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Determinants of Firm Profitability in Colombia's Manufacturing Sector
			: Exchange Rate or Structural?

Determinants of Firm Profitability in Colombia's Manufacturing Sector : Exchange Rate or Structural? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/97

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Naomi Griffin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484364222.001

ISBN: 9781484364222

Keywords: Real exchange rate, structural changes, exchange rate, imports, demand, real effective exchange rate, Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope, General,

The appreciation of the real exchange rate over the past several years is considered one of the key drivers behind the weak performance of Colombia's manufacturing sector in recent years. This paper examines the ef...

Automatic Fuel Pricing Mechanisms with Price Smoothing
			: Design, Implementation, and Fiscal Implications

Automatic Fuel Pricing Mechanisms with Price Smoothing : Design, Implementation, and Fiscal Implications »

Volume: 12

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): David Coady , Javier Arze del Granado , Luc Eyraud , and Anita Tuladhar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566949.005

ISBN: 9781475566949

Keywords: Petroleum products, price smoothing, fuel taxes, price, prices, retail, pricing, volatility

Many developing and emerging countries do not fully pass-through increases in international fuel prices to domestic retail prices, with adverse consequences for fuel tax revenues and tax volatility. The adoption of...

Measuring Oil-Price Shocks Using Market-Based Information

Measuring Oil-Price Shocks Using Market-Based Information »

Volume/Issue: 2012/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tao Wu , and Michele Cavallo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931810.001

ISBN: 9781463931810

Keywords: Oil Shocks, Market-Based Information, VAR Identification, oil market, opec, equation, oil demand, Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Time-Series Models, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating

We study the effects of oil-price shocks on the U.S. economy combining narrative and quantitative approaches. After examining daily oil-related events since 1984, we classify them into various event types. We then...

The Dynamic Effects of Commodity Prices on Fiscal Performance in Latin America

The Dynamic Effects of Commodity Prices on Fiscal Performance in Latin America »

Volume/Issue: 2010/192

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Leandro Medina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455202263.001

ISBN: 9781455202263

Keywords: procyclicality, fiscal positions, exporting countries, price fluctuations, National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General,

The recent boom and bust in commodity prices has raised concerns about the impact of volatile commodity prices on Latin American countries' fiscal positions. Using a novel quarterly data set-which includes unique c...

Inflation Targeting and the Crisis
			: An Empirical Assessment

Inflation Targeting and the Crisis : An Empirical Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 2010/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Irineu de Carvalho Filho

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451963045.001

ISBN: 9781451963045

Keywords: economic crisis, inflation, terms of trade, real interest rates, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, Business Fluctuations, And Cycles, money And Interest Rates,

This paper appraises how countries with inflation targeting fared during the current crisis, with the goal of establishing the stylized facts that will guide and motivate future research. We find that since August...

Elasticity Optimism

Elasticity Optimism »

Volume/Issue: 2009/279

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451874242.001

ISBN: 9781451874242

Keywords: Trade Elasticities, Heterogeneity, Calibration, International Portfolio, elasticity of substitution, equation, measurement error, import prices,

In most macroeconomic models, the substitutability between domestic and foreign goods is calibrated using aggregated data. This imposes homogeneous elasticities across goods, and the calibration is only valid under...

Commodity Terms of Trade
			: The History of Booms and Busts

Commodity Terms of Trade : The History of Booms and Busts »

Volume/Issue: 2009/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873528.001

ISBN: 9781451873528

Keywords: commodity booms, commodity busts, commodity exporters, exporters, Trade: General, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

We compile a historical dataset covering nearly 40 years of booms and busts in the commodity terms of trade of over 150 countries. We discuss the characteristics of these events and their effects on macroeconomic p...

The Quality of Public Investment

The Quality of Public Investment »

Volume/Issue: 2009/154

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shankha Chakraborty , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451873016.001

ISBN: 9781451873016

Keywords: Public Capital, private capital, investment spending, public investment spending, increasing returns,

This paper develops a growth model with specialized goods where inefficient and corrupt bureaucracies interact with the provision of public investment services in affecting the productivity of private capital, spec...

Emerging Market Spread Compression
			: Is it Real or is it Liquidity?

Emerging Market Spread Compression : Is it Real or is it Liquidity? »

Volume/Issue: 2008/10

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laura Kodres , Kristian Hartelius , and Kenichiro Kashiwase

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868722.001

ISBN: 9781451868722

Keywords: Sovereign Spreads, Fundamentals, bond, bond spreads, market bond, emerging market bond, standard deviation,

Despite recent turmoil, spreads on emerging market countries' sovereign bonds have fallen dramatically since mid-2002. Some have attributed the fall to improved economic fundamentals while others to ample global li...

Testing the Transparency Benefits of Inflation Targeting
			: Evidence from Private Sector Forecasts

Testing the Transparency Benefits of Inflation Targeting : Evidence from Private Sector Forecasts »

Volume/Issue: 2006/289

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christopher Crowe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865493.001

ISBN: 9781451865493

Keywords: inflation forecasts, central bank transparency, propensity score matching, central bank, Asymmetric and Private Information,

I test whether inflation targeting (IT) enhances transparency using inflation forecast data for 11 IT adoption countries. IT adoption promotes convergence in forecast errors, suggesting that it enhances transparenc...

FMI Bulletin Vol.35, No.02 Janvier 2006

FMI Bulletin Vol.35, No.02 Janvier 2006 »

Volume/Issue: 35/2

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 January 2006

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451976014.023

ISBN: 9781451976014

Keywords: monetary fund

With its keen focus on the IMF's work and top macroeconomic and international financial issues, the IMF Survey provides analyses of country, regional, and global developments; insights into Fund operations, policie...

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.2 enero 2006
			:

Boletín del FMI Vol.35, No.2 enero 2006 : »

Volume/Issue: 35/2

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 January 2006

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451943573.023

ISBN: 9781451943573

La edición del Boletín del FMI para la web se actualiza varias veces a la semana, y contiene una amplia variedad de artículos sobre temas de actualidad en materia de políticas y economía. Conozca las últimas invest...

FMI Bulletin Vol.35, No.01 Janvier 2006

FMI Bulletin Vol.35, No.01 Janvier 2006 »

Volume/Issue: 35/1

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 January 2006

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451975949.023

ISBN: 9781451975949

Keywords: monetary fund

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Can Higher Reserves Help Reduce Exchange Rate Volatility?

Can Higher Reserves Help Reduce Exchange Rate Volatility? »

Volume/Issue: 2004/189

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): M. Nowak , Ketil Hviding , and Luca Ricci

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451859645.001

ISBN: 9781451859645

Keywords: Foreign exchange volatility, reserve adequacy, exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, effective exchange rate, exchange rate regime, real effective exchange rate, International Finance: General,

This paper studies the role of an increase in foreign exchange reserves in reducing currency volatility for emerging market countries. The study employs a panel of 28 countries over the period 1986-2002. Several co...

Keeping Capital Flowing
			: The Role of the IMF

Keeping Capital Flowing : The Role of the IMF »

Volume/Issue: 2004/197

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Bordo , Ashoka Mody , and Nienke Oomes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451860047.001

ISBN: 9781451860047

Keywords: catalytic finance, capital markets, international capital markets, international capital, access to international capital, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

In this paper, we examine the IMF's role in maintaining the access of emerging market economies to international capital markets. We find evidence that both macroeconomic aggregates and capital flows improve follow...

Predicting Sovereign Debt Crises

Predicting Sovereign Debt Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2003/221

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Axel Schimmelpfennig , Nouriel Roubini , and Paolo Manasse

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451875256.001

ISBN: 9781451875256

Keywords: Early-warning system, sovereign debt crises, sovereign default, debt crisis, external debt, debt crises, short-term debt, currency crisis, General Outlook and Conditions, Forecasting and Other Model Applications

We develop an early-warning model of sovereign debt crises. A country is defined to be in a debt crisis if it is classified as being in default by Standard & Poor's, or if it has access to nonconcessional IMF finan...

Rating the Rating Agencies
			: Anticipating Currency Crises or Debt Crises?

Rating the Rating Agencies : Anticipating Currency Crises or Debt Crises? »

Volume/Issue: 2003/122

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Amadou Sy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854510.001

ISBN: 9781451854510

Keywords: Crisis, distress, early-warning systems, probability of default, ratings, currency crises, currency crisis, debt crises, bond, sovereign default

In contrast to the early-warning system literature, we find that currency and debt crises are not closely linked in emerging markets. We find that after 1994, credit ratings predict debt crises but fail to anticipa...

Currency Crises
			: In Search of Common Elements

Currency Crises : In Search of Common Elements »

Volume/Issue: 2000/67

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ranil Salgado , Jahangir Aziz , and Francesco Caramazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848892.001

ISBN: 9781451848892

Keywords: Currency Crises, outliers, banking crises, standard deviations, standard deviation

The paper seeks to identify common characteristics among a variety of macroeconomic and financial variables for a large sample of currency crises in industrial countries and emerging market economies. It covers cri...

Does Deposit Insurance Increase Banking System Stability?

Does Deposit Insurance Increase Banking System Stability? »

Volume/Issue: 2000/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Asli Demirgüç-Kunt , and Enrica Detragiache

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451841893.001

ISBN: 9781451841893

Keywords: G28, G21, E44, deposit insurance, banking, banking crisis, banking crises, bank stability

This study analyzes panel data for 61 countries during 1980–97 and concludes that explicit deposit insurance tends to be detrimental to bank stability, the more so where bank interest rates are deregulated a...

External Vulnerability in Emerging Market Economies
			: How High Liquidity Can Offset Weak Fundamentals and the Effects of Contagion

External Vulnerability in Emerging Market Economies : How High Liquidity Can Offset Weak Fundamentals and the Effects of Contagion »

Volume/Issue: 1999/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Mulder , and Matthieu Bussière

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851144.001

ISBN: 9781451851144

Keywords: Vulnerability indicators, economic crises, emerging markets, short-term debt, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, current account deficit

This paper investigates the factors behind the 1994 and 1997 crises and whether these can explain the 1998 crisis. The study reveals that: (i) variables used in an Early Warning System model developed by IMF staff...

Monetary Impact of a Banking Crisis and the Conduct of Monetary Policy

Monetary Impact of a Banking Crisis and the Conduct of Monetary Policy »

Volume/Issue: 1997/124

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alicia García-Herrero

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451854688.001

ISBN: 9781451854688

Keywords: banking, banking crisis, inflation, banking system, central bank

The experiences of seven countries that have undergone banking crises show that crises have significant implications for the short-run stability of the demand for money, the money multiplier, the transmission mecha...

Bank Soundness and Macroeconomic Policy

Bank Soundness and Macroeconomic Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Matthew Saal , Carl-Johan Lindgren , and G. Garcia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 September 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755995.071

ISBN: 9781557755995

Keywords: banking, loans, banking system, interest, banking sector

Banking sector problems have plagued over 130 of the IMF's member countries since 1980. Developing and industrial market economies alike have been affected, as have all the economies in transition. This volume, by...

Capital Account Convertibility
			: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies

Capital Account Convertibility : Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Owen Evens , and Peter Quirk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755247.084

ISBN: 9781557755247

Keywords: capital movements, capital account, capital account liberalization, capital inflows, capital controls

The paper summarizes the main issues arising from experiences of industrial and developing countries with capital account liberalization and it examines the IMF's treatment of capital controls in its surveillance,...

Linkages Between Financial Variables, Financial Sector Reform and Economic Growth and Efficiency

Linkages Between Financial Variables, Financial Sector Reform and Economic Growth and Efficiency »

Volume/Issue: 1995/103

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): R. Johnston , and Ceyla Pazarbasioglu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451948110.001

ISBN: 9781451948110

Keywords: financial sector, financial reforms, crisis countries, financial intermediation, financial crisis

This paper analyzes the different channels through which financial variables and financial sector reform can affect economic growth and efficiency, using panel data for 40 countries which reformed their financial s...

Private Market Financing for Developing Countries

Private Market Financing for Developing Countries »

Series: World Economic and Financial Surveys

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755261.083

ISBN: 9781557755261

Keywords: debt, interest, bonds, bond, payments

This study surveys recent trends in private market financing for developing countries. In addition to examining developments in flows to developing countries through banking and securites markets, it analyzes the i...

Information Asymmetries in Developing Country Financing

Information Asymmetries in Developing Country Financing »

Volume/Issue: 1994/79

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): George Anayotos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451955781.001

ISBN: 9781451955781

Keywords: risk sharing, moral hazard, information asymmetries, capital markets, capital market

This paper assesses the impact of information asymmetries on developing country financing and considers alternative techniques to reduce the adverse implications of such asymmetries. Following an introduction, Sect...

Restructuring of Commercial Bank Debt by Developing Countries
			: Lessons from Recent Experience

Restructuring of Commercial Bank Debt by Developing Countries : Lessons from Recent Experience »

Volume/Issue: 1993/7

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Mohamed El-Erian , and Charles Collyns

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971187.003

ISBN: 9781451971187

Keywords: debt reduction, debt restructuring, bank debt, debt service, debt service reduction

A number of developing countries, including some of the largest debtors, have recently completed comprehensive debt and debt service restructuring packages with their commercial bank creditors. The experience of th...

Trade Dependency, Bargaining and External Debt

Trade Dependency, Bargaining and External Debt »

Volume/Issue: 1988/90

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 October 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451951820.001

ISBN: 9781451951820

Keywords: bargaining, dependency, intermediate products, external finance, bargaining power

This paper analyzes the factors determining the payment on outstanding debt in the presence of partial defaults, and the feasibility of renewed investment. We show that a higher relative size of sectors with lower...

Statistical Issues of Debt Conversions

Statistical Issues of Debt Conversions »

Volume/Issue: 1988/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 March 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451981056.001

ISBN: 9781451981056

Keywords: central bank, debt conversion, external debt, debtor country, debt conversions

This paper examines two aspects of debt conversions. First, it examines general aspects of secondary markets of developing countries’ bank debt, and the debt conversions that have taken place in a number of...