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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

3. Data

3. Data »

Source: Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

Data Availability 3.1 The BPM5 and the Benchmark recommend that FDI statistics be compiled as part of balance of payments statistics (the transactions data) and inter...

4. Definition of Direct Investment Enterprises and Direct Investors

4. Definition of Direct Investment Enterprises and Direct Investors »

Source: Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

4.1 The BPM5 and the Benchmark define the concept of foreign direct investment as international investment by an entity resident in one economy in an enterprise resi...

6. Direct Investment Capital

6. Direct Investment Capital »

Source: Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

6.1 Direct investment capital is capital provided by a direct investor, either directly or through other direct investment enterprises related to that...

5. Direct Investment Income

5. Direct Investment Income »

Source: Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

Measurement of Direct Investment Earnings 5.1 The Benchmark and the BPM5 recommend the use of the Current Operating Performance Concept (COPC) to measure direct inves...

1. Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

1. Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, but at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. The external environment has become less supportive, with slow...

Executive Summary

Executive Summary »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Economic activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, albeit at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. Domestic demand, supported by stronger employment...

Foreign Direct Investment Statistics
			: How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001 »

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062207.071

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

International standards for measuring foreign direct investment (FDI) have become important in today's global economy, where multinational enterprises exercise economic clout and FDI statistics can reflect investor...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

International standards for measuring foreign direct investment (FDI) have become important in today's global economy, where multinational enterprises exercise economic clout and FDI statistics can reflect investor...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Foreign Direct Investment Statistics : How Countries Measure FDI 2001

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 October 2003

ISBN: 9781589062207

Keywords: direct investment, fdi, investors, international standards, investment income

International standards for measuring foreign direct investment (FDI) have become important in today's global economy, where multinational enterprises exercise economic clout and FDI statistics can reflect investor...