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Multi-Country Report
			: Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report

Multi-Country Report : Building Fiscal Capacity in Fragile States-Case Studies-Press Release; Staff Report »

Volume/Issue: 2017/153

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484303719.002

ISBN: 9781484303719

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Europe, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mali, Middle East, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sub-Saharan Africa

This report reviews the IMF's effort to build fiscal capacity in fragile states. It presents case studies on IMF technical assistance (TA) and capacity development in the fiscal area, provided by its Fiscal Affairs...

Non-Linear Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Emerging Markets

Non-Linear Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/1

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesca Caselli , and Agustin Roitman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513578262.001

ISBN: 9781513578262

Keywords: Non-Linearities, exchange rate, depreciation, inflation targeting, exchange rate movements, Models with Panel Data, General, All Countries,, Exchange rate pass-through, Foreign exchange

This paper estimates exchange rate pass-through to consumer prices in emerging markets focusing on non-linearities and asymmetries. We document non-linearities and asymmetries in the transmission of exchange rate f...

Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513567754.071

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

Rethinking Financial Deepening
			: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets

Rethinking Financial Deepening : Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Martin Cihak , Papa N'Diaye , Adolfo Barajas , Diana Ayala Pena , Ran Bi , Yuan Gao , Annette Kyobe , Lam Nguyen , Christian Saborowski , Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Reza Yousefi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312615.006

ISBN: 9781498312615

Keywords: Economic growth, Emerging markets, Financial stability, financial development, financial deepening, financial inclusion, finance, General, Government Policy and Regulation, Estabilidad financiera; Crecimiento económico; Desarrollo del mercado de capitales; Acceso a los mercados de capitales; Mercados emergentes

The global financial crisis experience shone a spotlight on the dangers of financial systems that have grown too big too fast. This note reexamines financial deepening, focusing on what emerging markets can learn f...

Fair Weather or Foul? The Macroeconomic Effects of El Niño

Fair Weather or Foul? The Macroeconomic Effects of El Niño »

Volume/Issue: 2015/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , Kamiar Mohaddes , and Mehdi Raissi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475535495.001

ISBN: 9781475535495

Keywords: El Ni&;amp;#x00F1;o weather shocks, oil and non-fuel commodity prices, global macroeconometric modeling, international business cycle, prices, inflation, variables, gdp, trade, Time-Series Models

This paper employs a dynamic multi-country framework to analyze the international macroeconomic transmission of El Niño weather shocks. This framework comprises 21 country/region-specific models, estimated over the...

Fair Play
			: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation

Fair Play : More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Christian Gonzales , Sonali Jain-Chandra , Kalpana Kochhar , and Monique Newiak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354424.006

ISBN: 9781498354424

Keywords: Labor force participation, Gender equality, Women, female labor force participation, gender equity, legal rights, gender, labor force, female labor, Participación en la fuerza laboral;Mujeres;Igualdad de género;Mercados de trabajo;Reformas del mercado laboral;Aspectos económicos de la familia;Análisis entre países

This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel dat...

IMF Financial Operations 2014

IMF Financial Operations 2014 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318928.071

ISBN: 9781484318928

Keywords: debt relief, balance of payments, central bank, general resources account, monetary fund, IFO

IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also pr...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014
			: From stabilization to sustainable growth

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2014 : From stabilization to sustainable growth »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498315357.011

ISBN: 9781498315357

Keywords: Annual reports, Administrative and Capital budgets, Bilateral surveillance, External training programs, Executive Board, Financial sector surveillance, IMF, IMF Finance, IMF Lending, Fund budget

Seven years after the onset of the global financial crisis, the world still has a way to go to secure a sustainable recovery marked by strong growth that supports rapid job creation and benefits all, International...

Emerging Market Volatility
			: Lessons from The Taper Tantrum

Emerging Market Volatility : Lessons from The Taper Tantrum »

Volume/Issue: 2014/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Vivek Arora , Athanasios Arvanitis , Hamid Faruqee , Papa N'Diaye , and Tommaso Mancini Griffoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498318204.006

ISBN: 9781498318204

Keywords: Monetary policy, Emerging markets, United States, Capital flows, Financial markets, Capital market volatility, Macroprudential Policy, Developed countries, Tapering, unconventional monetary policy

Accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies have spurred increased capital inflows into emerging markets since the global financial crisis. Starting in May 2013, when the Federal Reserve publicly discusse...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2013 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484366806.012

ISBN: 9781484366806

Keywords: Exchange rate adjustments, Exchange rate appreciation, Exchange rate assessments, Exchange rate developments, Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate depreciation, Exchange rate guarantees, Exchange rate indicators, Exchange rate indexes, Exchange rate management

This is the 64th issue of the AREAER. It provides a description of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It also provides information on th...

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

Iwf 2013 Internationaler Währungsfonds Jahresbericht 2013 Die Globale Konjunkturerholung Sichern Und Stärken : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 October 2013

Language: German

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484362785.011

ISBN: 9781484362785

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows, balance of payments, debt sustainability, management of capital flows, risk management, internal audit

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013
			: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2013 : Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475515398.011

ISBN: 9781475515398

Keywords: financial stability, financial sector, debt relief, public debt, capital flows

The IMF's 2013 Annual Report chronicles the response of the institution's Executive Board and staff to the global financial crisis and other events during financial year 2013, which covers the period from May 1, 20...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

Two Targets, Two Instruments
			: Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies

Two Targets, Two Instruments : Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies in Emerging Market Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2012/1

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , and Marcos Chamon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475503623.006

ISBN: 9781475503623

Keywords: Emerging markets, Exchange rate policy, Central banks, Inflation targeting, Foreign exchange intervention, Monetary policy, exchange rate, inflation, central bank, foreign exchange

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America

Managing Abundance to Avoid a Bust in Latin America »

Volume/Issue: 2011/7

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Martin Kaufman , Steven Phillips , Rodrigo Valdes , and Nicolas Eyzaguirre

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463926557.006

ISBN: 9781463926557

Keywords: Capital inflows, Latin America, capital controls, prudential tools, current account, capital account restrictions, current account deficits, capital account,

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Reconstructing the World Economy

Reconstructing the World Economy »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Il SaKong , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069770.072

ISBN: 9781589069770

Keywords: inflation, current account, financial system, central bank, monetary policy

This volume presents papers from a conference organized by the Korea Development Institute and the IMF. The purpose of this high-level conference was for policymakers and academics from the Asian region and from G-...

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies
			: Targeting Emerging Economies

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067967.084

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066380.084

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Moving to a Flexible Exchange Rate
			: How, When, and How Fast?

Moving to a Flexible Exchange Rate : How, When, and How Fast? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Rupa Duttagupta , Cem Karacadag , and Gilda Fernandez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064768.051

ISBN: 9781589064768

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, foreign currency, foreign exchange market

A growing number of countries are adopting flexible exchange rate regimes because flexibility offers more protection against external shocks and greater monetary independence. Other countries have made the transiti...

The Design of IMF-Supported Programs

The Design of IMF-Supported Programs »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Christofides , Atish Ghosh , Uma Ramakrishnan , Alun Thomas , Laura Papi , Juan Zalduendo , and Jun Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061934.084

ISBN: 9781589061934

Keywords: current account, current account balance, inflation, capital account, balance of payments

This collection of papers examines IMF-supported programs over the period 1995-2000 in both middle-income and low-income countries. In order to seek insights from a comparison across different types of programs, th...

Dollars, Debt, and Deficits
			: Sixty Years After Bretton Woods

Dollars, Debt, and Deficits : Sixty Years After Bretton Woods »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064539.072

ISBN: 9781589064539

Keywords: Deficit financing, Budget deficits, exchange rate, public debt, foreign assets, current account, foreign liabilities

This book examines the challenges facing the international monetary and financial system, as well as the future role of the Bretton Woods institutions in addressing those challenges. The volume is based on the proc...

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Clark , Shang-Jin Wei , Natalia Tamirisa , Azim Sadikov , and Li Zeng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063587.084

ISBN: 9781589063587

Keywords: Capital flows, Exchange rates, Trade, exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, real exchange rate, bilateral trade

The effect of exchange rate volatility on trade flows was examined by a 1984 IMF study on G-7 countries. Over the past two decades, many developments in the world economy, such as the currency crises in the 1990s a...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062184.012

ISBN: 9781589062184

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2003 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2002

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2002 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061255.012

ISBN: 9781589061255

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, direct investment, forward exchange, foreign investment, exchange control

This 2002 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

Financial Risks, Stability, and Globalization

Financial Risks, Stability, and Globalization »

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Omotunde Johnson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060128.072

ISBN: 9781589060128

Keywords: Financial stability, Risk premium, banking, financial system, financial sector, regulation, financial institutions

This book covers financial sector stability issues in the following areas: risk management and governance in financial institutions; financial crises and contagion; domestic monetary and financial policies; and int...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060678.054

ISBN: 9781589060678

Keywords: SDR Department, Fund, Fund general resources, Fund financial position, currency, currencies, reserve, interest, quota

This pamphlet describes the financial structure and operations of the IMF, as well as the sources of IMF financing, the policies associated with the use of IMF resources, the role of the IMF as trustee to various a...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2000

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2000 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758989.012

ISBN: 9781557758989

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, exchange rate, forward exchange, foreign investment, exchange control

The exchange and trade systems of IMF member countries are presented in this comprehensive volume in a tabular format. There is expanded coverage of the regulatory framework for capital movements. The information g...

Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy

Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Andrew Berg , Paolo Mauro , Michael Mussa , Alexander Swoboda , Esteban Jadresic , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 August 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758927.084

ISBN: 9781557758927

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate regime, exchange rate regimes, transition countries

This paper examines the consequences of heightened capital mobility and of the integration of developing economies in increasingly globalized markets for the exchange rate regimes of the industrial, developing, and...

Capital Controls
			: Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization

Capital Controls : Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Akira Ariyoshi , Andrei Kirilenko , Inci Ötker , Bernard Laurens , Jorge Canales Kriljenko , and Karl Habermeier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 May 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758743.084

ISBN: 9781557758743

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, capital controls, capital flows, foreign exchange

This paper examines country experiences with the use and liberalization of capital controls to develop a deeper understanding of the role of capital controls in coping with volatile capital flows, as well as the is...

Anticipating Balance of Payments Crises--The Role of Early Warning Systems
			: The Role of Early Warning Systems

Anticipating Balance of Payments Crises--The Role of Early Warning Systems : The Role of Early Warning Systems »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Catherine Pattillo , Andrew Berg , Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Eduardo Borensztein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758286.084

ISBN: 9781557758286

Keywords: currency crises, probability, balance of payments, contagion, currency crisis

Recent years have witnessed an increase in the frequency of currency and balance of payments crises in developing countries. More important, the crises have become more virulent, have caused widespread disruption t...

Exit Strategies
			: Policy Options for Countries Seeking Exchange Rate Flexibility

Exit Strategies : Policy Options for Countries Seeking Exchange Rate Flexibility »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Barry Eichengreen , Inci Ötker , A. Hamann , Esteban Jadresic , R. Johnston , Hugh Bredenkamp , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757340.084

ISBN: 9781557757340

Keywords: exchange rate, inflation, exchange rate regime, monetary policy, monetary fund

In a world of increasing capital mobility and broadening and more diversified trade, many (but not all) developing and transition economies are likely to find it desirable to move from relatively fixed exchange rat...

Exchange Rate Assessment
			: Extension of the Macroeconomic Balance Approach

Exchange Rate Assessment : Extension of the Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Isard , and Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757319.084

ISBN: 9781557757319

Keywords: Exchange rates, current account, exchange rate, real exchange rate, current accounts

The IMF's internal analysis of exchange rate issues has been guided by, and limited by, the conceptual and empirical frameworks that have emerged from the collective research of the economics profession. The resear...

Fixed or Flexible
			: Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible : Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756923.051

ISBN: 9781557756923

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

This paper examines the recent evolution of exchange rate policies inthe developing world. It looks at why so many countries have made a transition from fixed or "pegged" exchange rates to "managed floating"currenc...

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (Revised 1998)

Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF (Revised 1998) »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463904180.054

ISBN: 9781463904180

Keywords: balance of payments, reserve tranche, repurchases, general resources account, credit tranche

This paper discusses the financial organization and operations of the IMF. The policies and activities of the IMF are guided by its charter, known as the Articles of Agreement. The IMF is unique among intergovernme...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1997

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1997 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756664.012

ISBN: 9781557756664

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, exchange rate, exchange control, forward exchange, foreign investment

This 1997 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange restrictions of individual member countries, including Hong Kong,...

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756008.084

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass not only a wide geographic area but also broad differences in stages of economic development, including among them some of the fastes...

Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries
			: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies

Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries : Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kalpana Kochhar , Erik Offerdal , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Mauro Mecagni , Jianping Zhou , Balázs Horváth , David Goldsbrough , and Sharmini Coorey

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 August 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755599.084

ISBN: 9781557755599

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, private investment, external financing, wages

This study examines the links between adjustment policies and growth in a small group of developing countries- Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, and Thailand - during 1970 -93. It provides...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1996 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942712.012

ISBN: 9781451942712

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment, foreign exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Capital Account Convertibility
			: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies

Capital Account Convertibility : Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Owen Evens , and Peter Quirk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755247.084

ISBN: 9781557755247

Keywords: capital movements, capital account, capital account liberalization, capital inflows, capital controls

The paper summarizes the main issues arising from experiences of industrial and developing countries with capital account liberalization and it examines the IMF's treatment of capital controls in its surveillance,...

Improving the International Monetary System
			: Constraints and Possibilities

Improving the International Monetary System : Constraints and Possibilities »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Morris Goldstein , Donald Mathieson , Tamim Bayoumi , Michael Mussa , and Peter Clark

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754448.084

ISBN: 9781557754448

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, capital markets, international capital markets, international capital

This study addresses major policy issues associated with the future of the international monetary system. It focuses on whether there is a need for fundamental reform of this system, defined as systematic and susta...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1995 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942651.012

ISBN: 9781451942651

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, direct investment, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals
			: A Framework for Analysis

Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals : A Framework for Analysis »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Steven Symansky , Peter Clark , Leonardo Bartolini , and Tamim Bayoumi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754516.084

ISBN: 9781557754516

Keywords: Exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, current account, real exchange rates

This paper summarizes the methods and types of indicators that are often employed, both insid and outside the IMF, to assess whether exchange rates are broadly in line with economic fundamentals....

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1994

International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1994 »

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451944938.011

ISBN: 9781451944938

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, current account balance, repurchases, current account deficit

The Annual Report to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during any given year. There are five chapters: (1) Overview, (2) Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets, (3)...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1994

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1994 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942606.012

ISBN: 9781451942606

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange rates, foreign currencies, exchange transactions, foreign bank, foreign trade

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

The Capital Inflows Problem
			: Concepts and Issues

The Capital Inflows Problem : Concepts and Issues »

Volume/Issue: 1993/10

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Carmen Reinhart , Leonardo Leiderman , and Guillermo Calvo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451969931.003

ISBN: 9781451969931

Keywords: Inflation, capital inflows, exchange rate, real exchange rate, capital inflow, exchange rate appreciation

Since 1990 capital has started to move from industrial countries to developing regions like Latin America, the Middle East and parts of Asia. Reentry into international capital markets is a welcome turn of events f...

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries
			: Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility

Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries : Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): F. Rozwadowski , Siddharth Tiwari , David Robinson , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753366.084

ISBN: 9781557753366

Keywords: current account, export prices, export volume, external debt, terms of trade

This paper evaluates progress made under ESAF-supported programs in attaining external viability, restoring economic growth, and implementing structural reforms. Performance is evaluated for 19 countries that enter...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1993

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1993 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942545.012

ISBN: 9781451942545

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, exchange transactions, foreign currencies, exchange rates, foreign trade, direct investments

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System

Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mark Taylor , Peter Isard , Morris Goldstein , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752345.084

ISBN: 9781557752345

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, inflation, monetary fund, monetary union

How can international monetary stability be promoted? This study looks at ways to bolster economic policies and coordination among the industrial countries serving as nominal anchors for the world economy. It also...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1992

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1992 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942491.012

ISBN: 9781451942491

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, exchange rates, exchange transactions, foreign trade, direct investment

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System

Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Masson , Morris Goldstein , and Jacob Frenkel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752154.084

ISBN: 9781557752154

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, current account, inflation, monetary fund

This study identifies the key characteristics of a successful exchange rate system. It focuses on regimes in the industrial countries and consider the implications for the operation of the international monetary sy...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1991

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1991 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942446.012

ISBN: 9781451942446

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, exchange transactions, direct investment

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Managing Financial Risks in indebted Developing Countries
			: Occa Paper No.65

Managing Financial Risks in indebted Developing Countries : Occa Paper No.65 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1989

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557751164.084

ISBN: 9781557751164

Keywords: hedging, futures contracts, hedge, futures contract, futures markets

This paper examines the types of market-related hedging instruments that could potentially be useful to indebted developing countries as they seek to manage the financial risks created by variability of the prices...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1988

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1988 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1988

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451942262.012

ISBN: 9781451942262

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaç...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1987

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1987 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 August 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934973.012

ISBN: 9780939934973

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange rate, exchange control, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

This report discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1986 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1987. The report highlights...

Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries
			: Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets

Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries : Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kyong Huh , Benedicte Christensen , Peter Quirk , and Toshihiko Sasaki

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934898.084

ISBN: 9780939934898

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, exchange rates, floating exchange rate, floating exchange rates

In recent years, an increasing number of developing countries have adopted market-determined floating exchange rates. This development has represented a significant step forward in the evolution toward exchange rat...

Strengthening the International Monetary System
			: Exchange Rates, Surveillance, and Objective Indicators

Strengthening the International Monetary System : Exchange Rates, Surveillance, and Objective Indicators »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Andrew Crockett , and Morris Goldstein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 February 1987

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934768.084

ISBN: 9780939934768

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate policies, balance of payments, exchange rate system

This report comprises three papers written by staff members of the Fund's Research Department on issues arising out of the reports on the international monetary system prepared in 1985 by the Group of Ten (represen...

Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934645.084

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

This is the third in a group of three papers dealing with various aspects of Fund-supported adjustment programs....

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1986

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1986 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1986

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352004.012

ISBN: 9781616352004

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange control, exchange rate, foreign investment, foreign currencies, foreign trade, exchange rates, direct investment, exchange transactions

This report describes developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1985 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1986. The report highlights...

Formulation of Exchange Rate Policies in Adjustment Programs

Formulation of Exchange Rate Policies in Adjustment Programs »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9780939934508.084

ISBN: 9780939934508

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rate policy, exchange rate action, exchange rate policies, effective exchange rate

The role of exchange rate policy in economic adjustment has been widely studied and is the subject of numerous theoretical and empirical papers produced in the Fund and elsewhere....

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1985

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1985 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1985

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352011.012

ISBN: 9781616352011

Keywords: foreign exchange, foreign currency, exchange control, exchange rate, foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign currencies, direct investment, exchange rates, exchange transactions

This paper discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. Global output and trade recovered strongly in 1984, as inflation in the industrial countries remained relatively...

The Exchange Rate System
			: Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future

The Exchange Rate System : Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750648.084

ISBN: 9781557750648

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate system, exchange rate movements, balance of payments

The last few years have witnessed a resurgence of calls for a re-examination, or perhaps even a reform, of the international monetary system. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on that subject in three wa...

Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade

Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750655.084

ISBN: 9781557750655

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate variability, trade flows, exchange rate movements

In View of the continuation of substantial movements in exchange rate relationships among major currencies, the recent increase in protectionist pressures, and the disappointing performance of world trade, renewed...

Issues in the Assessment of the Exchange Rates of Industrial Countries

Issues in the Assessment of the Exchange Rates of Industrial Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 July 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750761.084

ISBN: 9781557750761

Keywords: Developed countries, Exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, capital flows, effective exchange rate

In its surveillance activities, the Fund is frequently confronted with the difficult problem of how to identify exchange rate behavior that is unrelated to underlying economic and financial conditions and, conseque...

World Economic Outlook

World Economic Outlook »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 1984

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557750853.084

ISBN: 9781557750853

Keywords: current account, balance of payments, current account deficit, exporting countries, debt service

Although still beset with many problems, the world economy took a decided turn for the better in 1983....

Compensatory Financing Facility

Compensatory Financing Facility »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 1980

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451926767.054

ISBN: 9781451926767

Keywords: export earnings, balance of payments, export shortfalls, total export, merchandise exports

This paper examines compensatory financing facility in the IMF. Compensatory financing facilities are easy to administer and can give immediate relief to primary exporting countries when their export earnings fall....

Thoughts on An international Monetary Fund Based Fully on the SDR

Thoughts on An international Monetary Fund Based Fully on the SDR »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1979

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451946246.054

ISBN: 9781451946246

Keywords: reserve tranche, monetary fund, reserve tranche positions, reserve positions, balance of payments

This paper discusses the possibility of an IMF that would be based fully on the special drawing right (SDR). The paper explores the basic economic justification for a General Department restructured in this way, th...