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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments »

Volume/Issue: 1991/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Levin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451842456.001

ISBN: 9781451842456

Keywords: expenditures, expenditure, government expenditures, general government expenditures, public finance

To measure subnational governments, only external money flows are counted, excluding intra-level transactions in measuring a level of government and all intergovernmental transactions in measuring general governmen...

Recognizing the Bias
			: Financial Cycles and Fiscal Policy

Recognizing the Bias : Financial Cycles and Fiscal Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2015/246

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nina Budina , Borja Gracia , Xingwei Hu , and Sergejs Saksonovs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513508863.001

ISBN: 9781513508863

Keywords: housing cycles, private debt, debt bias, debt, price, output, prices, International Lending and Debt Problems, All Countries, debt bias.,

This paper argues that asset price cycles have significant effects on fiscal outcomes. In particular, there is evidence of debt bias-the tendency of debt to increase over the cycle- that is significantly larger for...

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments

Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments »

Source: Measuring the Role of Subnational Governments

Volume/Issue: 1991/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Levin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

ISBN: 9781451842456

Keywords: expenditures, expenditure, government expenditures, general government expenditures, public finance

To measure subnational governments, only external money flows are counted, excluding intra-level transactions in measuring a level of government and all intergovernmental transactions in measuring general governmen...

Recognizing the Bias

Recognizing the Bias »

Source: Recognizing the Bias : Financial Cycles and Fiscal Policy

Volume/Issue: 2015/246

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nina Budina , Borja Gracia , Xingwei Hu , and Sergejs Saksonovs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2015

ISBN: 9781513508863

Keywords: housing cycles, private debt, debt bias, debt, price, output, prices, International Lending and Debt Problems, All Countries, debt bias.,

This paper argues that asset price cycles have significant effects on fiscal outcomes. In particular, there is evidence of debt bias-the tendency of debt to increase over the cycle- that is significantly larger for...