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How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices

How to Adjust to a Large Fall in Commodity Prices »

Volume: 16

Series: Fiscal Affairs Department How-To Notes

Author(s): Paulo Medas , Veronique Salins , and Jeff Danforth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475536065.061

ISBN: 9781475536065

Keywords: Asia and Pacific, Canada, Chile, Commodity prices, Malaysia, Natural resources, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Hemisphere, Commodity boom

Resource-rich countries have to manage highly volatile commodity revenues. In periods of revenue booms there is a tendency for large spending scale-ups. When facing large and persistent reductions in commodity pric...

Rethinking Financial Deepening
			: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets

Rethinking Financial Deepening : Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2015/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Martin Cihak , Papa N'Diaye , Adolfo Barajas , Diana Ayala Pena , Ran Bi , Yuan Gao , Annette Kyobe , Lam Nguyen , Christian Saborowski , Katsiaryna Svirydzenka , and Reza Yousefi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498312615.006

ISBN: 9781498312615

Keywords: Economic growth, Emerging markets, Financial stability, financial development, financial deepening, financial inclusion, finance, General, Government Policy and Regulation, Estabilidad financiera; Crecimiento económico; Desarrollo del mercado de capitales; Acceso a los mercados de capitales; Mercados emergentes

The global financial crisis experience shone a spotlight on the dangers of financial systems that have grown too big too fast. This note reexamines financial deepening, focusing on what emerging markets can learn f...

Fair Play
			: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation

Fair Play : More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation »

Volume/Issue: 2015/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Christian Gonzales , Sonali Jain-Chandra , Kalpana Kochhar , and Monique Newiak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498354424.006

ISBN: 9781498354424

Keywords: Labor force participation, Gender equality, Women, female labor force participation, gender equity, legal rights, gender, labor force, female labor, Participación en la fuerza laboral;Mujeres;Igualdad de género;Mercados de trabajo;Reformas del mercado laboral;Aspectos económicos de la familia;Análisis entre países

This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel dat...

Emerging Market Volatility
			: Lessons from The Taper Tantrum

Emerging Market Volatility : Lessons from The Taper Tantrum »

Volume/Issue: 2014/9

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , Vivek Arora , Athanasios Arvanitis , Hamid Faruqee , Papa N'Diaye , and Tommaso Mancini Griffoli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498318204.006

ISBN: 9781498318204

Keywords: Monetary policy, Emerging markets, United States, Capital flows, Financial markets, Capital market volatility, Macroprudential Policy, Developed countries, Tapering, unconventional monetary policy

Accommodative monetary policies in advanced economies have spurred increased capital inflows into emerging markets since the global financial crisis. Starting in May 2013, when the Federal Reserve publicly discusse...

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries
			: A Handbook

Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries : A Handbook »

Series: Books

Author(s): Jack Calder

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475575170.071

ISBN: 9781475575170

Keywords: natural resource, natural resources, natural resource taxes, natural resource taxation, tax authority

This handbook is one of the first of its kind to focus attention on effectively administering revenues from extractive industries. It provides policymakers and officials in developing and emerging market economies...

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013
			: Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World

Fiscal Monitor, April 2013 : Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World »

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475566253.089

ISBN: 9781475566253

Keywords: public debt, government debt, fiscal adjustment, central bank, debt ratios

Continued progress in reducing advanced economy deficits and a gradually improving external environment have lowered short-term fiscal risks, according to this issue, but global prospects nevertheless remain subdue...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354138.084

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Fiscal Space

Fiscal Space »

Volume/Issue: 2010/11

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , Jun Kim , and Mahvash Qureshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455228010.004

ISBN: 9781455228010

Keywords: Developed countries, Debt management, Public debt, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, debt dynamics, debt, interest, primary balance

In this note, the authors reexamine the issue of debt sustainability in a large group of advanced economies. Their hypothesis is that, when debt is in a moderate range, its dynamics are sustainable in the sense tha...

Tax Administration in Small Economies

Tax Administration in Small Economies »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455273416.005

ISBN: 9781455273416

Keywords: tax administration, organization structure, small and micro economies, organizational models, tax administrations, taxpayers, taxes, fiscal affairs

This technical note analyzes tax administration in small economies. Choosing the right organization structure is a key component of any program of tax administration reform and modernization. It creates a solid pla...

Tax Amnesties
			: Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067363.058

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento

Ajuste fiscal para la estabilidad y el crecimiento »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066038.054

ISBN: 9781589066038

Este folleto (que actualiza las Directrices de 1995 para el ajuste fiscal) presenta el enfoque del FMI con respecto al ajuste fiscal, y se centra en la importancia de la solidez de las finanzas públicas para promov...

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth

Fiscal Adjustment for Stability and Growth »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): James Daniel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 August 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065130.054

ISBN: 9781589065130

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, fiscal adjustment, expenditure, public expenditure, aggregate demand

The pamphlet (which updates the 1995 Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustment) presents the IMF's approach to fiscal adjustment, and focuses on the role that sound government finances play in promoting macroeconomic stabil...

Budget System Reform in Emerging Economies
			: The Challenges and the Reform Agenda

Budget System Reform in Emerging Economies : The Challenges and the Reform Agenda »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jack Diamond

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064744.084

ISBN: 9781589064744

Keywords: Budgetary reforms, Public finance, Government accounting, budget management, accrual accounting, performance budgeting, budget systems, budget system

With increasing frequency, the IMF has assisted middle-income countries, especially emerging economies, in adopting the types of budget reforms that have been introduced in many Organization for Economic Cooperatio...

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer

Tax Administration and the Small Taxpayer »

Volume/Issue: 2004/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Parthasarathi Shome

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974577.003

ISBN: 9781451974577

Keywords: Services sector, Tax policy, Tax administration, small taxpayers, large taxpayer units, tax administration and the small taxpayer, taxpayers, income tax, single tax, tax system,

Small taxpayers should pay their appropriate revenue share while their compliance costs should be reduced. This assumes importance as restructuring in emerging markets has meant rapid growth in services through sel...

Cómo se gobierna el FMI
			:  Toma de decisiones, control institucional, transparencia y rendicion de cuentas

Cómo se gobierna el FMI : Toma de decisiones, control institucional, transparencia y rendicion de cuentas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063037.054

ISBN: 9781589063037

El autor -quien ocupó un alto cargo en el FMI durante dos décadas- en primer lugar centra la atención en el sistema de cuotas y la distribución del poder de voto en el FMI y concluye que se requieren reformas para...

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061613.054

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable
			: Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable : Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 2002

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061606.054

ISBN: 9781589061606

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure, primary education, forest, health care, government expenditure, government spending

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy"

Considering the IMF's Perspective on a "Sound Fiscal Policy" »

Volume/Issue: 2002/8

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Peter Heller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451971019.003

ISBN: 9781451971019

Keywords: Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund, fiscal sustainability, fiscal position, fiscal policies, public debt, Fiscal Policies And Behavior Of Economic Agents, Macroeconomic - Aspects Of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy

This paper provides a perspective on how the IMF assesses a “sound fiscal policy,” focusing principally on industrial and emerging market economies. It observes six central criteria: the short-term fi...

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance
			: A Review of Country Experience

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance : A Review of Country Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Olivier Benon , Katherine Baer , and Juan Toro R.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061187.084

ISBN: 9781589061187

Keywords: Taxes, Taxation, tax administration, large taxpayers, tax collection, tax administrations, taxpayer compliance

One area that has not been reviewed in developing countries is the growing focus on different segments of the taxpayer population-including the large taxpayers-as a way to encourage greater stability in public reve...

Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy?

Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy? »

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757906.051

ISBN: 9781557757906

Keywords: fiscal affairs, income distribution, fiscal affairs department, expenditure policy, unskilled workers

Over the past decade, global output has grown by more than 3 percent a year and inflation has slowed in most regions. The fruits of this growthhave not been shared equally, however, and income disparities have grow...

El FMI y la pobreza
			:  Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas

El FMI y la pobreza : Departamento de Finanzas Púlicas »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757869.054

ISBN: 9781557757869

El FMI hace cada vez más hincapié en un "crecimiento de alta calidad" - es decir, un crecimiento que sea sostenible, que esté acompañado de saldos internos y externos apropiados, que respete el medio ambiente y qu...

Le FMI et la pauvreté
			: Département des finances publiques

Le FMI et la pauvreté : Département des finances publiques »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 January 1999

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757852.054

ISBN: 9781557757852

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures, military expenditures, capital expenditures, public expenditure, total expenditures, health expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

The IMF and The Poor

The IMF and The Poor »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Calvin McDonald , Benedict Clements , and Christian Schiller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 September 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757456.054

ISBN: 9781557757456

Keywords: expenditures, public expenditures, expenditure, fiscal policy, social expenditures

The IMF is increasingly emphasizing "high-quality growth" - that is, growth that is sustainable, that is accompanied by appropriate domestic and external balances, that respects the environment, and that is aided b...

Fiscal Policy Rules

Fiscal Policy Rules »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Kopits , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557757043.017

ISBN: 9781557757043

Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal rules, public debt, fiscal policy rules, fiscal rule

What are fiscal policy rules? What are the principal benefits and drawbacks associated with various fiscal rules, particularly compared with alternative approaches to fiscal adjustment? Can fiscal rules contribute...

Transparency in Government Operations

Transparency in Government Operations »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Kopits , and J. Craig

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 February 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756978.084

ISBN: 9781557756978

Keywords: fiscal transparency, fiscal policy, quasi-fiscal activities, fiscal activities, budget process

Transparency in government operations is widely regarded as an important precondition for macroeconomic fiscal sustainability, good governance, and overall fiscal rectitude. Notably, the Interim Committee, at its A...

The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth
			: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies

The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth : Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): George Mackenzie , Philip Gerson , and David Orsmond

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 April 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756299.084

ISBN: 9781557756299

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, fiscal policy, capital expenditure, expenditure management

This study examines the composition of fiscal adjustment - tax and expenditure policies and administrative procedures, and some aspects of public enterprise reform - in a sample of eight countries (Bangladesh, Chil...

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756206.084

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This paper discusses a study analyzing aging populations and public pension schemes. An aging society is characterized by a growing proportion of the retired to the active working population. The study examines the...

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions

Regulatory and Tax Treatment of Loan Loss Provisions »

Volume/Issue: 1996/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972009.003

ISBN: 9781451972009

Keywords: tax authorities, tax treatment, tax deductible, fiscal authorities, tax deductions

Provisioning for loan losses is a method for recognizing the reduction in the value of a hank’s loan portfolio. Provisions are an essential element of prudential risk management and capital adequacy measurem...

Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System

Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mark Taylor , Peter Isard , Morris Goldstein , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752345.084

ISBN: 9781557752345

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, inflation, monetary fund, monetary union

How can international monetary stability be promoted? This study looks at ways to bolster economic policies and coordination among the industrial countries serving as nominal anchors for the world economy. It also...

DTS, monnaies et or
			: Septième exposé sur les changements intervenus dans le domaine juridique

DTS, monnaies et or : Septième exposé sur les changements intervenus dans le domaine juridique »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): Joseph Gold

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1987

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451949520.054

ISBN: 9781451949520

Keywords: court, exchange rate, exchange rates, courts, exchange rate policies, claim, legal developments, court of appeals, supreme court, exchange arrangements

This paper presents the seventh survey of developments in international and national monetary law and practice involving special drawing rights (SDRs), currencies, and gold. The IMF has adopted three published deci...