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Multi-Country Report
			: Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Ensuring Financial Stability in Countries with Islamic Banking-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/145

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484302996.002

ISBN: 9781484302996

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Bahrain, Djibouti, Europe, Indonesia, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Middle East, Nigeria

This paper presents country experiences with reforms to strengthen regulatory oversight of the Islamic banking sector. Based on the selected country experiences, a number of important lessons and policy options can...

Multi-Country Report
			: Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/153

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303719.002

ISBN: 9781484303719

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Europe, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mali, Middle East, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sub-Saharan Africa

This report reviews the IMF's effort to build fiscal capacity in fragile states. It presents case studies on IMF technical assistance (TA) and capacity development in the fiscal area, provided by its Fiscal Affairs...

Natural Disasters and Food Crises in Low-Income Countries
			: Macroeconomic Dimensions

Natural Disasters and Food Crises in Low-Income Countries : Macroeconomic Dimensions »

Volume/Issue: 2016/65

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olumuyiwa Adedeji , Jana Gieck-Bricco , and Vera Kehayova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 March 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513596013.001

ISBN: 9781513596013

Keywords: Natural disasters, Food decline, food, food crisis, food supply, food security, food production, Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Economic Growth of Open Economies

The exposure of low-income countries to natural disasters has a significant impact on food production and food security. This paper provides a framework for assessing a country's vulnerability to food crisis in the...

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Leaning Against the Wind »

Volume/Issue: 2016/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lars Svensson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498314787.001

ISBN: 9781498314787

Keywords: macroprudential policy, unemployment, unemployment rate, debt, marginal cost, benchmark, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects), All Countries

“Leaning against the wind” (LAW) with a higher monetary policy interest rate may have benefits in terms of lower real debt growth and associated lower probability of a financial crisis but has costs in terms of hig...

From Ambition to Execution
			: Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals

From Ambition to Execution : Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals »

Volume/Issue: 2015/18

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Stefania Fabrizio , Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu , Catherine Pattillo , Adrian Peralta-Alva , Andrea Presbitero , Baoping Shang , Genevieve Verdier , Marie-Therese Camilleri , Kazuaki Washimi , Lisa Kolovich , Monique Newiak , Martin Cihak , Inci Otker , Luis-Felipe Zanna , and Carol Baker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513573304.006

ISBN: 9781513573304

Keywords: Inclusive growth, Income inequality, Gender, Environmental sustainability, Sustainable development, Fiscal policy, Developing countries, sustainable development goals, growth, structural transformation

The formal launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets the global development agenda through 2030, placing significant emphasis on promoting social and environmental sustainability alongside economic gr...

Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

Fair Play
			: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation

Fair Play : More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Christian Gonzales , Sonali Jain-Chandra , Kalpana Kochhar , and Monique Newiak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354424.006

ISBN: 9781498354424

Keywords: Labor force participation, Gender equality, Women, female labor force participation, gender equity, legal rights, gender, labor force, female labor, Participación en la fuerza laboral;Mujeres;Igualdad de género;Mercados de trabajo;Reformas del mercado laboral;Aspectos económicos de la familia;Análisis entre países

This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel dat...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries
			: A Handbook

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries : A Handbook »

Series: Books

Author(s): Jack Calder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475575170.071

ISBN: 9781475575170

Keywords: natural resource, natural resources, natural resource taxes, natural resource taxation, tax authority

This handbook is one of the first of its kind to focus attention on effectively administering revenues from extractive industries. It provides policymakers and officials in developing and emerging market economies...

Emerging Markets in Transition
			: Growth Prospects and Challenges

Emerging Markets in Transition : Growth Prospects and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2014/6

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Luis Cubeddu , Alexander Culiuc , Ghada Fayad , Yuan Gao , Kalpana Kochhar , Annette Kyobe , Ceyda Oner , Roberto Perrelli , Sarah Sanya , Evridiki Tsounta , and Zhongxia Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 June 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498327664.006

ISBN: 9781498327664

Keywords: Emerging markets, growth, potential growth, convergence, heterogeneity, structural reform, productivity, terms of trade, trading partners, commodity prices

After a short-lived slowdown in the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis and a swift rebound, emerging markets (EM) are now entering a period of slower growth. In fact, growth is now lower than the po...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

Economic Diversification in LICs
			: Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications

Economic Diversification in LICs : Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications »

Volume/Issue: 2012/13

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Chris Papageorgiou , and Nicola Spatafora

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475532180.006

ISBN: 9781475532180

Keywords: Trade and real-sector diversification, quality upgrading, volatility, growth, LICs, export diversification, external shocks, external trade, total exports, trading partners

Limited diversification is an underlying characteristic of many low-income countries (LICs). Concentration in sectors with limited scope for increases in productivity and quality may result in less broad-based and...

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth
			: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Inequality and Unsustainable Growth : Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Volume/Issue: 2011/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Andrew Berg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926564.006

ISBN: 9781463926564

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Economic growth, Emerging markets, Income distribution, Poverty reduction, sustainable growth, per capita income, external debt, external shocks

This note raises the IMF’s profile on a number of issues related to inequality, unemployment, governance, etc. It builds on earlier empirical work that examined correlations between growth downbreaks/duratio...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Petroleum Product Subsidies
			: Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise

Petroleum Product Subsidies : Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Piotrowski , David Coady , Justin Tyson , Rolando Ossowski , Robert Gillingham , and Shamsuddin Tareq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455239108.004

ISBN: 9781455239108

Keywords: Commodity price fluctuations, Oil exporting countries, Oil product prices, Oil subsidies, Price stabilization, Fiscal reforms, Governance, Taxes, Subsidies, Petroleum products

Petroleum product subsidies have again started to increase with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that reforming the policy framework for settin...

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Christian Beddies , Marie-Helene Le Manchec , and Bergljot Barkbu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 September 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068117.084

ISBN: 9781589068117

Keywords: debt sustainability, public debt, debt service, debt relief, domestic debt, debt-service, current account, debt burden, debt dynamics, debt ratio

Low-income countries continue to face significant challenges in meeting their vast development needs while maintaining a sustainable debt position, even after many of these countries have benefited from substantial...

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis
			: Challenges and Policy Options

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis : Challenges and Policy Options »

Volume/Issue: 2009/17

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Brondolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462339440.004

ISBN: 9781462339440

Keywords: Financial crisis, Corporate sector, Collection of taxes, Fiscal policy, Tax collection, Tax administration, Tax revenues, Value added tax, taxpayers, tax agencies

The global financial and economic crisis presents major challenges for tax agencies. With the economic downturn, tax agencies are encountering emerging compliance problems and greater demands for taxpayer support i...

Developing Essential Financial Markets in Smaller Economies
			: Stylized Facts and Policy Options

Developing Essential Financial Markets in Smaller Economies : Stylized Facts and Policy Options »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067752.084

ISBN: 9781589067752

Keywords: Banking systems, Central bank policy, Financial sector, Small states, Stock markets, foreign exchange, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, equity markets, stock exchange

This paper surveys the foreign exchange markets, money and secondary government security markets, and stock exchanges in 107 smaller economy countries. The underdevelopment of these markets impedes risk transfer, m...

Investissement public et partenariats public-privé

Investissement public et partenariats public-privé »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Gerd Schwartz , Richard Hemming , and Bernardin Akitoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 2007

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065444.051

ISBN: 9781589065444

Keywords: public debt, fiscal targets, public finance, fiscal risk

Over the past three decades, public spending on infrastructure, as a share of GDP, has been on the decline worldwide. Although the link between infrastructure investment and economic growth is not yet fully underst...

Africa in the Doha Round
			: Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond

Africa in the Doha Round : Dealing with Preference Erosion and Beyond »

Volume/Issue: 2005/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975796.003

ISBN: 9781451975796

Keywords: Africa, Multilateral trade negotiations, World Trade Organization, Doha Round, preference erosion, special and differential treatment, market access, export markets, tariff cuts, trade barriers,

Improving market access in industrial countries and retaining preferences have been Africa's two key objectives in the Doha Round trade negotiations. This paper argues that African negotiators may have overlooked t...

Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa

Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064393.058

ISBN: 9781589064393

Keywords: Trade, Trade policy, trade liberalization, intraregional trade, regional integration, trade barriers, regional trade

In recent years, African policymakers have increasingly resorted to regional trade arrangements (RTAs) as a substitute for broad-based trade liberalization. This trend has long-term implications for the effectivene...

L'allégement de la dette peut-il doper la croissance des pauvres?

L'allégement de la dette peut-il doper la croissance des pauvres? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Toan Nguyen , Benedict Clements , and Rina Bhattacharya

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 August 2005

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064645.051

ISBN: 9781589064645

Keywords: debt service, external debt, debt relief, foreign debt, budget deficits, public debt, debt overhang, stock of debt, debt-service, debt burdens

The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, launched in 1999 by the IMF and the World Bank, was the first coordinated effort by the international financial community to reduce the foreign debt of the wor...

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Clark , Shang-Jin Wei , Natalia Tamirisa , Azim Sadikov , and Li Zeng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063587.084

ISBN: 9781589063587

Keywords: Capital flows, Exchange rates, Trade, exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, real exchange rate, bilateral trade

The effect of exchange rate volatility on trade flows was examined by a 1984 IMF study on G-7 countries. Over the past two decades, many developments in the world economy, such as the currency crises in the 1990s a...

International Trade in Services
			: Implications for the Fund

International Trade in Services : Implications for the Fund »

Volume/Issue: 2003/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Natalia Tamirisa , Alexander Lehmann , and Jaroslaw Wieczorek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972207.003

ISBN: 9781451972207

Keywords: International trade, international services trade, coherence, WTO, trade in services, services trade, services sectors, financial services, international trade in services,

This paper reviews the characteristics of international trade in services and of the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) framework, which was established to regulate it....

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061613.054

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable
			: Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable : Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 2002

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061606.054

ISBN: 9781589061606

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure, primary education, forest, health care, government expenditure, government spending

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance
			: A Review of Country Experience

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance : A Review of Country Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Olivier Benon , Katherine Baer , and Juan Toro R.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061187.084

ISBN: 9781589061187

Keywords: Taxes, Taxation, tax administration, large taxpayers, tax collection, tax administrations, taxpayer compliance

One area that has not been reviewed in developing countries is the growing focus on different segments of the taxpayer population-including the large taxpayers-as a way to encourage greater stability in public reve...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060678.054

ISBN: 9781589060678

Keywords: SDR Department, Fund, Fund general resources, Fund financial position, currency, currencies, reserve, interest, quota

This pamphlet describes the financial structure and operations of the IMF, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, the role of the IMF as trustee to various a...

Macroeconomic Policy and Poverty Reduction

Macroeconomic Policy and Poverty Reduction »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Alejandro Izquierdo , Ward Brown , Brian Ames , and Shatayanan Devarajan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060173.054

ISBN: 9781589060173

Keywords: inflation, exchange rate, macroeconomic stability, fixed exchange rate, exchange rate regime

This pamphlet excerpts a chapter on macroeconomic policy from the Poverty Reduction Policy Source book, a guide prepared by the World Bank and IMF to assist countries in developing and strengthening their poverty r...

Fonds de couverture
			: Que savons-nous vraiment d'eux?

Fonds de couverture : Que savons-nous vraiment d'eux? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Donald Mathieson , and Barry Eichengreen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758507.051

ISBN: 9781557758507

Keywords: hedge funds, hedge, hedge fund, financial markets, derivative, financial institutions, bonds, financial market, futures markets, hedge? funds

Each episode of volatility in financial markets heightens the attention of government officials and others to the role played by the hedge fund industry in financial market dynamics. Hedge funds were implicated in...

Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization

Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Reint Gropp , Liam Ebrill , and Janet Stotsky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758132.084

ISBN: 9781557758132

Keywords: trade liberalization, tariff rate, trade taxes, tariff rates, international trade

The apparent contradiction between trade liberalization and continuing high trade tax revenue raises the important question of how, precisely, the one affects the other. Although policymakers generally recognize th...

El FMI y la pobreza
			:  Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas

El FMI y la pobreza : Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757869.054

ISBN: 9781557757869

El FMI hace cada vez más hincapié en un "crecimiento de alta calidad" - es decir, un crecimiento que sea sostenible, que esté acompañado de saldos internos y externos apropiados, que respete el medio ambiente y qu...

Le FMI et la pauvreté
			: Département des finances publiques

Le FMI et la pauvreté : Département des finances publiques »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757852.054

ISBN: 9781557757852

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures, military expenditures, capital expenditures, public expenditure, total expenditures, health expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757593.054

ISBN: 9781557757593

Keywords: Fund facilities, Fund, Overdue obligations, SDR Department, currency, currencies, balance of payments, reserve, quota

The financial structure and operations of the IMF are described in this pamphlet, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, and the role of the IMF as trustee t...

The IMF and The Poor

The IMF and The Poor »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Calvin McDonald , Benedict Clements , and Christian Schiller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757456.054

ISBN: 9781557757456

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

Fixed or Flexible
			: Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible : Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756923.051

ISBN: 9781557756923

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

This paper examines the recent evolution of exchange rate policies inthe developing world. It looks at why so many countries have made a transition from fixed or "pegged" exchange rates to "managed floating"currenc...

Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Jahangir Aziz , and Francesco Caramazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455220038.051

ISBN: 9781455220038

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

This paper examines the recent evolution of exchange rate policies in the developing world. It looks at why so many countries have made a transition from fixed or "pegged" exchange rates to "managed floating" curre...

Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Liam Ebrill , Sanjeev Gupta , Anthony Pellechio , Jerald Schiff , George Abed , Ronald McMorran , and Marijn Verhoeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 March 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757173.084

ISBN: 9781557757173

Keywords: Developing countries, expenditure, tax administration, tax revenue, wage, expenditures

The reform of fiscal policies and institutions lies at the heart of structural adjustment in developing countries. Although the immediate aim of such reform is to reduce fiscal imbalances to achieve macroeconomic s...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (Revised 1998)

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (Revised 1998) »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463904180.054

ISBN: 9781463904180

Keywords: balance of payments, reserve tranche, repurchases, general resources account, credit tranche

This paper discusses the financial organization and operations of the IMF. The policies and activities of the IMF are guided by its charter, known as the Articles of Agreement. The IMF is unique among intergovernme...

Credibility Without Rules

Credibility Without Rules »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli , and Curzio Giannini

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 December 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756442.084

ISBN: 9781557756442

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate regime, inflation, central bank, monetary policy

During the last 25 years, monetary practice in most countries has increasingly been characterized by the attempt to achieve credibility of purpose while expanding the freedom of monetary authorities in controlling...

Protecting Bank Deposits

Protecting Bank Deposits »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756428.051

ISBN: 9781557756428

Keywords: deposit insurance, banking, banking system, bank managers, insurance system

Banking crises have led many countries to consider deposit insuranceschemes to protect depositors and the banking system itself from the impact of bank failures. But should society be unconditionally responsible fo...

The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth
			: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies

The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth : Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , Philip Gerson , and David Orsmond

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756299.084

ISBN: 9781557756299

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, fiscal policy, capital expenditure, expenditure management

This study examines the composition of fiscal adjustment - tax and expenditure policies and administrative procedures, and some aspects of public enterprise reform - in a sample of eight countries (Bangladesh, Chil...

Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries
			: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies

Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries : Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kalpana Kochhar , Erik Offerdal , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Mauro Mecagni , Jianping Zhou , Balázs Horváth , David Goldsbrough , and Sharmini Coorey

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 August 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755599.084

ISBN: 9781557755599

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, private investment, external financing, wages

This study examines the links between adjustment policies and growth in a small group of developing countries- Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, and Thailand - during 1970 -93. It provides...

The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Tomás Baliño , Charles Enoch , and William Alexander

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 July 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754899.084

ISBN: 9781557754899

Keywords: central bank, monetary policy, banking, monetary control, banking system

This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary po...

Social Dimensions of the IMF'S Policy Di Alogue (Reprinted 1998) P047

Social Dimensions of the IMF'S Policy Di Alogue (Reprinted 1998) P047 »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754790.054

ISBN: 9781557754790

Keywords: expenditure, expenditures, safety nets, social safety nets, subsidies

This pamphlet focuses on the IMF's role in social policy advice. First,the evolution of the IMF's involvement in social issues is traced,and the lessons that can be drawn from this experience, includingpolicy impli...

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries
			: Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries : Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): F. Rozwadowski , Siddharth Tiwari , David Robinson , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753366.084

ISBN: 9781557753366

Keywords: current account, export prices, export volume, external debt, terms of trade

This paper evaluates progress made under ESAF-supported programs in attaining external viability, restoring economic growth, and implementing structural reforms. Performance is evaluated for 19 countries that enter...

The Fiscal Dimensions of Adjustment in Low-Income Countries

The Fiscal Dimensions of Adjustment in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Claire Liuksila , Henri Lorie , Walter Mahler , and Karim Nashashibi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752291.084

ISBN: 9781557752291

Keywords: Budgetary reforms, Government expenditures, Structural adjustment, Tax administration, Tax reforms, Taxation, expenditure, fiscal adjustment, capital expenditure, tax revenue

A strengthened fiscal position is at the core of most economic adjustment programs supported by IMF lending, especially for the poorer countries that draw on the IMF's structural adjustment facilities. This paper r...

Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries
			: Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets

Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries : Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kyong Huh , Benedicte Christensen , Peter Quirk , and Toshihiko Sasaki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934898.084

ISBN: 9780939934898

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, exchange rates, floating exchange rate, floating exchange rates

In recent years, an increasing number of developing countries have adopted market-determined floating exchange rates. This development has represented a significant step forward in the evolution toward exchange rat...

Compensatory Financing Facility

Compensatory Financing Facility »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 1980

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451926767.054

ISBN: 9781451926767

Keywords: export earnings, balance of payments, export shortfalls, total export, merchandise exports

This paper examines compensatory financing facility in the IMF. Compensatory financing facilities are easy to administer and can give immediate relief to primary exporting countries when their export earnings fall....