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Allocating Business Income between Capital and Labor under a Dual Income Tax

Allocating Business Income between Capital and Labor under a Dual Income Tax »

Source: Allocating Business Income between Capital and Labor under a Dual Income Tax : The Case of Iceland

Volume/Issue: 2012/263

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Thornton Matheson , and Pall Kollbeins

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2012

ISBN: 9781475515411

Keywords: Dual income tax, small business taxation, wage, wages, labor income, minimum wage, tax rate, Dual income txa, Business Taxes and Subsidies,

In contrast to most Scandinavian countries, Iceland allocates the income of closely held businesses (CHBs) between capital and labor based on administratively set minimum wages rather than an imputed return to book...

Are Rating Agencies Powerful? An Investigation Into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings

Are Rating Agencies Powerful? An Investigation Into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings »

Source: Are Rating Agencies Powerful? An Investigation Into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings

Volume/Issue: 2012/23

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Kiff , Sylwia Nowak , and Liliana Schumacher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

ISBN: 9781463931858

Keywords: Sovereign ratings, rating agencies, credit ratings, asian crisis, emerging markets, An Investigation into the Impact and Accuracy of Sovereign Ratings, Financial Institutions and Services: General, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation,

We find that Credit Rating Agencies (CRA)'s opinions have an impact in the cost of funding of sovereign issuers and consequently ratings are a concern for financial stability. While ratings produced by the major CR...

The Art of Making Everybody Happy: How to Prevent a Secession

The Art of Making Everybody Happy: How to Prevent a Secession »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 50, No. 3

Volume: 50

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): Robert Flood

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 2003

ISBN: 9781589062030

Keywords: unit root, real exchange rate, confidence intervals, confidence interval, serial correlation

This paper analyzes the issue of purchasing power parity using real effective exchange rate (REER) data for 20 industrial countries in the post-Bretton Woods period. The serial correlation-robust median-unbiased es...

1 Australia

1 Australia »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Compared with most of the smaller industrial economies, Australia has a small external trade sector—foreign trade amounts to approximately 15 percent of GDP. Although this and abundant energy resources have...

2 Austria

2 Austria »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The openness of the Austrian economy, in which foreign trade amounts to approximately one fourth of GDP, makes it vulnerable to external disturbances; consequently, a major aim of fiscal policy has been to s...

Available on the web

Available on the web »

Source: IMF Survey, Volume 31, Issue 19

Volume/Issue: 31/19

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2002

ISBN: 9781451927344

Keywords: trading system, trade barriers, market access, world economy

Improving market access for developing countries is one of the most important steps that rich countries can take in fighting global poverty, according to the chief economists of the World Bank and the IMF. Both ins...

3 Belgium

3 Belgium »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Following several years of strong growth, real GDP declined by almost 2 percent in 1975; after a sharp recovery in 1976, when over 5 percent real growth was registered, economic activity again turned sluggis...

“Big Bang” Versus Gradualism in Economic Reforms: An Intertemporal Analysis with an Application to China

“Big Bang” Versus Gradualism in Economic Reforms: An Intertemporal Analysis with an Application to China »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 50, No. 3

Volume: 50

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): Robert Flood

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 2003

ISBN: 9781589062030

Keywords: unit root, real exchange rate, confidence intervals, confidence interval, serial correlation

This paper analyzes the issue of purchasing power parity using real effective exchange rate (REER) data for 20 industrial countries in the post-Bretton Woods period. The serial correlation-robust median-unbiased es...

Dealing with Private Debt Distress in the Wake of the European Financial Crisis  A Review of the Economics and Legal Toolbox

Dealing with Private Debt Distress in the Wake of the European Financial Crisis A Review of the Economics and Legal Toolbox »

Source: Dealing with Private Debt Distress in the Wake of the European Financial Crisis A Review of the Economics and Legal Toolbox

Volume/Issue: 2013/44

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yan Liu , and Christoph Rosenberg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 February 2013

ISBN: 9781475544305

Keywords: private sector debt, household insolvency, corporate insolvency, insolvency, insolvency law, Personal Bankruptcy Law,

The private non-financial sector in Europe is facing increased challenges in meeting its debt servicing obligation. In response, governments are revisiting legal tools and-in some cases-institutional arrangements t...

4 Denmark

4 Denmark »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The relatively open Danish economy, where foreign trade amounts to 25 to 30 percent of GDP, was severely affected by the two oil crises and the ensuing global recession. Denmark’s heavy dependence on importe...