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Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
			: 2013 Article IV Consultation and Second Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement; Staff Report; Informational Annex; Debt Sustainability Analysis; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for São Tomé and Príncipe

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe : 2013 Article IV Consultation and Second Review Under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement; Staff Report; Informational Annex; Debt Sustainability Analysis; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for São Tomé and Príncipe »

Volume/Issue: 2014/2

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 January 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475516548.002

ISBN: 9781475516548

Keywords: Economic indicators, External borrowing, Extended Credit Facility, Debt sustainability analysis, Banking sector, Bank supervision, Staff Reports, Resource mobilization, Press releases, Fiscal policy

This Information Annex highlights that the World Bank and the IMF are providing complementary support to help São Tomé and Príncipe strengthen public financial management and make progress toward debt sustainabilit...

Government Cash Management
			: Relationship between the Treasury and the Central Bank

Government Cash Management : Relationship between the Treasury and the Central Bank »

Volume: 12

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Mario Pessoa , and Michael Williams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616355487.005

ISBN: 9781616355487

Keywords: Central banks and their policies, Central bank, debt management, fiscal policy, monetary policy, public finance, public financial management, treasury, treasury single account, debt

This technical note and manual (TNM) addresses the following main issues: Interaction between treasury cash management and monetary policy operations within the wider context of the respective economic responsibili...

Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353797.071

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

In the years following the global financial crisis, many low-income countries experienced rapid recovery and strong economic growth. However, many are now facing enormous difficulties because of rapidly rising food...

Developing Essential Financial Markets in Smaller Economies
			: Stylized Facts and Policy Options

Developing Essential Financial Markets in Smaller Economies : Stylized Facts and Policy Options »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067752.084

ISBN: 9781589067752

Keywords: Banking systems, Central bank policy, Financial sector, Small states, Stock markets, foreign exchange, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, equity markets, stock exchange

This paper surveys the foreign exchange markets, money and secondary government security markets, and stock exchanges in 107 smaller economy countries. The underdevelopment of these markets impedes risk transfer, m...

Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries

Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jean-Pierre Briffaut , George Iden , Peter Hayward , Tonny Lybek , Hassanali Mehran , Piero Ugolini , and Stephen Swaray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757586.084

ISBN: 9781557757586

Keywords: central bank, foreign exchange, banking, monetary policy, payments

This study takes stock of progress made so far in the financial sectors of sub-saharan African countries. It recommends further reforms and specific measures in the areas of supervision, development of monetary ope...

The West African Economic and Monetary Union
			: Recent Developments and Policy Issues

The West African Economic and Monetary Union : Recent Developments and Policy Issues »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Hernández-Catá , and C. François

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757555.084

ISBN: 9781557757555

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, external tariff, banking, tradable goods

Following a serious deterioration of the competitive position of the WAEMU region in the 1980s and the eary 1990s, the countries took steps that have led to a significant turnaround in economic activity, a drop in...

Protecting Bank Deposits

Protecting Bank Deposits »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756428.051

ISBN: 9781557756428

Keywords: deposit insurance, banking, banking system, bank managers, insurance system

Banking crises have led many countries to consider deposit insuranceschemes to protect depositors and the banking system itself from the impact of bank failures. But should society be unconditionally responsible fo...

Nigeria
			: Experience with Structural Adjustment

Nigeria : Experience with Structural Adjustment »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756305.084

ISBN: 9781557756305

Keywords: oil exports, agricultural exports, export performance, export prices, export supply

Over the past two decades, Nigeria has not reaped fully the benefits of its national wealth despite its efforts at structural adjustment. This paper concludes that the facts do not justify the negative image that s...

Uganda
			: Adjustment with Growth, 1987-94

Uganda : Adjustment with Growth, 1987-94 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Hema De Zoysa , Robert Sharer , and Calvin McDonald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754615.084

ISBN: 9781557754615

Keywords: prices, terms of trade, payments, expenditure, credit

This paper explores not only the recent adjustment efforts but also the prospects for Uganda in the medium term. It provides an overview of recent economic performance with respect to growth, saving, and investment...

The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Tomás Baliño , Charles Enoch , and William Alexander

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754899.084

ISBN: 9781557754899

Keywords: central bank, monetary policy, banking, monetary control, banking system

This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary po...

The Gambia
			: Economic Adjustment in a Small Open Economy

The Gambia : Economic Adjustment in a Small Open Economy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eric Verreydt , Michael Hadjimichael , and Thomas Rumbaugh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752307.084

ISBN: 9781557752307

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, expenditure, banking, banking system

The Gambia, one of the least developed countries in Africa, has been pursuing corrective economic policies since 1985, aimed at restroing financial stability and laying the basis for strong and sustainable economic...

Ghana
			: Adjustment and Growth, 1983-91

Ghana : Adjustment and Growth, 1983-91 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ishan Kapur , Jerald Schiff , Michael Hadjimichael , Philippe Szymczak , and Paul Hilbers

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557751829.084

ISBN: 9781557751829

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, inflation, expenditure, banking

The first sub-Saharan African country to pursue broad economic and structural reform - aided by external finance and technical aid - Ghana is an example of adjustment with growth. Ghana's experience, discussed in t...

Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries
			: Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets

Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries : Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kyong Huh , Benedicte Christensen , Peter Quirk , and Toshihiko Sasaki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934898.084

ISBN: 9780939934898

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, exchange rates, floating exchange rate, floating exchange rates

In recent years, an increasing number of developing countries have adopted market-determined floating exchange rates. This development has represented a significant step forward in the evolution toward exchange rat...

The West African Monetary Union An Analytical Review

The West African Monetary Union An Analytical Review »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Rattan Bhatia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351083.084

ISBN: 9781616351083

Keywords: West African Monetary Union, rediscount, monetary fund, central bank, money supply, money market

Until 1984, the West African Monetary Union (WAMU) consisted of six West African countries- Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Mali withdrew from the Union in 1961 and rejoined in 1984; it...

Currency Convertibility in the Economic Community of West African States

Currency Convertibility in the Economic Community of West African States »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Saleh Nsouli , John McLenaghan , and Klaus-Walter Riechel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 August 1982

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750594.084

ISBN: 9781557750594

Keywords: monetary union, clearing house, foreign exchange, exchange restrictions, exchange rate

One of the principal aims of the effort to integrate the economies of the 16 member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is to expand intra-Community trade. This objective is to be ac...

Technical Assistance Services of the international Monetary Fund

Technical Assistance Services of the international Monetary Fund »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1979

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451957235.054

ISBN: 9781451957235

Keywords: banking, central bank, central banking, monetary fund, banking service

This paper discusses technical assistance services of the IMF. The technical assistance and advice provided by the IMF to its members are an integral part of its activities. They may take many forms, operate at all...