek Arora , Athanasios Arvanitis , Hamid Faruqee , Papa N'Diaye , and Tommaso Mancini Griffoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498318204.006

ISBN: 9781498318204

Keywords: Monetary policy, Emerging markets, United States, Capital flows, Financial markets, Capital market volatility, Macroprudential Policy, Developed countries, Tapering, unconventional monetary policy

Accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies have spurred increased capital inflows into emerging markets since the global financial crisis. Starting in May 2013, when the Federal Reserve publicly discusse...

Emerging Markets in Transition
			: Growth Prospects and Challenges

Emerging Markets in Transition : Growth Prospects and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2014/6

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Luis Cubeddu , Alexander Culiuc , Ghada Fayad , Yuan Gao , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , Ceyda Oner , Roberto Perrelli , Sarah Sanya , Evridiki Tsounta , and Zhongxia Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498327664.006

ISBN: 9781498327664

Keywords: Emerging markets, growth, potential growth, convergence, heterogeneity, structural reform, productivity, terms of trade, trading partners, commodity prices

After a short-lived slowdown in the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis and a swift rebound, emerging markets (EM) are now entering a period of slower growth. In fact, growth is now lower than the po...

Anchoring Growth
			: The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies

Anchoring Growth : The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2013/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Giang Ho , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , and Robert Tchaidze

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616357290.006

ISBN: 9781616357290

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developing countries, Economic growth, Agricultural sector, Fiscal reforms, Manufacturing sector, Labor markets, Labor productivity, Services sector, Total factor productivity

Fostering and sustaining robust economic growth is an imperative across advanced, emerging, and low-income countries alike. Countries will need to focus on supply-side reforms to raise their potential output and an...

Internationalization of Emerging Market Currencies
			: A Balance Between Risks and Rewards

Internationalization of Emerging Market Currencies : A Balance Between Risks and Rewards »

Volume/Issue: 2011/17

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Faisal Ahmed , Shengzu Wang , Isabelle Mateos y Lago , Samar Maziad , Stephanie Segal , Pascal Farahmand , and Udaibir Das

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 October 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926526.006

ISBN: 9781463926526

Keywords: Emerging markets, International monetary system, Currency internationalization, financial markets, international currencies, domestic financial markets, international currency, capital account liberalization,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth
			: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth : Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926564.006

ISBN: 9781463926564

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Economic growth, Emerging markets, Income distribution, Poverty reduction, sustainable growth, per capita income, external debt, external shocks

This note raises the IMF’s profile on a number of issues related to inequality, unemployment, governance, etc. It builds on earlier empirical work that examined correlations between growth downbreaks/duratio...

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America »

Volume/Issue: 2011/7

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Martin Kaufman , Steven Phillips , Rodrigo Valdes , and Nicolas Eyzaguirre

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926557.006

ISBN: 9781463926557

Keywords: Capital inflows, Latin America, capital controls, prudential tools, current account, capital account restrictions, current account deficits, capital account,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced?

(Why) Should Current Account Balances Be Reduced? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/3

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384860.006

ISBN: 9781462384860

Keywords: global imbalances, current account, exchange rates, current account deficits, current account surpluses, exchange rate, current account deficit, Account Balances Be Reduced?,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Reaching the MDGs
			: An Action Plan for Trade

Reaching the MDGs : An Action Plan for Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2010/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Brad McDonald , Rob Gregory , and Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265343.004

ISBN: 9781455265343

Keywords: Exports, Export competitiveness, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Low-income developing countries, International trade, Millennium Development Goals, Trade integration, Tax reforms, Trade policy

The actions proposed here focus on trade integration, substantially increasing exports of the poorest countries and helping them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As the foundation for these ambitions, we e...

Redesigning the Contours of the Future Financial System

Redesigning the Contours of the Future Financial System »

Volume/Issue: 2010/10

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Laura Kodres , and Aditya Narain

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462388882.004

ISBN: 9781462388882

Keywords: Bank supervision, Banks, Financial instruments, Financial institutions, Risk management, Multilateral surveillance, Nonbank financial sector, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fund role, Crises

This paper explores the private- and public-sector responses to the crisis and some of the probable outcomes. Aside from improved supervision of individual institutions, greater emphasis needs to be put on financia...

Government Cash Management
			: Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies

Government Cash Management : Its Interaction with Other Financial Policies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462318254.005

ISBN: 9781462318254

Keywords: government cash management, cash management, debt management, financial policies, central bank, debt, cash flow

This technical note describes the interaction of government cash management with other financial policies. The note offers guidance on policy, institutional, and practical issues for governments looking to develop...

Reconstructing the World Economy

Reconstructing the World Economy »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Il SaKong , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069770.072

ISBN: 9781589069770

Keywords: inflation, current account, financial system, central bank, monetary policy

This volume presents papers from a conference organized by the Korea Development Institute and the IMF. The purpose of this high-level conference was for policymakers and academics from the Asian region and from G-...

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2010/03

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455224982.004

ISBN: 9781455224982

Keywords: Bank credit, Bank regulations, Bank supervision, Central bank role, Economic policy, Economic stabilization, Financial crisis, Financial intermediation, Fiscal policy, Inflation targeting

The great moderation lulled macroeconomists and policymakers alike in the belief that we knew how to conduct macroeconomic policy. The crisis clearly forces us to question that assessment. In this paper, we review...

Global Imbalances
			: In Midstream?

Global Imbalances : In Midstream? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/29

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462333387.004

ISBN: 9781462333387

Keywords: Financial crisis, Capital flows, Asset prices, Current account deficits, Cross country analysis, Capital markets, Private savings, Private investment, Investment, International financial system

...

Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066380.084

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066670.058

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

What is the impact on trade in sub-Saharan Africa of the recent rapid growth in China and other Asian countries, and the associated commodity price boom? This paper looks at how trading patterns (both destinations...

What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066182.058

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

This primer explains why macroeconomists need to be concerned with issues of health policy and elaborates the essential information that a macroeconomist should know in providing inputs to discussions on health sec...

Integrating Poor Countries into the World Trading System

Integrating Poor Countries into the World Trading System »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064454.051

ISBN: 9781589064454

Keywords: Developing countries, Trade policy, Trade relations, trade liberalization, export earnings, trade facilitation, multilateral trade, export markets

Efforts to liberalize world trade are increasingly focusing on strengthening the links between low-income countries' trade policies and their development strategies. However, although greater trade openness promise...

Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm

Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm »

Volume/Issue: 2006/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , and Raghuram Rajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946147.003

ISBN: 9781451946147

Keywords: Economic reforms, Economic growth, China, International finance, Policy reforms, market-oriented economy, trade and financial integration, policy complementarities, exchange rate, international monetary fund

China has achieved tremendous economic progress in the last three decades, but there is much work to be done to make the economy resilient to large shocks, ensure the sustainability of its growth, and translate thi...

Preserving Financial Stability

Preserving Financial Stability »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Garry Schinasi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063563.051

ISBN: 9781589063563

Keywords: Financial risk, Financial stability, financial stability, financial system, financial institutions, financial markets, financial services

Spurred by advances in information and computer technologies, financial liberalization and innovation took off inthe late 1970s. Although the changes in financial markets have been beneficial overall, our understan...

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Controlled Capital Account Liberalization
			: A Proposal

Controlled Capital Account Liberalization : A Proposal »

Volume/Issue: 2005/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , and Raghuram Rajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975741.003

ISBN: 9781451975741

Keywords: Capital account liberalization, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Reserves, Foreign exchange reserves, International finance, closed-end mutual fund, international portfolio diversification, capital account, capital outflows

In this paper, we develop a proposal for a controlled approach to capital account liberalization for economies experiencing large capital inflows. The proposal essentially involves securitizing a portion of capital...

Dollars, Debt, and Deficits
			: Sixty Years After Bretton Woods

Dollars, Debt, and Deficits : Sixty Years After Bretton Woods »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064539.072

ISBN: 9781589064539

Keywords: Deficit financing, Budget deficits, exchange rate, public debt, foreign assets, current account, foreign liabilities

This book examines the challenges facing the international monetary and financial system, as well as the future role of the Bretton Woods institutions in addressing those challenges. The volume is based on the proc...

Financial Reform
			: What Shakes It? What Shapes It?

Financial Reform : What Shakes It? What Shapes It? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Ashoka Mody , and Abdul Abiad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063556.051

ISBN: 9781589063556

Keywords: Economic reforms, Financial sector, financial liberalization, financial reform, financial systems, banking crises

Financial sector liberalization was high on the agenda of policymakers during the last quarter of the twentieth century. But there were significant differences in the pace and scale of reform. This pamphlet examine...

Liberalizing Capital Movements
			: Some Analytical Issues

Liberalizing Capital Movements : Some Analytical Issues »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757920.051

ISBN: 9781557757920

Keywords: Capital controls, Capital flows, Capital markets, capital account liberalization, moral hazard, financial markets, financial liberalization, capital markets

This paper addresses the potential gains and risks of open capital markets by first looking at what classical economic theory suggests aboutthe benefits of capital mobility and then examining the counterargumentsar...

Mauritius
			: Challenges of Sustained Growth

Mauritius : Challenges of Sustained Growth »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): James Yao , Gamal El-Masry , Padamja Khandelwal , and Emilio Sacerdoti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 March 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064164.058

ISBN: 9781589064164

Keywords: Development, Economic growth, inflation, monetary policy, financial system, export sector, banking

Mauritius has achieved remarkable success since its independence in 1968. It has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, the economy has diversified from complete dependence on the sugar crop, into textiles,...

Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Capital Account Liberalization and Exchange Rate Flexibility in China

Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Capital Account Liberalization and Exchange Rate Flexibility in China »

Volume/Issue: 2005/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , Qing Wang , and Thomas Rumbaugh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975451.003

ISBN: 9781451975451

Keywords: Capital controls, China, exchange rate regime, financial sector reforms, capital account, capital inflows, capital account liberalization, capital flows, financial sector weakness,

This paper reviews the issues involved in moving towards greater exchange rate flexibility and capital account liberalization in China. A more flexible exchange rate regime would allow China to operate a more indep...

New Partnership for Africa's Development
			: Macroeconomics, Institutions, and Poverty

New Partnership for Africa's Development : Macroeconomics, Institutions, and Poverty »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Saleh Nsouli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062627.072

ISBN: 9781589062627

Keywords: regional integration, fdi, corporate governance, direct investment, foreign direct investment

Adopted in 2001, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) represents a new vision to place African countries on a path toward poverty reduction, sustainable growth, and full integration in the world eco...

China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy
			: Prospects and Challenges

China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy : Prospects and Challenges »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062580.084

ISBN: 9781589062580

Keywords: Economic growth, Development, Trade, exchange rate, inflation, real exchange rate, employment, unemployment

China's transformation into a dynamic private-sector-led economy and its integration into the world economy have been among the most dramatic global economic developments of recent decades. This paper provides an o...

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2004/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975062.003

ISBN: 9781451975062

Keywords: Economic integration, Trade, emerging Asia, intraregional trade, export markets, export growth, trading partners, intermediate goods, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

The share of emerging Asia in world trade has increased sharply over the past 25 years. A large part of this increase is the result of booming intraregional trade. This paper investigates the key factors behind the...

Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries
			: Some Empirical Evidence

Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries : Some Empirical Evidence »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ayhan Kose , Kenneth Rogoff , Eswar Prasad , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062214.084

ISBN: 9781589062214

Keywords: Developing countries, capital flows, financial integration, globalization, capital inflows, financial globalization

This study provides a candid, systematic, and critical review of recent evidence on this complex subject. Based on a review of the literature and some new empirical evidence, it finds that (1) in spite of an appare...

Deflation
			: Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062276.084

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and...

IMF Technical Assistance
			: Transferring Knowledge and Best Practice

IMF Technical Assistance : Transferring Knowledge and Best Practice »

Series: EXR Pamphlets

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 May 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060999.052

ISBN: 9781589060999

Keywords: banking, public expenditure, taxation, tax administration, banking system

An introductory guide to the IMF's technical assistance. Providing technical assistance to member countries-particularly developing countries and countries in transition-is at the core of the IMF's mission. Technic...

The Role of Monthly Economic Statistical Bulletins

The Role of Monthly Economic Statistical Bulletins »

Volume/Issue: 2002/9

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , and Mei Jin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970562.003

ISBN: 9781451970562

Keywords: Central banks and their policies, Technical Assistance, Economic information, statistical capacity building, central banks, central bank, balance of payments, industrial countries, government debt, Relation of Economics to Social Values

Monthly economic statistical bulletins issued by central banks and national statistical offices, the focus of this study, are well established in countries with advanced statistical systems. Such bulletins present...

Foreign Direct Investment in China
			: Some Lessons for Other Countries

Foreign Direct Investment in China : Some Lessons for Other Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs , and Wanda Tseng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974171.003

ISBN: 9781451974171

Keywords: Foreign direct investment, China, fdi, investment, foreign investors, foreign investment

China's increasing openness to foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed importantly to its exceptional growth performance. This paper examines China's experience with FDI and identifies some lessons for othe...

Rural Poverty in Developing Countries
			: Implications for Public Policy

Rural Poverty in Developing Countries : Implications for Public Policy »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mahmood Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 March 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060067.051

ISBN: 9781589060067

Keywords: rural poverty, health care, agricultural land, paper, literacy

Reviews causes of poverty in rural areas and presents a policy framework for reducing rural poverty, including through land reform, public works programs, access to credit, physical and social infrastructure, subsi...

Tax Policy for Developing Countries

Tax Policy for Developing Countries »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Howell Zee , and Vito Tanzi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060203.051

ISBN: 9781589060203

Keywords: tax incentives, tax policy, tax system, tax systems, personal income tax

Discusses important tax policy issues facing developing countries today, provides a review of the role of tax incentives, and identifies some policy challenges posed by the globalization of the world economy. Draws...

Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Learning What Works

Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Learning What Works »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Dhaneshwar Ghura , Anupam Basu , and Anthony Calamitsis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759665.051

ISBN: 9781557759665

Keywords: growth rates, real gdp, economic growth, gdp growth, domestic savings

Africa is the world's poorest continent, but amid all the bad news, there is hope for change. This pamphlet examines the lessons to be learned from some of the more successful economies south of the Sahara, and dis...

Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness

Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Hilbers , Alfredo Leone , Mahinder Gill , and Owen Evens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758910.084

ISBN: 9781557758910

Keywords: financial institutions, banking, financial system, financial sector, standards

Following the severe financial crises of the 1990s, identifying and assessing financial sector vulnerabilities has become a key priority of the international community. The costly disruptions in global markets unde...

Fund and China in the international Monetary System (Hardcover)

Fund and China in the international Monetary System (Hardcover) »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 May 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451947830.071

ISBN: 9781451947830

Keywords: inflation, balance of payments, monetary system, international monetary system, monetary fund

IMF economists work closely with member countries on a variety of issues. Their unique perspective on country experiences and best practices on global macroeconomic issues are often shared in the form of books on d...

Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy?

Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757906.051

ISBN: 9781557757906

Keywords: fiscal affairs, income distribution, fiscal affairs department, expenditure policy, unskilled workers

Over the past decade, global output has grown by more than 3 percent a year and inflation has slowed in most regions. The fruits of this growthhave not been shared equally, however, and income disparities have grow...

Fixed or Flexible
			: Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible : Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756923.051

ISBN: 9781557756923

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

This paper examines the recent evolution of exchange rate policies inthe developing world. It looks at why so many countries have made a transition from fixed or "pegged" exchange rates to "managed floating"currenc...

Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Jahangir Aziz , and Francesco Caramazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455220038.051

ISBN: 9781455220038

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

This paper examines the recent evolution of exchange rate policies in the developing world. It looks at why so many countries have made a transition from fixed or "pegged" exchange rates to "managed floating" curre...

Roads to Nowhere
			: How Corruption in Public investment Hurts Growth

Roads to Nowhere : How Corruption in Public investment Hurts Growth »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757104.051

ISBN: 9781557757104

Keywords: public investment, government revenue, current expenditure, investment projects, rate of return

In some countries, corrupt politicians appear to choose investment projects based on the opportunity for bribes and kickbacks these projectspresent. This paper contends that such corruption increases the numberof c...

Protecting Bank Deposits

Protecting Bank Deposits »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756428.051

ISBN: 9781557756428

Keywords: deposit insurance, banking, banking system, bank managers, insurance system

Banking crises have led many countries to consider deposit insuranceschemes to protect depositors and the banking system itself from the impact of bank failures. But should society be unconditionally responsible fo...

Why is China Growing So Fast?

Why is China Growing So Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Zuliu Hu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1997

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451940916.051

ISBN: 9781451940916

Keywords: Economic growth

Since 1978 the Chinese economy has grown on average more than 9 percent a year. Per capita income has nearly quadrupled in the past 15 years and some analysts predict that within 20 years the Chinese economy will b...

Why is China Growing So Fast?

Why is China Growing So Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756411.051

ISBN: 9781557756411

Keywords: capital formation, capital stock, economic growth, gnp, growth rate

Since 1978 the Chinese economy has grown on average more than 9 percenta year. Per capita income has nearly quadrupled in the past 15 years andsome analysts predict that within 20 years the Chinese economy will bel...

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756008.084

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass not only a wide geographic area but also broad differences in stages of economic development, including among them some of the fastes...

Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China
			: An Experiment in Gradualism

Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China : An Experiment in Gradualism »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , Bernard Laurens , Hassanali Mehran , and Tom Nordman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755629.084

ISBN: 9781557755629

Keywords: foreign exchange, central bank, monetary policy, bonds, financial sector

In 1978, China embarked on a gradual but far-reaching reform of its economic system. This paper focuses on the achievements so far in reforming the financial sector, the legal framework for financial transactions,...

Growth in East Asia
			: What We Can and What We Cannot infer

Growth in East Asia : What We Can and What We Cannot infer »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756077.051

ISBN: 9781557756077

Keywords: economic growth, growth rates, technological progress, total factor productivity, growth rate

The spectacular growth of many economies in East Asia over the past 30years has impressed the economics profession, which often refers to thesuccess of the so-called Four Tigers of the region (Hong Kong, Korea, Sin...

Capital Flows in the APEC Region

Capital Flows in the APEC Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carmen Reinhart , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754660.084

ISBN: 9781557754660

Keywords: capital inflows, capital flows, bond, bonds, bond issues

The developing economies of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) have been the recipients of a considerable volume of capital inflows in the 1990s. Given the increased integration of capital markets, it is...

Economic Reform in China
			: A New Phase

Economic Reform in China : A New Phase »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754219.084

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

China's economic performance hs been remarkable since the the reform process began 15 years ago. Notwithstanding the achievements that have been made, a number of serious problems remain. This papers discusses the...

Emerging Equity Markets
			: Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns

Emerging Equity Markets : Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns »

Volume/Issue: 1994/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Manmohan Kumar , and Robert Feldman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971217.003

ISBN: 9781451971217

Keywords: Monetary policy, equity markets, stock market, capital inflows, equity prices, stock markets

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a very substantial increase in stock market activity in many developing countries. This paper first examines the main characteristics of the emerging stock markets, and illustrat...

China at the Threshold of a Market Economy

China at the Threshold of a Market Economy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Michael Bell , Kalpana Kochhar , and Hoe Khor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753496.084

ISBN: 9781557753496

Keywords: foreign trade, foreign investment, regulatory framework, foreign exchange, economic zones

This paper reviews China's experience with market-oriented reform since 1978, including domestic reforms, the opening of the economy to foreign trade and investment, and the decentralization of decision making. It...

Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies

Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Joshua Greene , and Peter Isard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752147.084

ISBN: 9781557752147

Keywords: Centrally planned economies, current account, exchange rate, current account convertibility, foreign exchange, capital account

This paper examines the problems in establishing currency convertibility- and the optimal timing- in formerly planned economies making the transition to market-oriented systems....

World Economic Outlook
			: September 1984

World Economic Outlook : September 1984 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750860.084

ISBN: 9781557750860

Keywords: current account, oil exporting countries, exports of goods, exporters, official creditors

Recent indicators suggest that activity in the world economy is strengthening more rapidly than projected by the staff six months ago. This is especially true of the United States, but the staff has also revised up...

Thoughts on An international Monetary Fund Based Fully on the SDR

Thoughts on An international Monetary Fund Based Fully on the SDR »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1979

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946246.054

ISBN: 9781451946246

Keywords: reserve tranche, monetary fund, reserve tranche positions, reserve positions, balance of payments

This paper discusses the possibility of an IMF that would be based fully on the special drawing right (SDR). The paper explores the basic economic justification for a General Department restructured in this way, th...