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Appendix

Appendix »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

Table A1. Country Groupings for Charts 2 and 3...

The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754127.084

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

This paper analyzes global commodity trends and concludes that the marked decline in real commodity prices of the past decade should be regarded as largely permanent and irreversible. The authors contend that the a...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

The need to understand the factors that influence the behavior of commodity prices has taken on a special urgency in recent years, as nonoil real commodity prices have been declining almost continuously sinc...

II Characteristics of Commodity Price Behavior

II Characteristics of Commodity Price Behavior »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

The principal aim of this section is to assess the nature of commodity price shocks and to determine to what extent the recent weakness in commodity prices is associated with reversible cyclical forces, or i...

III Determinants of Commodity Price Movements

III Determinants of Commodity Price Movements »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

Assessing the evolution of commodity prices by applying time-series methods has shed some light on the persistence and increased volatility of shocks in commodity markets. This section complements those find...

Is Social Spending Procyclical?

Is Social Spending Procyclical? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Hajdenberg , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209347.001

ISBN: 9781455209347

Keywords: social spending, expenditures, health expenditures, public expenditures, total expenditures,

This paper studies the cyclical behavior of public spending on health and education in 150 countries during 1987 - 2007. It finds that spending on education and health is procyclical in developing countries and acy...

Is Social Spending Procyclical?1

Is Social Spending Procyclical?1 »

Source: Is Social Spending Procyclical?

Volume/Issue: 2010/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Hajdenberg , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

ISBN: 9781455209347

Keywords: social spending, expenditures, health expenditures, public expenditures, total expenditures,

This paper studies the cyclical behavior of public spending on health and education in 150 countries during 1987 - 2007. It finds that spending on education and health is procyclical in developing countries and acy...

IV Policy Issues

IV Policy Issues »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

The previous sections of the paper have examined how commodity prices have behaved over recent years and discussed possible explanations for the observed behavior. Both the volatility in real commodity price...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

This paper analyzes global commodity trends and concludes that the marked decline in real commodity prices of the past decade should be regarded as largely permanent and irreversible. The authors contend that the a...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Peter Wickham , Mohsin Khan , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754127

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, commodity exports, non-oil commodity, export taxes

This paper analyzes global commodity trends and concludes that the marked decline in real commodity prices of the past decade should be regarded as largely permanent and irreversible. The authors contend that the a...