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Islamic Bond Issuance
			: What Sovereign Debt Managers Need to Know

Islamic Bond Issuance : What Sovereign Debt Managers Need to Know »

Volume/Issue: 2008/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy , Peter Kunzel , Paul Mills , and Andreas Jobst

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946024.003

ISBN: 9781451946024

Keywords: Capital markets, Debt management, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Securities markets, Sovereign debt, securitization, structured finance, Islamic bond, shari&;amp;#x2019;ah compliance

Recent years have witnessed a surge in the issuance of Islamic capital market securities (sukuk) by corporates and public sector entities amid growing demand for alternative investments. As the sukuk market continu...

Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures
			: Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies

Capital Inflows and Balance of Payments Pressures : Tailoring Policy Responses in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2008/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Bikas Joshi , Manuela Goretti , Uma Ramakrishnan , Alun Thomas , Atish Ghosh , and Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451945997.003

ISBN: 9781451945997

Keywords: Economic policy, Balance of payments, Capital inflows, Capital flows, Developing countries, Policy Discussion Paper, policy responses, current account, exchange rate,

Although capital inflows are generally beneficial to recipient countries, they also pose a challenge for the conduct of economic policy. This paper proposes a conceptual taxonomy to guide the design of policy respo...

Conquering Fear of Floating
			: Australia's Successful Adaptation to a Flexible Exchange Rate

Conquering Fear of Floating : Australia's Successful Adaptation to a Flexible Exchange Rate »

Volume/Issue: 2007/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Craig Beaumont , and Li Cui

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975383.003

ISBN: 9781451975383

Keywords: Australia, Floating exchange rates, Flexible exchange rates, Floating, Flexible, Exchange Rate, Monetary, Fiscal, Structural Reform, Macroeconomic Stability

Australia has enjoyed fifteen years of uninterrupted economic expansion since 1992 despite shocks such as the Asian crisis in 1997-98 and the information technology bust in 2000-01. This resilient economic performa...

Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm

Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm »

Volume/Issue: 2006/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , and Raghuram Rajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946147.003

ISBN: 9781451946147

Keywords: Economic reforms, Economic growth, China, International finance, Policy reforms, market-oriented economy, trade and financial integration, policy complementarities, exchange rate, international monetary fund

China has achieved tremendous economic progress in the last three decades, but there is much work to be done to make the economy resilient to large shocks, ensure the sustainability of its growth, and translate thi...

Vanishing Contagion?

Vanishing Contagion? »

Volume/Issue: 2006/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Tatiana Didier , and Sergio Schmukler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946062.003

ISBN: 9781451946062

Keywords: Economic integration, Financial crisis, Emerging markets, crises, international integration, international transmission of shocks, contagion, investors, mutual funds, emerging market

While a number of emerging market crises were characterized by widespread contagion during the 1990s, more recent crises (notably, in Argentina) have been mostly contained within national borders. This has led some...

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Controlled Capital Account Liberalization
			: A Proposal

Controlled Capital Account Liberalization : A Proposal »

Volume/Issue: 2005/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , and Raghuram Rajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975741.003

ISBN: 9781451975741

Keywords: Capital account liberalization, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Reserves, Foreign exchange reserves, International finance, closed-end mutual fund, international portfolio diversification, capital account, capital outflows

In this paper, we develop a proposal for a controlled approach to capital account liberalization for economies experiencing large capital inflows. The proposal essentially involves securitizing a portion of capital...

Does Excess Liquidity Pose a Threat in Japan?

Does Excess Liquidity Pose a Threat in Japan? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Gauti Eggertsson , and Jonathan Ostry

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975666.003

ISBN: 9781451975666

Keywords: Expectations, Deflation, Japan, Monetary policy, Monetary policy, Inflation, quantitative easing, interest rates, interest, interest rate

This paper examines the effects of quantitative easing implemented by the Bank of Japan (BoJ) since early 2001, looking specifically at the impact on inflation expectations and real asset prices. It suggests a numb...

Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Capital Account Liberalization and Exchange Rate Flexibility in China

Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Capital Account Liberalization and Exchange Rate Flexibility in China »

Volume/Issue: 2005/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad , Qing Wang , and Thomas Rumbaugh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975451.003

ISBN: 9781451975451

Keywords: Capital controls, China, exchange rate regime, financial sector reforms, capital account, capital inflows, capital account liberalization, capital flows, financial sector weakness,

This paper reviews the issues involved in moving towards greater exchange rate flexibility and capital account liberalization in China. A more flexible exchange rate regime would allow China to operate a more indep...

Banking Reform in the Lower Mekong Countries

Banking Reform in the Lower Mekong Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2004/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Olaf Unteroberdoerster

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972870.003

ISBN: 9781451972870

Keywords: Cambodia, Vietnam, Banking reform, transition economics, Lao P.D.R., banking system, recapitalization, transition economies, loan classification, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation

This paper reviews recent banking reform efforts in the lower Mekong countries (LMCs), comprising Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam. Linked by close economic and cultural ties, the three L...

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies »

Volume/Issue: 2004/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stefan Ingves , Steven Seelig , and Dong He

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974225.003

ISBN: 9781451974225

Keywords: Asset management, Bank restructuring, Financial crisis, corporate restructuring, loan restructuring, restructuring, asset management companies, impaired assets, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper discusses the role of asset management companies (AMCs) in facilitating bank restructuring and specifies some policy lessons learned from international experience. The paper concludes that there is no si...

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer »

Volume/Issue: 2004/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Parthasarathi Shome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974577.003

ISBN: 9781451974577

Keywords: Services sector, Tax policy, Tax administration, small taxpayers, large taxpayer units, tax administration and the small taxpayer, taxpayers, income tax, single tax, tax system,

Small taxpayers should pay their appropriate revenue share while their compliance costs should be reduced. This assumes importance as restructuring in emerging markets has meant rapid growth in services through sel...

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia

Intraregional Trade in Emerging Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2004/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975062.003

ISBN: 9781451975062

Keywords: Economic integration, Trade, emerging Asia, intraregional trade, export markets, export growth, trading partners, intermediate goods, Country and Industry Studies of Trade,

The share of emerging Asia in world trade has increased sharply over the past 25 years. A large part of this increase is the result of booming intraregional trade. This paper investigates the key factors behind the...

International Trade in Services
			: Implications for the Fund

International Trade in Services : Implications for the Fund »

Volume/Issue: 2003/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Natalia Tamirisa , Alexander Lehmann , and Jaroslaw Wieczorek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972207.003

ISBN: 9781451972207

Keywords: International trade, international services trade, coherence, WTO, trade in services, services trade, services sectors, financial services, international trade in services,

This paper reviews the characteristics of international trade in services and of the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) framework, which was established to regulate it....

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2002/11

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969856.003

ISBN: 9781451969856

Keywords: Poverty, Fund-supported adjustment programs, IMF Programs, Social Impact, poverty reduction, impact analysis, social impact analysis, civil service, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, General Welfare,

This paper aims to inform on the status of Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) in IMF-supported programs, detailing the results presented in the recent review of PRGF-supported programs. The review showed tha...

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy"

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy" »

Volume/Issue: 2002/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971019.003

ISBN: 9781451971019

Keywords: Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund, fiscal sustainability, fiscal position, fiscal policies, public debt, Fiscal Policies And Behavior Of Economic Agents, Macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy

This paper provides a perspective on how the IMF assesses a “sound fiscal policy,” focusing principally on industrial and emerging market economies. It observes six central criteria: the short-term fi...

The Role of Monthly Economic Statistical Bulletins

The Role of Monthly Economic Statistical Bulletins »

Volume/Issue: 2002/9

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , and Mei Jin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970562.003

ISBN: 9781451970562

Keywords: Central banks and their policies, Technical Assistance, Economic information, statistical capacity building, central banks, central bank, balance of payments, industrial countries, government debt, Relation of Economics to Social Values

Monthly economic statistical bulletins issued by central banks and national statistical offices, the focus of this study, are well established in countries with advanced statistical systems. Such bulletins present...

Challenges in Expanding Development Assistance

Challenges in Expanding Development Assistance »

Volume/Issue: 2002/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972788.003

ISBN: 9781451972788

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, Poverty, Foreign aid, ODA, international public goods, exchange rate, capita income, industrial countries, real exchange, public goods

This paper highlights the macro and microeconomic challenges associated with success of the effort to mobilize 0.7 percent of GNP for official development assistance (ODA). To promote achievement of the Millennium...

Foreign Direct Investment in China
			: Some Lessons for Other Countries

Foreign Direct Investment in China : Some Lessons for Other Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Harm Zebregs , and Wanda Tseng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974171.003

ISBN: 9781451974171

Keywords: Foreign direct investment, China, fdi, investment, foreign investors, foreign investment

China's increasing openness to foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed importantly to its exceptional growth performance. This paper examines China's experience with FDI and identifies some lessons for othe...

Public Financial Management
			: Principal Issues in Small Pacific Island Countries

Public Financial Management : Principal Issues in Small Pacific Island Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2002/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Klaus-Walter Riechel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974973.003

ISBN: 9781451974973

Keywords: Budgeting, Fiscal policy, Public financial management, Public finance, Pacific Island Countries, budget systems, small country issues, financial management, budget, output budgeting

The paper discusses reform in public financial management in small, resource-constrained economies such as the Pacific island countries (PICs). It describes the efforts undertaken by PICs in the past and assesses t...

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities

Monetary Operations and Central Bank Balance Sheets in a World of Limited Government Securities »

Volume/Issue: 2001/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Zelmer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971583.003

ISBN: 9781451971583

Keywords: Central banks, Central banks and their policies, Bonds, Monetary policy, Monetary policy, Monetary operations, central bank, government securities, balance sheets, financial institutions,

The limited supply of government securities in some industrial countries has important ramifications for the operating techniques used by central banks to implement monetary policy, provide credit to the financial...

Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision
			: The Case of Small Pacific Island Countries

Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision : The Case of Small Pacific Island Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2001/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Klaus-Walter Riechel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972146.003

ISBN: 9781451972146

Keywords: Bank regulations, Money laundering, Bank and nonbank financial intermediaries regulation and supervision, offshore financial sector issues, financial sector, financial sector regulation, technical assistance, international standards,

This paper discusses issues of financial sector regulation and supervision--including those concerning nonbank financial intermediaries--in small resource-constrained Pacific island countries. It advocates stronger...

Globalization Facts and Figures

Globalization Facts and Figures »

Volume/Issue: 2001/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973563.003

ISBN: 9781451973563

Keywords: Economic integration, Globalization, Trade liberalization, Trade, integration, mortality rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, birth, life expectancy at birth

Globalization has become the focus for a wide range of protests against various features of the world economy. This paper aims to give a concise summary of the economic dimensions of globalization, while leaving to...

Large-Scale Post-Crisis Corporate Sector Restructuring

Large-Scale Post-Crisis Corporate Sector Restructuring »

Volume/Issue: 2000/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971538.003

ISBN: 9781451971538

Keywords: Corporate sector, Financial crisis, Financial crises, Corporate restructuring, Financial restructuring, restructuring, recapitalization, debt restructuring, bank restructuring

This paper summarizes the objectives, tasks, and modalities of large-scale, post-crisis corporate restructuring based on nine recent episodes with a view to organizing the policy choices and drawing some general co...

Reconsidering External Financing of Domestic Budget Deficits
			: Debunking Some Received Wisdom

Reconsidering External Financing of Domestic Budget Deficits : Debunking Some Received Wisdom »

Volume/Issue: 2000/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): David Woo , and Simon Gray

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970951.003

ISBN: 9781451970951

Keywords: Debt management, Budget deficits, External financing, foreign currency denominated sovereign debt, foreign currency, domestic currency, exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign investors

The past decade has witnessed a steady increase in outstanding external sovereign debt issued by emerging market economies. This paper examines some of the “received wisdom” regarding the benefits of...

Interventions in Banks During Banking Crises
			: The Experience of Indonesia

Interventions in Banks During Banking Crises : The Experience of Indonesia »

Volume/Issue: 2000/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974461.003

ISBN: 9781451974461

Keywords: Financial crisis, Banks, Indonesia, banking crisis, recapitalization, bank closures, banking sector, restructuring, state banks

Interventions in banks are often an integral element of a government’s program for addressing a systemic banking crisis. Interventions may be warranted because the banks are deeply insolvent or riddled with...

Inflation Targeting
			: What is the Meaning of the Bottom of the Band?

Inflation Targeting : What is the Meaning of the Bottom of the Band? »

Volume/Issue: 1999/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Eric Clifton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970906.003

ISBN: 9781451970906

Keywords: Inflation targeting, credibility, monetary policy, inflation, price stability, inflation target

This paper investigates the meaning of the bottom of target bands in inflation targeting regimes. It is argued that the design of lower limits on target bands, if not done with care, can lead to a lack of transpare...

A Modernized Approach to Managing the Risks in Cross-Border Capital Movements

A Modernized Approach to Managing the Risks in Cross-Border Capital Movements »

Volume/Issue: 1999/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , and R. Johnston

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972092.003

ISBN: 9781451972092

Keywords: Exchange rate policy, Capital flows, Monetary policy, Cross-border capital movements, prudential risk management, consistency of policy mix, time consistency of exchange rate policy, capital movements, capital controls, capital account

This paper outlines a “modern” approach to managing risks in cross-border capital movements that is consistent with an environment of increased and liberalized capital flows. Key elements of this appr...

Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country

Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country »

Volume/Issue: 1999/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , Patrick Downes , and Dewitt Marston

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973433.003

ISBN: 9781451973433

Keywords: Financial crisis, Financial systems, Financial system soundness, indicators of financial vulnerability, banking crisis, stress tests, financial system, financial institutions, central bank, balance sheet

The forward-looking framework expounded in this paper links a qualitative evaluation of system-wide vulnerability (covering macro, sectoral, institutional, and systemic liquidity issues) with a quantitative assessm...

Corporate Debt Restructuring in East Asia
			: Some Lessons from International Experience

Corporate Debt Restructuring in East Asia : Some Lessons from International Experience »

Volume/Issue: 1998/13

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mark Stone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451968729.003

ISBN: 9781451968729

Keywords: Debt, Debt restructuring, Asia, Malaysia, Korea, Republic of, Indonesia, Thailand, East Asia, corporate debt, corporate restructuring

This paper summarizes some lessons from international experience for corporate debt restructuring in east Asia. Basic principles of debt restructuring are described, the experiences of Mexico, Chile, the United Kin...

Mitigating the Social Costs of the Economic Crisis and the Reform Programs in Asia

Mitigating the Social Costs of the Economic Crisis and the Reform Programs in Asia »

Volume/Issue: 1998/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Marijn Verhoeven , Sanjeev Gupta , Gerd Schwartz , Calvin McDonald , Željko Bogetic , and Christian Schiller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971408.003

ISBN: 9781451971408

Keywords: Asia, Financial crisis, Social policy, Poverty, social safety nets, social impact, unemployment, disability, price increases, safety nets

This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the likely social impact of the economic crisis and the reform programs in three Asian countries—Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand. The focus is on likely changes i...

The Payment System and Monetary Policy

The Payment System and Monetary Policy »

Volume/Issue: 1998/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Omotunde Johnson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973389.003

ISBN: 9781451973389

Keywords: Payment systems, Monetary policy, central bank, payment system, central banks, interest rates

Achieving the primary objective of price stability without unduly compromising the operational efficiency of the payment system constitutes a major problem for central banks. Routine monetary policy presumes a give...

Aid Effectiveness
			: A Survey of the Recent Empirical Literature

Aid Effectiveness : A Survey of the Recent Empirical Literature »

Volume/Issue: 1998/1

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Tsidi Tsikata

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974850.003

ISBN: 9781451974850

Keywords: Development assistance, Economic growth, Foreign Aid, Growth, exchange rate, real exchange, real exchange rate, international monetary fund, public investment

The preponderance of evidence from the empirical literature on aid effectiveness suggests that development aid has not had a significant impact on growth in recipient countries. However, there is some evidence that...

Transparency in Central Bank Operations in the Foreign Exchange Market

Transparency in Central Bank Operations in the Foreign Exchange Market »

Volume/Issue: 1998/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Charles Enoch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974430.003

ISBN: 9781451974430

Keywords: Exchange markets, Central banks, Foreign exchange, transparency, central bank, foreign exchange market, exchange rate

Transparency in the economic sphere involves making public sector action visible and understandable to the private sector. Transparency in central bank operations can be seen a complement to the greater transparenc...

Dedicated Road Funds
			: A Preliminary View on a World Bank Initiative

Dedicated Road Funds : A Preliminary View on a World Bank Initiative »

Volume/Issue: 1997/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Barry Potter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971378.003

ISBN: 9781451971378

Keywords: Budgetary policy, World Bank, Road Funds, Budget Management Policy, Budget Policy, road, road maintenance, budget, road fund

In the past, Road Funds have been criticized as inconsistent with effective expenditure control, as distorting the allocation of public sector resources, and as incompatible with efficient management of government...

Exchange Rate Policy and Monetary Strategy Options in the Philippines
			: The Search for Stability and Sustainability

Exchange Rate Policy and Monetary Strategy Options in the Philippines : The Search for Stability and Sustainability »

Volume/Issue: 1997/4

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Aerdt Houben

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973341.003

ISBN: 9781451973341

Keywords: Exchange rate policy, Exchange rate regimes, Monetary policy, Philippines, exchange rate, central bank, nominal anchor

This paper evaluates the Philippines’ experience with different exchange regimes since 1970. It argues that the shift to a flexible regime was crucial to restoring external viability and generating an export...

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions »

Volume/Issue: 1996/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972009.003

ISBN: 9781451972009

Keywords: tax authorities, tax treatment, tax deductible, fiscal authorities, tax deductions

Provisioning for loan losses is a method for recognizing the reduction in the value of a hank’s loan portfolio. Provisions are an essential element of prudential risk management and capital adequacy measurem...

Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries and China

Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries and China »

Volume/Issue: 1995/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mahmood Khan , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971248.003

ISBN: 9781451971248

Keywords: China, Sub-Saharan Africa, crops, agricultural growth, agricultural land, food production, agricultural products

Agriculture remains the dominant sector in the economies of most Sub-Saharan African countries. However, the experience of agricultural growth in the region stands in sharp contrast to the robust performance of agr...

Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules
			: How Tough a Challenge is it to Join the Basle Club?

Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules : How Tough a Challenge is it to Join the Basle Club? »

Volume/Issue: 1995/5

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , María Nieto , and Olivier Frecaut

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972467.003

ISBN: 9781451972467

Keywords: Bank regulations, capital accord, balance sheet, capital ratio, risk weights, capital adequacy

The 1988 Basle Capital Accord has introduced the norm of a risk-based capital ratio of 8 percent. It was negotiated among the G-10 countries to strengthen their international banks’ capital base while simult...

Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle

Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle »

Volume/Issue: 1994/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Garry Schinasi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971927.003

ISBN: 9781451971927

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, inflationary pressures, price inflation, monetary fund

The business cycle in several industrial countries during the period 1989-1993 was different from previous post World War II business cycles in important ways. This paper describes the unique character of the recen...

The United States
			: Japan Current Account Imbalance:  A Review

The United States : Japan Current Account Imbalance: A Review »

Volume/Issue: 1994/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stephen Golub

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451970708.003

ISBN: 9781451970708

Keywords: exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, trade flows, real exchange rates

This paper reviews the macroeconomic and microeconomic dimensions of the United States-Japan conflict over trade. From a macroeconomic perspective, there is nothing surprising about Japan’s surpluses, given...

Emerging Equity Markets
			: Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns

Emerging Equity Markets : Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns »

Volume/Issue: 1994/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Manmohan Kumar , and Robert Feldman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971217.003

ISBN: 9781451971217

Keywords: Monetary policy, equity markets, stock market, capital inflows, equity prices, stock markets

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a very substantial increase in stock market activity in many developing countries. This paper first examines the main characteristics of the emerging stock markets, and illustrat...

Selective Government Interventions and Economic Growth
			: A Survey of the Asian Experience and its Applicability to New Zealand

Selective Government Interventions and Economic Growth : A Survey of the Asian Experience and its Applicability to New Zealand »

Volume/Issue: 1993/17

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451965384.003

ISBN: 9781451965384

Keywords: Economic policy, New Zealand, New Zealand, Trade liberalization, private investment, public investment, productivity growth, labor market

Since the mid-1980s, New Zealand has been engaged in a broad-ranging economic reform program--involving liberalization of key sectors of the economy, reduction in trade protection, and trimming of the public sector...

The Capital Inflows Problem
			: Concepts and Issues

The Capital Inflows Problem : Concepts and Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1993/10

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Carmen Reinhart , Leonardo Leiderman , and Guillermo Calvo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969931.003

ISBN: 9781451969931

Keywords: Inflation, capital inflows, exchange rate, real exchange rate, capital inflow, exchange rate appreciation

Since 1990 capital has started to move from industrial countries to developing regions like Latin America, the Middle East and parts of Asia. Reentry into international capital markets is a welcome turn of events f...

Restructuring of Commercial Bank Debt by Developing Countries
			: Lessons from Recent Experience

Restructuring of Commercial Bank Debt by Developing Countries : Lessons from Recent Experience »

Volume/Issue: 1993/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mohamed El-Erian , and Charles Collyns

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971187.003

ISBN: 9781451971187

Keywords: debt reduction, debt restructuring, bank debt, debt service, debt service reduction

A number of developing countries, including some of the largest debtors, have recently completed comprehensive debt and debt service restructuring packages with their commercial bank creditors. The experience of th...