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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

The Effects of European Economic Integration on the Profitability of Industries

The Effects of European Economic Integration on the Profitability of Industries »

Source: The Effects of European Economic Integration on the Profitability of Industries

Volume/Issue: 1998/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

ISBN: 9781451850727

Keywords: Trade Discipline, European Economic Integration, Market Structure, Markups, import penetration, competition, import competition, world price, imperfect competition

This paper examines the effects of intensified international competition on industry profits in six European Union (EU) countries. The paper uses two methods to estimate industry profits. The traditional method use...

Government Subsidies

Government Subsidies »

Source: Government Subsidies : Concepts, International Trends, and Reform Options

Volume/Issue: 1995/91

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gerd Schwartz , Réjane Hugounenq , and Benedict Clements

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1995

ISBN: 9781451851489

Keywords: subsidies, subsidy, cash subsidies, national accounts, subsidization, Fiscal Affairs Department,

This paper addresses the problems of defining and measuring government subsidies, examines why and how government subsidies are used as a fiscal policy tool, assesses their economic effects, appraises international...

Government Subsidies
			: Concepts, International Trends, and Reform Options

Government Subsidies : Concepts, International Trends, and Reform Options »

Volume/Issue: 1995/91

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gerd Schwartz , Réjane Hugounenq , and Benedict Clements

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1995

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451851489.001

ISBN: 9781451851489

Keywords: subsidies, subsidy, cash subsidies, national accounts, subsidization, Fiscal Affairs Department,

This paper addresses the problems of defining and measuring government subsidies, examines why and how government subsidies are used as a fiscal policy tool, assesses their economic effects, appraises international...

Real Exchange Rates and the Prices of Nontradable Goods

Real Exchange Rates and the Prices of Nontradable Goods »

Volume/Issue: 1994/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Micossi , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451922516.001

ISBN: 9781451922516

Keywords: exchange rate, relative price, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This paper attempts to provide a perspective on real exchange rate developments following the inception of the EMS. The focus is on structural determinants of real exchange rates, notably the behavior of tradables...

The Effects of European Economic Integration on the Profitability of Industries

The Effects of European Economic Integration on the Profitability of Industries »

Volume/Issue: 1998/85

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850727.001

ISBN: 9781451850727

Keywords: Trade Discipline, European Economic Integration, Market Structure, Markups, import penetration, competition, import competition, world price, imperfect competition

This paper examines the effects of intensified international competition on industry profits in six European Union (EU) countries. The paper uses two methods to estimate industry profits. The traditional method use...

Real Exchange Rates and the Prices of Nontradable Goods

Real Exchange Rates and the Prices of Nontradable Goods »

Source: Real Exchange Rates and the Prices of Nontradable Goods

Volume/Issue: 1994/19

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Micossi , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 1994

ISBN: 9781451922516

Keywords: exchange rate, relative price, real exchange rate, real exchange rates, inflation

This paper attempts to provide a perspective on real exchange rate developments following the inception of the EMS. The focus is on structural determinants of real exchange rates, notably the behavior of tradables...