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Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2015/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Wolfgang Bergthaler , Kenneth Kang , Yan Liu , and Dermot Monaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498384834.006

ISBN: 9781498384834

Keywords: Corporate sector, Debt restructuring, Business enterprises, Bankruptcy, Europe, Economic recovery, Insolvency, Non-performing loans, SME, debt distress

The global financial crisis has left a large private sector debt overhang and high levels of non- performing loans (NPLs) in several European countries. Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) represent a signific...

Fair Play
			: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation

Fair Play : More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Christian Gonzales , Sonali Jain-Chandra , Kalpana Kochhar , and Monique Newiak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354424.006

ISBN: 9781498354424

Keywords: Labor force participation, Gender equality, Women, female labor force participation, gender equity, legal rights, gender, labor force, female labor, Participación en la fuerza laboral;Mujeres;Igualdad de género;Mercados de trabajo;Reformas del mercado laboral;Aspectos económicos de la familia;Análisis entre países

This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel dat...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354138.084

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Fiscal Space

Fiscal Space »

Volume/Issue: 2010/11

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , Jun Kim , and Mahvash Qureshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455228010.004

ISBN: 9781455228010

Keywords: Developed countries, Debt management, Public debt, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, debt dynamics, debt, interest, primary balance

In this note, the authors reexamine the issue of debt sustainability in a large group of advanced economies. Their hypothesis is that, when debt is in a moderate range, its dynamics are sustainable in the sense tha...

Tax Amnesties
			: Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067363.058

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Protecting Bank Deposits

Protecting Bank Deposits »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756428.051

ISBN: 9781557756428

Keywords: deposit insurance, banking, banking system, bank managers, insurance system

Banking crises have led many countries to consider deposit insuranceschemes to protect depositors and the banking system itself from the impact of bank failures. But should society be unconditionally responsible fo...

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756206.084

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This paper discusses a study analyzing aging populations and public pension schemes. An aging society is characterized by a growing proportion of the retired to the active working population. The study examines the...

Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade

Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750655.084

ISBN: 9781557750655

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate variability, trade flows, exchange rate movements

In View of the continuation of substantial movements in exchange rate relationships among major currencies, the recent increase in protectionist pressures, and the disappointing performance of world trade, renewed...