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Appendix 1: A Methodology for Assessing Systemic Trade Interconnectedness34

Appendix 1: A Methodology for Assessing Systemic Trade Interconnectedness34 »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

The cross-border transmission of shocks takes place through two main channels: the financial channel and the trade channel. The global crisis has drawn renewed attention to the former with recent IMF Executi...

Appendix 1: Can a High Share of Domestic Debt Improve Public Debt Tolerance?

Appendix 1: Can a High Share of Domestic Debt Improve Public Debt Tolerance? »

Source: Strategies for Fiscal Consolidation in the Post-Crisis World

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Cemile Sancak , Jan Gottschalk , S. M. Ali Abbas , Olivier Basdevant , Ricardo Velloso , Fuad Hasanov , Greetje Everaert , Stephanie Eble , and Junhyung Park

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2010

ISBN: 9781589069374

Keywords: Developed countries, Fiscal consolidation, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Public debt, government debt, debt ratios, debt ratio, domestic debt

This appendix presents new evidence on the impact of public debt composition on perceived debt tolerance in 60 advanced and emerging economies. Cross-country regressions of international institutional invest...

Appendix 5: Data and Modeling Strategy

Appendix 5: Data and Modeling Strategy »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

The objective of this exercise is to quantify at a high level of product detail the implications of sectoral and supply chain linkages on the trade impact of relative price changes. The model employed for th...

Appendix 3: Definition of Concepts Related to Export Analysis

Appendix 3: Definition of Concepts Related to Export Analysis »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

The Export Similarity Index (ESI) measures the extent of overlap in countries’ export structures and thus provides a sense of the competitive pressures faced by countries at differe...

Appendix 2: Illustrative Pension Simulations for 2010–30

Appendix 2: Illustrative Pension Simulations for 2010–30 »

Source: Strategies for Fiscal Consolidation in the Post-Crisis World

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Cemile Sancak , Jan Gottschalk , S. M. Ali Abbas , Olivier Basdevant , Ricardo Velloso , Fuad Hasanov , Greetje Everaert , Stephanie Eble , and Junhyung Park

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2010

ISBN: 9781589069374

Keywords: Developed countries, Fiscal consolidation, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Public debt, government debt, debt ratios, debt ratio, domestic debt

This appendix elaborates on the methodology and assumptions behind the illustrative simulations—reported in the main text—that aim, between 2010 and 2030, to stabilize pension expenditure as a percent of GDP...

Appendix 2: Measures Used to Characterize Global Supply Chains

Appendix 2: Measures Used to Characterize Global Supply Chains »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Various measures can be used to characterize global supply chains. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi (2001) were the first to measure the value of imported contents embodied in a country’s exp...

Appendix 6: Measuring the Impact of Relative Price Changes on the Current Account Balance

Appendix 6: Measuring the Impact of Relative Price Changes on the Current Account Balance »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Changes in a country’s exports obtained in the simulation described in Appendix 2 are fed back into the current account balance relative to GDP in two ways. First a fall in exports...

Appendix 4: New Drivers of Global Trade: Key Stylized Facts

Appendix 4: New Drivers of Global Trade: Key Stylized Facts »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Changes in export composition by trading partner strongly reflect the emergence of EMEs (Figure A4.1). As a consequence, those countries more strongly exposed to EMEs generally expe...

Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Changing Patterns of Global Trade »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Changing Patterns of Global Trade outlines the factors underlying important shifts in global trade that have occurred in recent decades. The emergence of global supply chains and their increasing role in trade patt...

Chapter 2: A Daunting Fiscal Challenge

Chapter 2: A Daunting Fiscal Challenge »

Source: Strategies for Fiscal Consolidation in the Post-Crisis World

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Cemile Sancak , Jan Gottschalk , S. M. Ali Abbas , Olivier Basdevant , Ricardo Velloso , Fuad Hasanov , Greetje Everaert , Stephanie Eble , and Junhyung Park

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2010

ISBN: 9781589069374

Keywords: Developed countries, Fiscal consolidation, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Public debt, government debt, debt ratios, debt ratio, domestic debt

The crisis has resulted in a major increase in fiscal deficits and government debt in advanced economies. Under current projections, which already assume some tightening mainly through the removal of fiscal...