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1 Australia

1 Australia »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Compared with most of the smaller industrial economies, Australia has a small external trade sector—foreign trade amounts to approximately 15 percent of GDP. Although this and abundant energy resources have...

2 Austria

2 Austria »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The openness of the Austrian economy, in which foreign trade amounts to approximately one fourth of GDP, makes it vulnerable to external disturbances; consequently, a major aim of fiscal policy has been to s...

3 Belgium

3 Belgium »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

Following several years of strong growth, real GDP declined by almost 2 percent in 1975; after a sharp recovery in 1976, when over 5 percent real growth was registered, economic activity again turned sluggis...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

4 Denmark

4 Denmark »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

The relatively open Danish economy, where foreign trade amounts to 25 to 30 percent of GDP, was severely affected by the two oil crises and the ensuing global recession. Denmark’s heavy dependence on importe...

Distributional Consequences of Fiscal Consolidation and the Role of Fiscal Policy

Distributional Consequences of Fiscal Consolidation and the Role of Fiscal Policy »

Source: Distributional Consequences of Fiscal Consolidation and the Role of Fiscal Policy : What Do the Data Say?

Volume/Issue: 2013/195

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jaejoon Woo , Elva Bova , Tidiane Kinda , and Yuanyan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2013

ISBN: 9781484390917

Keywords: Inequality, Gini Coefficient, Tax and Spending policy, gini, income distribution, world income inequality, dependent variable, General, Equity, Justice

The 2007-09 Great Recession has led to an unprecedented increase in public debt in many countries, triggering substantial fiscal adjustments. What are the distributional consequences of fiscal austerity measures? T...

1. Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

1. Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, but at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. The external environment has become less supportive, with slow...

Executive Summary

Executive Summary »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Europe : Domestic Expansion Running into External Turbulence

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2018

ISBN: 9781484375402

Keywords: Europe, Regional Economic Outlook, economic outlook, financial conditions, fiscal policy, monetary policy, emerging Europe, advanced Europe

Economic activity continued to expand in the first half of 2018, albeit at a slower-than-expected pace, mainly in advanced Europe. Domestic demand, supported by stronger employment...

An Exploration of the Private Sector Response to Changes in Government Saving Across OECD Countries

An Exploration of the Private Sector Response to Changes in Government Saving Across OECD Countries »

Source: An Exploration of the Private Sector Response to Changes in Government Saving Across OECD Countries

Volume/Issue: 2001/69

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

ISBN: 9781451849066

Keywords: intergenerational fiscal balance, Ricardian effects, expenditures, expenditure, fiscal adjustments, fiscal position, Integenerational Fiscal Balance,

Several recent papers have examined the response of national saving to changes in fiscal policy. This paper uses knowledge about the intergenerational fiscal position of a country to determine whether this informat...

5 Finland

5 Finland »

Source: Fiscal Policy in the Smaller Industrial Countries, 1972-82

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1986

ISBN: 9780939934539

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, government expenditure, total expenditure, expenditure growth

A large external sector with imports and exports amounting to almost 30 percent of GDP makes the Finnish economy vulnerable to external influences; this vulnerability is accentuated by the country’s reliance...